Publication - Progress report

Scottish Marine and Freshwater Science Volume 5 Number 2: A Protocol for Implementing the Interim Population Consequences of Disturbance (PCoD) Approach...

Published: 12 Feb 2014
Part of:
Marine and fisheries

Report on developing a protocol to implement the interim Population Consequences of Disturbance (PCoD) Approach: quantifying and assessing the effects of UK offshore renewable energy developments on marine mammal populations

97 page PDF

2.9 MB

97 page PDF

2.9 MB

Scottish Marine and Freshwater Science Volume 5 Number 2: A Protocol for Implementing the Interim Population Consequences of Disturbance (PCoD) Approach...
Literature Cited

97 page PDF

2.9 MB

Literature Cited

Anon.(2013). Management units for marine mammals in UK waters. Report of Interagency Marine Mammal Working Group established by UK Statutory Nature Conservation Agencies Chief Scientist Group.

Brandt, M., Diederichs, A, Betke, K., & Nehls, G. (2011). Responses of harbour porpoises to pile driving at the Horns Rev II offshore wind farm in the Danish North Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 421, 205-216. doi:10.3354/meps08888

Burgman, M. A, McBride, M., Ashton, R., Speirs-Bridge, A., Flander, L., Wintle, B., … Twardy, C. (2011). Expert status and performance. PloS one, 6(7), e22998. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022998

Cheney, B., Thompson, P. M., Ingram, S. N., Hammond, P. S., Stevick, P. T., Durban, J. W., … Costa, M. (2012). Integrating multiple data sources to assess the distribution and abundance of bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus in Scottish waters. Mammal Review.

Delbecq, A.L., Van de Ven, A.H. & Gustafson, D.H. (1975). Group techniques for program planning: a guide to nominal group and Delphi processes. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresmanand Company.

Donovan C.R., Harris C., Harwood J., & Milazzo L.A. (2012). Simulation-Based Method for Quantifying and Mitigating the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammals. Acoustical Society of America; p. 070043.

Donovan, C., Harwood, J, King, S., Booth, C., Caneco, B., & Walker, C. (in press). Expert elicitation methods in quantifying the consequences of acoustic disturbance from offshore renewable energy developments. In: Popper AN, Hawkins AD (eds) Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life II. Springer, New York

Finneran, J. J., Schlundt, C. E., Branstetter, B. & Dear, R. L. (2007). Assessing temporary threshold shift in a bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus) using multiple simultaneous auditory evoked potentials. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 122(2), 1249-1264.

Grimm, V., Berger, U., Bastiansen, F., Eliassen, S., Ginot, V., Giske, J., … DeAngelis, D. L. (2006). A standard protocol for describing individual-based and agent-based models. Ecological Modelling, 198(1-2), 115-126. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2006.04.023

Harwood, J. & King, S. (in prep.) The Sensitivity of UK Marine Mammal Populations to Marine Renewables Developments. Report SMRUL-NER-2012-027 prepared by SMRU Ltd for the Natural Environment Research Council.

Harwood, J. & King, S. (2012). Data Required to Implement an Interim and Full PCOD Approach. Report number SMRUL-TCE-2012-031 to The Crown Estate October, 2012 (unpublished).

Harwood, J., King, S. & Schick, R. (2013). An Analysis of the Sensitivity of Some Predictions from the Interim PCoD Framework to Uncertainty in Key Parameter Values. Report number SMRUL-TCE-2013-012 to The Crown Estate March 2013 (unpublished).

Harwood, J., & Prime, J. H. (1978). Some factors affecting the size of British grey seal populations. Journal of Applied Ecology, 15(2), 401-411.

Joint Nature Conservation Committee. (2007). Second Report by the UK under Article 17 on the implementation of the Habitats Directive from January 2001 to December 2006. Peterborough: JNCC. Available from:

Kahneman, D. (2012). Thinking, Fast and Slow. Penguin.

Lonergan, M. (2011). Potential biological removal and other currently used management rules for marine mammal populations: A comparison. Marine Policy, 35(5), 584-589. doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2011.01.020

Lusseau D., Christiansen F., Harwood J., Mendes S., Thompson P.M., Smith K. & Hastie G.D. 2012. Assessing the risks to marine mammal populations from renewable energy devices - an interim approach. Report to NERC, JNCC, and CCW: Edinburgh, UK. 29pp. available at: outputs/ CCW JNCC NERC workshop final report.pdf

MacMillan, D. C., & Marshall, K. (2006). The Delphi process - an expert-based approach to ecological modelling in data-poor environments. Animal Conservation, 9(1), 11-19

Martin, T. G., Burgman, M. A., Fidler, F., Kuhnert, P. M., Low-Choy, S., McBride, M., & Mengersen, K. (2012). Eliciting Expert Knowledge in Conservation Science. Conservation Biology, 26(1), 29-38.

Nabe-Nielsen, J., Tougaard, J., Teilmann, J., & Sveegaard, S. (2011). Effects of wind farms on harbour porpoise behaviour and population dynamics. Report commissioned by The Environmental Group under the Danish Environmental Monitoring Programme.

National Research Council. (2005). Marine Mammal Populations and Ocean Noise: Determining when noise causes biologically significant effects. The National Academy Press. Washington D.C.

Nedwell, J. R., Turnpenny, A. W. H., Lovell, J., Parvin, S. J., Workman, R., Spinks, J. A. ., & Howell, D. (2007). A validation of the dB ht as a measure of the behavioural and auditory effects of underwater noise. Subacoustech Report No. 534R1231.

New, L. F., Harwood, J., Thomas, L., Donovan, C., Clark, J. S., Hastie, G., Thompson, P. M., et al. (2013). Modelling the biological significance of behavioural change in coastal bottlenose dolphins in response to disturbance. Functional Ecology 27, 314-322.

New, L.F., Clark, J.S., Costa, D.P., Fleishman, E., Hindell, M.A., Klanjšček, T., Lusseau, D., Kraus, S., McMahon, C.R., Robinson, P.W., Schick, R.S., Schwarz, L.K., Simmons, S.E., Thomas, L., Tyack, P. & Harwood, J. (submitted) Using short-term measures of behaviour to estimate long-term fitness of southern elephant seals. Marine Ecology Progress Series.

Paxton, C. G. M., Mackenzie, M., & Rexstad, E. (2012). Revised Phase III Data Analysis of Joint Cetacean Protocol Data Resource. Report to Joint Nature Conservation Committee on Contract number C11-0207-0421 Centre for Research into Ecological and Environmental Modelling, University of St Andrews (pp. 170).

R Development Core Team. (2010). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. (Version 2.12).Vienna.: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Retrieved from

Runge, M. C., Converse, S. J. & Lyons, J. E. (2011). Which uncertainty? Using expert elicitation and expected value of information to design an adaptive program. Biological Conservation, 144, 1214-1223.

Russell, D. J. F., McConnell, B., Thompson, D., Duck, C., Morris, C., Harwood, J., & Matthiopoulos, J. (2013). Uncovering the links between foraging and breeding regions in a highly mobile mammal. Journal of Applied Ecology, 50(2), 499-509. doi:10.1111/1365-2664.12048

Schick, R. S., New, L. F., Thomas, L., Costa, D. P., Hindell, M.A, McMahon, C. R., … Clark, J. S. (2013). Estimating resource acquisition and at-sea body condition of a marine predator. Journal of Animal Ecology. doi:10.1111/1365-2656.12102

Schlundt, C. E., Finneran, J. J., Carder, D. A., & Ridgway, S. H. (2000). Temporary shift in masked hearing thresholds ( MTTS) of bottlenose dolphins and white whales after exposure to intense tones. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 107, 3496-3508.

SCOS. (2012). Scientific Advice on Matters Related to the Management of Seal Populations : 2012. NERC Special Committee on Seals.

SMRU (2012). Provisional regional PBR for Scottish seals in 2012. Report to Marine Scotland.

Southall, B.L., Bowles, A.E., Ellison, W.T., Finneran, J.J., Gentry, R.G., Greene, C.H., Kastak, D., Ketten, D.R., Miller, J.H., Nachtigall, P.E., Richardson, W.J., Thomas, J.A., Tyack, P.L. (2007). Marine Mammal Noise Exposure Criteria: Initial Scientific Recommendations. Aquatic Mammals 33, 411-521.

Sparling, C. & Lonergan, M. (2013). Collision risk modelling: Harbour seals and SeaGen at Strangford Lough. SMRU Ltd Report. February 2013 (unpublished).

Speirs-Bridge, A., Fidler, F., McBride, M., Flander, L., Cumming, G., & Burgman, M. (2010).Reducing overconfidence in the interval judgments of experts. Risk Analysis, 30(3), 512-23.

Teilmann, J., & Carstensen, J. (2012). Negative long term effects on harbour porpoises from a large scale offshore wind farm in the Baltic-evidence of slow recovery. Environmental Research Letters, 7(4), 045101. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/045101

Thompson, P. M., Hastie, G. D., Nedwell, J., Barham, R., Brookes, K. L., Cordes, L. S., & McLean, N. (2013). Framework for assessing impacts of pile-driving noise from offshore wind farm construction on a harbour seal population. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 43, 73-85. doi:10.1016/j.eiar.2013.06.005

Wade, P.R. (1998). Calculating limits to the allowable human-caused mortality of cetaceans and pinnipeds. Marine Mammal Science 14(1), 1-37.

Winship, A.J. & Hammond, P.S. (2006). Assessment of the dynamics and status of harbour porpoise populations in the North Sea and European Atlantic using a population model to synthesize information on life history, abundance and bycatch.Appendix D1.2 to the Final Report on LIFE Project Number LIFE04NAT/GB/000245 Small Cetaceans in the European Atlantic and North Sea ( SCANS-II).