References and notes for Section One
1. Gray L, Leyland A. 'Respiratory health.' Chapter 8 in: Bromley C, Given L (eds). Scottish Health Survey 2010. Volume 1. Main report. Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2011. www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2011/09/27084018/58
2. Spirometry is the measurement of lung function.
3. A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the passages in the airway of the respiratory tract, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs. Bronchodilators were not used in the HSE as nurses would not be able to administer this medication to survey participants without a prescription.
4. Lum S, Stocks J. Chapter 4. Forced expiratory manoeuvres. Eur Respir Mon. 2010;47:46-65.
5. Quanjer PH, Stanojevic S, Stocks J et al, on behalf of the Global Lungs Initiative. Changes in the FEV1/FVC ratio during childhood and adolescence: an intercontinental study. Eur Respir J. 2010;36:1391-9.
6. Stocks J, Dezateux C. The effect of parental smoking on lung function and development during infancy. Respirology. 2003;8:266-85.
7. Centiles show the position of parameters within a statistical distribution in a normal (healthy) population. If a parameter is on the 5th centile, this means that for every 100 people, 5 would be expected to be at or below that level and 95 above.
8. Dezateux CA, Lum S, Hoo AF, Hawdon J, Costeloe K, Stocks J. Low birthweight for gestation and airway function in infancy: exploring the fetal origins hypothesis. Thorax. 2004;59:60-6.
9. Hoo AF, Stocks J, Lum S, et al. Development of lung function in early life: influence of birth weight in infants of nonsmokers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;170:527-33.
10. Kotecha SJ, Watkins J, Heron J et al. Spirometric Lung Function in School-Age Children. Effect of Intrauterine Growth Retardation and Catch-up Growth. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;181:969-74.
11. Stanojevic S, Wade A, Stocks J et al. Reference ranges for spirometry across all ages: a new approach. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;177:253-60.
12. Stanojevic S, Wade A, Stocks J. Reference values for lung function: past, present and future. Eur Resp J. 2010;36:12-17.
13. Philip Quanjer and Tim Cole reanalysed data in the entire GLI dataset. They found that the gap between males and females is much less than had been previously reported.
14. Quanjer PH, Enright PL, Miller MR et al. The need to change the method for defining mild airway obstruction. Eur Resp J. 2010;37:720-2.
15. Landau LI. Tobacco smoke exposure and tracking of lung function into adult life. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2008;9:39-43.
16. Quanjer PH (Ed). Standardized lung function testing. Report Working Party Standardization of Lung Function Tests, European Community for Steel and Coal. Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir. 1983;19:45-51.
17. Quanjer PH, Tammeling GJ, Cotes JE, et al. Lung volumes and forced ventilatory flows. Report Working Party Standardization of Lung Function Tests, European Community for Steel and Coal. Official Statement of the European Respiratory Society. Eur Respir J. 1993;6:S5-S40.
18. Quanjer PH, Stocks J, Stanojevic S. Internal consistency of reference equations. (letter). Eur Resp J. 2011;38:234-5.
19. Verbanck S, Vandevoorde J, Vincken W. Internal consistency of reference equations. Eur Resp J. 2011;38:233-4.
20. Stanojevic S, Wade A, Cole TJ et al. Asthma UK Spirometry Collaborative Group. Spirometry Centile Charts for Young Caucasian Children: The Asthma UK Collaborative Initiative. Am J Resp Critical Care Med. 2009;180:547-52.
21. National Clinical Guideline Centre. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults in primary and secondary care. London: NICE, 2010. http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG101/Guidance/pdf/English
22. Ten Brinke A. Risk factors associated with irreversible airflow limitation in asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;8:63-9.
23. Kaplan AG, Balter MS, Bell AD et al. Diagnosis of asthma in adults. CMAJ. 2009;181:E210-20.
24. Piippo-Savolainen E, Korppi M. Long-term outcomes of early childhood wheezing. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;9:190-6.
25. British Thoracic Society. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidance Network. British guideline on the management of asthma. QRG 101. Edinburgh: SIGN, 2008. Updated 2011. www.sign.ac.uk/pdf/qrg101.pdf
27. Babb TG, Viggiano R, Hurley B, Staats B, Rodarte JR. Effect of mild-to-moderate airflow limitation on exercise capacity. J Appl Physiol 1991;70:223-230
28. Global Initiative for chronic Lung Disease. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 2009. http://www.goldcopd.org/uploads/users/files/GOLD_Report_2011_Feb21.pdf.
29. National Clinical Guideline Centre. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults in primary and secondary care. Update guideline. 2010. http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG101
30. Particulate pollution is a mixture of tiny particles and liquid droplets that, when inhaled, can cause damage to the lungs. Particulate pollution is typically made up of components like soot, nitrates, sulphates, organic chemicals, metals, and soil or dust particles.
31. Grigg J. Particulate matter exposure in children: relevance to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2009;6:564-9.
32. Koehnlein T, Welte T. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: Pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. Am J Med. 2008;121:3-9.
33. Anthonisen NR, Connett JE, Kiley JP et al. Effects of smoking intervention and the use of an inhaled anticholinergic bronchodilator on the rate of decline of FEV1. JAMA. 1994;272:1497-505.
34. Zielinski J, Bednarek M, Gorecka D, et al. Increasing COPD awareness. Eur Respir J. 2006;27:833-52.
36. Audit Scotland. Managing Long Term Conditions. 2007. www.audit-scotland.gov.uk/docs/health/2007/nr_070816_managing_long_term.pdf
37. Scottish Public Health Observatory. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Mortality data. http://www.scotpho.org.uk/health-wellbeing-and-disease/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd/data/mortality-data
38. Healthcare Improvement Scotland. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Services - Clinical Standards and Evaluation. Edinburgh: NHS Quality Improvement Scotland, 2010. www.healthcareimprovementscotland.org/programmes/long_term_conditions/copd_implementation/copd_clinical_standards.aspx
39. ISD Scotland. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/General-Practice/GP-Consultations/Health-Conditions/COPD/index.asp
40. Scottish Public Health Observatory. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Deprivation data http://www.scotpho.org.uk/health-wellbeing-and-disease/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd/data/deprivation-data
41. Scottish Government. Better Health, Better Care: Action Plan. Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2007. www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2007/12/11103453/0
42. Scottish Government. Living and Dying Well. Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2008. www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2008/10/01091608/0
43. Scottish Government. Living and dying well: Building on progress. Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2011. www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2011/01/27090834/0
44. The Scottish Government. NHS Performance Targets. www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Health/NHS-Scotland/17273/targets
45. British Thoracic Society. The National COPD Resources and Outcomes Project - NCROP. 2008. https://www.rcplondon.ac.uk/resources/national-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-resources-and-outcomes-project-ncrop
46. Royal College of Physicians. The National COPD Resources and Outcomes Project. Resurvey 2010. 2010. http://old.rcplondon.ac.uk/clinical-standards/ceeu/Current-work/ncrop/Pages/Overview.aspx
47. Halpin DMG. Improving the management of COPD. BMJ.2011;342:778-9.
48. Global Initiative for Chronic Lung Disease. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Updated 2010. www.goldcopd.org/uploads/users/files/GOLDReport_April112011.pdf
49. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung disease (GOLD). Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Revised 2011. www.goldcopd.org/uploads/users/files/GOLD_Report_2011_Feb21.pdf
50. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung disease (GOLD). Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Revised 2014. http://www.goldcopd.org/guidelines-global-strategy-for-diagnosis-management.html
51. Vaz Fragoso CA, John Concato J. The Ratio of FEV1 to FVC as a Basis for Establishing Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;181:446-51.
52. Miller M. What defines abnormal lung function? (letter) Thorax 2007;62:1107.
53. Many other measures of lung function were recorded: some will be available in the data archive and more detailed data (from each blow, rather than only the best blows) will be available from NatCen.
54. Mindell, J., Chaudhury, M., Aresu, M. & Jarvis, D. 2011. Chapter 3: Lung function in adults. In Craig, R. and Mindell, J. The Health Survey for England 2010 - Volume 1. Leeds: The Health and Social Care Information Centre.
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