Chapter 5 References and notes
1. Oude Luttikhuis, H., Baur, L., Jansen, H., Shrewsbury, V., O'Mally, C., Stolk, R., et al. (2009). Interventions for treating obesity in children (a review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1, CD001872.
2. Summerbell, C. D., Waters, E., Edmunds, L., Kelly, S. A. M., Brown, T., Campbell, K. J. (2005). Interventions for preventing obesity in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 3, CD001871.
3. Nathan, B. M. and A. Moran (2008). Metabolic complications of obesity in childhood and adolescence: more than just diabetes. Current Opinion in Endocrinology Diabetes and Obesity 15(1): 21-29.
4. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. (2010). 115: Management of Obesity – A National Clinical Guideline. Edinburgh: SIGN/NHS QIS.
5. Scottish Budget Spending Review 2007, Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2007. [online] Available from: <www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2007/11/13092240/0>;
7. Gray, L. and Leyland, A. (2009). Chapter 7: Obesity. In Bromley, C., Bradshaw, P. and Given, L. [eds.] The 2008 Scottish Health Survey – Volume 1: Main Report. Edinburgh, Scottish Government. <www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2009/09/28102003/0>
8. Gray, L. and Leyland, A. (2010). Chapter 7: Adult obesity. In Bromley, C., Given, L. and Ormston, R. [eds.] The 2009 Scottish Health Survey – Volume 1: Main Report. Edinburgh, Scottish Government. <www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2010/09/23154223/0>
9. Marryat, L. (2010). Chapter 8: Child obesity. In Bromley, C., Given, L. and Ormston, R. [eds.] The 2009 Scottish Health Survey – Volume 1: Main Report. Edinburgh, Scottish Government. <www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2010/09/23154223/0>
10. Gray, L. and Leyland, A. (2011). Chapter 7: Adult and child obesity. In Bromley, C. and Given, L. [eds.] The 2010 Scottish Health Survey – Volume 1: Main Report. Edinburgh, Scottish Government. <www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2011/09/27084018/51>
11. Healthy Eating, Active Living: An action plan to improve diet, increase physical activity and tackle obesity (2008-2011), Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2008.
13. Obesity Route Map: Action Plan – Version 1.0. Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2011. <www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/346007/0115166.pdf>
14. Health Analytical Services Scottish Government and Information and Statistics Division, NHS National Services Scotland. Indicators to Monitor Progress of the Obesity Route Map. Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2011 <www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/346011/0115167.pdf>
15. The HEAT targets derive their name from the four strands in the performance framework: the Health of the population; Efficiency and productivity, resources and workforce; Access to services and waiting times; and Treatment and quality of services.
17. Parkinson, J. (2012). Establishing a core set of national, sustainable mental health indicators for children and young people in Scotland: Final report. Glasgow: NHS Health Scotland.
18. The Frankfort Plane is an imaginary line passing through the external ear canal and across the top of the lower bone of the eye socket, immediately under the eye. Participants’ heads are positioned with the Frankfort Plane in a horizontal position when height is measured using a stadiometer as a means of ensuring that, as far as possible, the measurements taken are standardised.
19. For a full review of obesity measures see: National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (2006). CG43 Obesity: full guideline, section 2: Identification and Classification. [online] Available from: <www.nice.org.uk/guidance/index.jsp?action=download&o=38295>
20. Romero-Corral, A. et al (2008). Accuracy of body mass index in diagnosing obesity in the adult general population. International Journal of Obesity. 32, 959–966.
21. Daniels, S.R., Khoury, P.R. and Morrison, J.A. (1997). The utility of body mass index as a measure of body fatness in children and adolescents: Differences by race and gender. Pediatrics. 99, 804-807.
22. Lohman, T.G. (1986). Applicability of body-composition techniques and constants for children and youths. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews. 14, 325-357.
23. Steinbeck, K. (2001). The importance of physical activity in the prevention of overweight and obesity in childhood: a review and an opinion. Obesity Review. 2, 117-130.
24. Hammer, L., Kraemer, H. and Wilson, D. et al. (1991). Standardised percentile curves of body mass index for children and adolescents. American Journal of Diseases in Children. 145, 259-263.
25. Cole, T., Freeman, J.V. and Preece, M.A. (1990). Body mass index reference curves for the UK. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 73, 25-29.
26. Cole, T., Freeman, J.V. and Preece, M.A. (1998). British 1990 growth reference centiles for weight, height, body mass index and head circumference fitted by maximum penalised likelihood. Statistics in Medicine. 17, 407-429.
27. Rolland-Cachera, M.F. (1999). Defining obesity in childhood. In: Guy-Grand, B. and Ailhaud, G. (eds.) Progress in Obesity Research: 8. Proceedings of the 8th International Congress of Obesity. London: John Libbey and Co.
28. Europe Overweight and Obesity in Children Task Force. (2000). Overweight and obesity in European children and adolescents. Causes and consequences-prevention and treatment. Brussels: International Life Sciences Institute.
29. Cole, T., Bellizzi, M., Flegal, K. and Dietz, W.H. (2000). Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: an international survey. British Medical Journal. 320, 1-6.
30. Chinn, S. and Rona, R.J. (2002). International definitions of overweight and obesity for children: a lasting solution? Annals of Human Biology. 29, 306-313.
31. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. (2010). 115: Management of Obesity – A National Clinical Guideline. Edinburgh: SIGN/NHS QIS.
32. Jotangia, D., Moody, A., Stamatakis, E., et al. (2005). Obesity among children under 11. London: Department of Health in collaboration with the Health and Social Care Information Centre. [online] Available from: <www.dh.gov.uk/assetRoot/04/10/94/10/04109410.pdf>
33. Reilly J, Dorosty A, Emmett, P. (1999). Prevalence of overweight and obesity in British children: cohort study. British Medical Journal. 319: 1039.
34. Bundred P, Kitciner D, Buchan I. (2001). Prevalence of overweight and obese children between 1989 and 1998: population based series of cross sectional studies. British Medical Journal. 322: 1-4.
35. Rudolf, M.C.J, Sahota, P., Barth, J.H. and Walker J. (2001). Increasing prevalence of obesity in primary school children: cohort study. British Medical Journal. 322, 1094-1095.
36. Reilly, J.J. (2002). Assessment of childhood obesity: National reference data or international approach? Obesity Research. 10, 838-840.
37. Reilly, J.J., Wilson, M.L., Summerbell, C.D. and Wilson, D.C. (2002). Obesity: diagnosis, prevention, and treatment; evidence based answers to common questions. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 86, 392-395.
38. This method has been developed by ISD Scotland, full details of the procedure are available on request from the Scottish Government Health Survey team.
39. For example, if both parents were overweight or obese, or both were of normal weight or underweight, the parental BMI value matched that of both parents. If one parent was overweight and one was normal weight the parental BMI matched the highest value of either parent. In households where one parent was interviewed, or just one parent provided a valid BMI measurement, the parental value matched that parent’s BMI.
40. Jotangia, D., Moody, A., Stamatakis, E. and Wardle, H. (2005) Obesity among children under 11. [Revised 2007]. London: Department of Health.
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