Scotland's Carers

This report brings together statistical analysis and research on caring. The report is intended to provide a useful source of information for carer's organisations, policy makers, local authorities and anyone who is a carer or knows someone who is a carer.

8. Research References

Armstrong, M. (2000) Factors affecting the decision to place a relative with dementia into residential care. Nursing Standard, 14, 33-37.

Arskey, H. and Hirst, M. (2005) Unpaid carers Access to and Use of Primary Care Services, Primary Health Care Research and Development 6, pp.101-116.

Balducci, C1., Mnich, E., McKee, K.J., Lamura. G., Beckmann. A., Krevers. B., Wojszel, Z.B., Nolan, M., Prouskas, C., Bien. B. and Oberg, B. (2008) Negative impact and positive value in caregiving: validation of the COPE index in a six-country sample of carers, Gerontologist. Jun; 48(3):276-86. Available at:

Becker, F., Becker, S. (2008) Young Adult Carers in the UK. Experiences, Needs and Services for Carers Aged 16-24, The Princess Royal Trust, available at:

Brown, SL., Smith, DY., Schulz, R., Kabeto, R., Ubel, PA., Poulin, M., Yi, J., Kim, C., and Langa, KM. (2009) Caregiving Behaviour is Associated with Decreased Mortality Risk, Psychological Science 20, pp.488-494.

Capistrant, B., Moon, JB., Berkman, LG. and Glymour, M.M. (2012) Current and Long-term Spousal Caregiving and Onset of Cardiovascular Disease, Journal of Epidemiological & Community Health 66, pp.951-956.

Carduff, E., Finucane, A., Kendall, M., Jarvis, A., Harrison, N., Greenachre, J. and Murray, S. (2014) Understanding the barriers to identifying carers of people with advanced illness in primary care: triangulating three data sources. BMC Family Practice, 48(15).

Carers UK. (2014) State of Caring 2014

Carmichael, F., Charles, S. and Hulme, C., 2010. Who will care? Employment participation and willingness to supply informal care. Journal of Health Economics, Volume 29, pp. 182-190.

Cree, V.E. (2003) Worries and Problems of Young Carers: Issues for Mental Health, Child and Family Social Work, 8(4), pp.301-309.

Deeken, JF., Tayler, KL., Mangan, P., Yabroff, KR. and Ingham, J.M. (2003) Care for the Caregivers: a Review of Self-reported Instruments Developed to measure the Burden, Needs and Quality of Life of Informal Caregivers, Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 41, pp.331-336.

Gamiz, R. and Tsegai, A. (2013) Carers Assessment and outcomes focused approaches to working with carers, s.l.: PROP, CRFR, IRISS, avaible at:

Gelkopf, M. & Roe, D. (2014) Evaluating Outcome Domains Assessing Caregivers of Individuals with Mental Illness: A Review. Family Process, 53(1), pp.150-174.

Glaser, R. and Kiecolt-Glaser, JK. (2005. Stress-induced Immune Dysfunction: Implications for Health, Nature Reviews Immunology 5, pp.243-251.

Gray, A. M. and Birrell, D. (2013) Transforming Adult Social Care. Bristol: The Policy Press.

Green, S.E. (2007) "We're Tired, not Sad": Benefits and Burdens of Mothering a Child with a Disability, Social Science and Medicine 64,pp.150-163.

Grimmer, K., Moss, J. and Falco, J. (2004) Becoming a carer for an elderly person after discharge from an acute hospital admission, The Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice 2 (4).

Hirst, M. (2005) Health Inequalities and Informal Care - End of Project Report. University of York, Available at:

IRISS, Shared Care & Coalition of Carers in Scotland (2012) Rest Assured. A Study of Unpaid Carers Experiences of Short Breaks, available at:

Jarvis, A. and Worth, A. (2004) The development of a screening tool to identify carers in a general practice by a large-scale survey: the experience in one Scottish general practice. Journal of Clinical Nursing, Volume 14, pp. 363-372.

King, D. and Pickard, L. (2013) When is a Carer's Employment at Risk? Longitudinal analysis of unpaid care and employment in midlife England. Health and Social Care in the Community , pp. 303-314.

López, J. López-Arrita,J. and Crespo, M. (2005) Factors associated with the positive impact of caring for elderly and dependent relatives Archives of Gerontol Geriatrics, 41 (1), 81-94

Mason, A., Weatherly, H., Spilsbury, k., Arksley, H., Golder, S., Adamson, J., Drummond, M. and Gendenning C. (2007) A systematic review of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of differnet models of community-based respite care for frail older people and their carers. Health Technology Assessment, 11(15).

McKee, K.J., Whittick, J. E., Gilhooly, M.M. Ballinger, B.R., Mutch, W.J. and Philip, I. (1999) The willingness to continue caring in family supporters of older people. Health & Social Care in the Community, 7, 100- 108.

McPherson, K., Kayes, N., Moloczij, H. and Cummins, C. (2014) Improving the interface between informal carers and formal health and social services: A qualitative study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 51(3), p. 418-429.

Newbronner, L., Chamberlain, R., Borthwick, R., Baxter, M. and Glendenning, C. (2013) A road less rocky: supporting carers of people with dementia, York: Carers Trust, Social Policy Reseach Unit, Univeristy of York.

Parker, G., Arksey, H. and Harden, M., (2010) Meta-review of international evidence on interventions to support carers, York: Social Policy Research Unit, University of York.

Parker, G. and Lawton, D. (1994) Different Types of Care, Different Types of Carer: Evidence From the General Household Survey. London, HMSO.

Pearson, B., Skelly, R., Wileman, D. and Masud, T. (2002) Unplanned readmission to hospital: A comparison of the views of general practitioners and hospital staff. Age & Ageing, 31, 141-143.

Phillipson, L., Jones, S. and Magee, C. (2014) A review of the Factors Associated with the Non-use of Respite Services by Carers of People with Dementia: implications for policy and practice. Health and Social Care in the Community, pp. 1-12.

Pickard, L. (2004) The Effectiveness and Cost Effectiveness of Support and Services to Informal Carers of Older People, London: Audit Commission and PSSRU, University of Kent, London School of Economics and University of Manchester, avaialbe at:

Pinquart, M. and Sörensen, S. (2003) Differences between caregivers and noncaregivers in psychological health and physical health: A meta-analysis. Psychology and Aging, Vol 18(2), Jun 2003, 250-267

Pinquart, M and Sörensen, S. (2007) Correlates of physical health of informal caregivers: a meta-analysis. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 62(2), P126-P137.

Rand, S. and Malley, J. (2014) Carers' quality of life and experiences of adult social care support in England. Social Care in the Community, 22(4), pp. 375-385.

Scottish Government (2010a) Caring Together: the Carers Strategy for Scotland 2010-2015, Scottish Government, available at:

Scottish Government (2010b) Getting it Right for Young Carers. The Young Carers Strategy for Scotland 2010-2015. Available at:

Scottish Government (2014a) Health and Care Experience Survey 2013/14. Volume 1: National Results, available at:

Scottish Government (2014b) Respite Care, Scotland, 2014 Scottish Government published October 2014

Scottish Government (2015) Scottish Health Survey Mental Health and Wellbeing Topic Report (published January 2015) pages 43-45. Available at:

Scourfield, P. (2005) Understanding Why Carers' Assessments Do Not Always Take Place. Practice Social Work in Action, 17(1), pp. 15-28.

Smyth, C., Blaxland, M. and Cass, B. (2011) So that's how I found out I was a young carer and that I actually had been a carer most of my life' Identifying and supporting hidden young carers. Journal of Youth Studies, 14(2).

Sörensen, S., Duberstein, P., Gill, D. and Pinquart, M. (2006) Dementia Care: Mental Health Effects, Intervention Strategies, and Clinical Implications. The Lancet Neurology, 5(11), pp.961-973.

Vitaliano, P., Zhang, J. and Scanlan, J.M. (2003) Is Caregiving Hazardous to One's Physical Health? A Meta-analysis, Psychological Bulletin 129, pp.946-972.

Vitaliano, P., Young, H. and Zhang, J. (2004) Is Caregiving a Risk Factor for Illness? Current Directions in Psychological Science 13, pp.13-16.

Wigfield, A. and Wright, K. (2012) Supporting Carers in General Practice: an evaluation, Leeds: CIRCLE, University of Leeds.

Williams, E. and Fitton, F. (1991) Survey of carers of elderly patients discharged from hospital. British Journal of General Practice, 41, 105-108. available at:

Yeandle, S,. Bennett, C., Buckner, L., Fry, G. and Price, C. (2007a) Stages and Transitions in the Experience of Caring, Leeds: Carers UK and University of Leeds, available at:

Yeandle, S,. Bennett, C., Buckner, L., Fry, G. and Price, C. (2007b) Carers, Employment and Services in Scotland: focus on East Ayrshire, Falkirk and Highland, Leeds: Carers UK and University of Leeds, available at:

Yeandle, S. and Wigfield, A. (2011) New Approaches to Supporting Carers Health and Well-being: Evidence from the National Carers' Strategy Demonstrator Sites programme, Leeds: Centre for International Research on Care, Labour and Equalities, University of Leeds, available at

Zarit, S.H. and Talley, R.C. (2013) Caregiving for Alzheimer's disease and Related Disorders, London: Springer.


Email: Steven Gillespie

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