Publication - Research publication

Sourcing of pet dogs from illegal importation and puppy farms 2016-2017: scoping research

Published: 9 Nov 2017
Agriculture and Rural Economy Directorate
Part of:
Farming and rural, Research

The report describes research into the scale of the trade in imported and illegally bred puppies.

Sourcing of pet dogs from illegal importation and puppy farms 2016-2017: scoping research
Appendix I: Annotated Bibliography

Appendix I: Annotated Bibliography

Scoping Research on the Sourcing of Pet Dogs from Illegal Importation and Puppy Farms 2016-2017

Deliverable 2: Annotated Bibliography

Author: Dr Jennifer Maher, University of South Wales

Submitted: November 2016

Submitted by Tanya Wyatt & Paul Biddle, Northumbria University and Jennifer Maher, University of South Wales

Ahuvia, A. (2007). 'Commentary on exploring the dark side of pet ownership: Status- and control-based pet consumption: A reinterpretation of the data'. Journal of Business Research. 61(5): 497-499.

This paper contributes further to Beverland et al.'s (2007) Buberian analysis of the motivations for pet ownership. First, it explores the link made by Beverland et al. (2007) to the thoughts of Martin Buber (1923) regards interpersonal 'I-Thou' or 'I-It' relationships. In line with Beverland et al.'s ethical views, Ahuvia suggests that in the highest forms of relationships, people attempt to see the other as they really are (I-Thou). Through this relationship each individual is treated as intrinsically valuable, rather than as a tool to achieve some other goal (as in I-It relationships). Beverland et al. refer to this as intrinsic (I-Thou) and extrinsic (I-It) pet ownership - with the latter identified as the 'dark side of pet ownership' due to the impact on the companion animal. Ahuvia argues that some respondents see their dogs through the metaphor of human friendship and others through the metaphor of human parenting, but note the irony that many of the respondents most committed to individual relationships with their companion animals anthropomorphize their pets, leading to harm and preventing an I-Thou relationship. Using this approach Beverland et al. and Ahuvia advance our understanding not only of companion animal consumption experiences but also of status-oriented consumption and the nature of social relationships more broadly. Of particular interest is the understanding that "extrinsic pet owners (a) place a high value on their dogs being cute; (b) choose small dogs, which they like to hold and cuddle; (c) like to buy their dogs clothing and toys; (d) believe that the dogs should do as they are told; (e) believe that it is the owner's job to mould and shape the dog's character; and (f) see their dogs as innocent to the dangers in the outside world and, hence, vulnerable and in need of restrictive rules for their own protection". In contrast, "intrinsically motivated dog owners (a) like larger dogs that have a more mature persona; (b) tend to see their dogs as being much closer to their existential equals; (c) praise their dogs for being intelligent and believe that their dogs understand a good deal of human speech; (d) assume that the dog is able to fend for itself out of the home; and (e) believe that to maintain the right kind of relationship with the dog, they must respect its wishes and not expect it routinely to do whatever they say. The concepts of I-Thou and I-It relationships or intrinsic and extrinsic motivations for ownership provide a means to understand consumers in the puppy trade, the popularity of certain breeds, and what drives their motivations to ignore and neglect expert advice when choosing a puppy.

Aylesworth, A., Chapman, K. and Dobscha, S. (1999). 'Animal Companions and Marketing: Dogs are more than just a cell in the BCG Matrix'. Advances in Consumer Research. 26: 385-391.

Pets are found in 58 million homes in the United States [ US]. This article argues that marketers have begun to recognise the importance of these animal companions to the lives and experiences of consumers. Supported by examples from the companion animal and marketing literature, it presents an organising framework for continuing the study of the human-companion animal consumption. The framework argues the need for further research and suggests several areas where consumer behaviour scholars can make a contribution to the companion animal domain.

Beverland, M.B. Farrelly, F. and Lim, E.A.C. (2008). 'Exploring the dark side of pet ownership: Status- and control-based pet consumption'. Journal of Business Research. 61(5): 490-496.

In the light of ongoing debates surrounding 'designer pets' this article examines the "dark side" of companion animal ownership through interpretive interviews with dog owners. The findings compare and contrast two types of ownership motivation-dogs as companions to love versus dogs as toys, status markers and brands. The latter three categories forming, what they term to be, the dark side of pet ownership. They found owner's motivations differ in terms of their appreciation of the pet, the nature of the human-animal interaction, breed choice, and the purchase of pet-related paraphernalia. Specifically, they argue the desire for status and/or control motivate some consumers to own certain dog breeds which negatively impacts on their behaviour toward the companion animal.

Blue Cross (2016). Unpicking the Knots: the case for a more cohesive approach to Pet Welfare Legislation. London: Blue Cross

This report provides an overview of the current state of statutory enforcement of pet legislation in Britain. Specifically, the report highlights the need for a strong enforcement strategy in animal welfare, indicating that a lack of personnel with appropriate training and slashed budgets within government agencies, has resulted in a lack of resources and confidence to deal with animal welfare legislation effectively. Inconsistency and a lack of clarity of duties within enforcement agencies were also identified as making the role demanding and difficult. The Blue Cross provided recommendations aimed at the central government, local government and third sector. These included updating out-of-date legislation and bringing the dog breeding legislation in England and Scotland to Welsh standards, a more stringent registration and licensing system which is standardised across the UK, manadatory inspections of all licensing establishments and training of staff, making the enforcement of licensing cost-effective, and more coordinated third sector involvement with enforcement agencies and communities.

BBC Scotland (2015). The Dog Factory. 15th April 2015. BBC: Scotland.

The documentary details an undercover BBC reporter who follows the multimillion pound world of the dog trade to the UK. BBC Scotland suggests a third of all dogs bought in the United Kingdom [ UK] are believed to have come from puppy mills using unethical breeding methods. Filming at a breeding kennels in Northern Ireland, the reporter found hundreds of breeding bitches in intensive or factory-farmed conditions that is, dogs confined in rows of small cages). Although the kennels were operating within the regulations and under the supervision of the council, the documentary argues these conditions are inappropriate for dogs and dispute the appropriateness of the licencing and enforcement processes in place. The documentary provides evidence of the organised and frequent nature of illegal puppy smuggling into Scotland. They documented the ease with which irresponsible and illegal traders can traffic and sell puppies, and the strategies they use to present a legitimate front to consumers. The documentary also focuses on the role of consumers who irresponsibly purchase dogs ( e.g. without seeing them with the mother, arranging to complete the transaction in car parks or service stations).

British Veterinary Association [ BVA]. (2014). 'Surveillance, puppy imports and risk-based trading - where do we stand?'. The Veterinary Record. 175(22): 551-553.

This article records the responses to questions raised in 'Ask the CVOs' at the BVA Congress. The four UK chief veterinary officers took part in the session, giving their perspectives on a range of issues raised by delegates - such as disease surveillance, illegal importation of puppies and risk-based trading of cattle. In response to a question on the increased risk of rabies in the UK following the closure of the Winchester regional laboratory, Mr Gibbens indicated the closure had not increased risk, that the risk posed by dogs coming from Europe under current rules was low. However, he was concerned that the Pet Travel Scheme [ PETS] scheme not be used for the commercial sale of puppies, arguing doing so would "be bad for the risks, especially for Echinococcosis, and it's going to be bad for puppy welfare and it's going to be bad for the people who buy the puppies". On the importation of animals under the PETS, Paula Boyden of Dogs Trust questioned if so many underage puppies were able to enter the country due to the current checks at ports, which were administrative and not physical. Mr Gibbens replied that it would require a huge input of resources to boost administrative checks with physical checks. The new PETS requirements would, he believed, make it harder to claim that an underage puppy met the rabies regulations. Fraud would also be reduced through the use of a new passport, which would include details of the issuing vet, allowing problems to be referred back to the country of origin. He further emphasised the need to stop people buying cheap puppies - "a message that we all have a responsibility to carry".

Burger, K. (2014). 'Solving the Problem of Puppy Mills: Why the Animal Welfare Movement's Bark is Stronger than its Bite'. Washington University Journal of Law and Policy. 43: 259-284.

This article examines the differing US perspectives of those seeking and opposing enhanced regulation of industrial puppy farming and explains how the animal welfare movement can mitigate opposition to animal welfare reforms. Using Missouri Ballot Initiative Proposition B as a lens, it analyses the animal welfare movement's political efforts to eradicate puppy mills in the US. First, Burger discusses the history of puppy mills and explains the political role of animal welfare organizations and then, identifies opponents of these welfare reforms. He concludes that animal welfare activists can more effectively achieve their policy goals by producing a mainstream message, connecting with more human-focused interest groups, increasing public awareness, building local relationships, and movement towards achieving greater political influence and success. He argues that responses to puppy mills must include increased public awareness and reduced consumer demand. Specifically, if consumers demand puppies sourced from regulated and humane breeders, puppy mill breeders would be forced to comply or risk losing business.

Calder, C. (2014). 'The breeding & trade of dogs & cats from the perspective of animal welfare organisations'. Eurogroup for Animals. Brussels: European Commission.

This presentation was provided by the policy officer for Companion Animals on the problems arising from commercial and selective breeding, online and cross-border trade, and trade at markets or from third parties of cats and dogs. UK statistics and animal welfare case studies were used to evidence the problems associated with the puppy trade regards trader non-compliance and the irresponsible and illegal behaviour associated with breeding, moving and selling dogs. For example, one case study details two suspects bringing puppies to UK from Ireland weekly, estimated to involve up to 2,000 puppies/year which are purchased for around £50 from breeders in Ireland but sold for £300-£400 in the UK. The majority of these dogs entered the UK with no pet passport or microchip.

CAROCat (2015). 'Welfare of dogs and cats involved in commercial practices'. Welfare of dogs and cats involved in commercial practices Conference. Brussels: CAROCat.

This conference included the presentation of a 2014 EU study conducted in 12 member states. It highlighted that "in the EU there are 60.8 million dogs and 66.5 million cats, with an annual revenue estimated at 1.3 billion euros. The import of dogs is estimated at approximately 21 million euros (2014) and cats at 3 million euros (2014)". The study estimated that only 13% pets are purchased from professional breeders (although this estimate is problematic due to several European countries, not specifying the legal definition of a professional breeder). Dr Claudia Veith identified that non-professional breeders were financially motivated to "produce as many litters as possible and to even breed dogs with genetic diseases", resulting in dogs suffering from chronic illnesses which require costly medical treatments. According to data from France, significant financial reward is available to non-professional breeders - while professional breeders spend approximately 762 euros per puppy, non-professionals spend less than 260 euros, which means that the latter can sell their puppies for much less and still make a profit. The greatest difference in cost stems from providing medical treatment (vaccination, basic care, quality food) and fulfilling legal practices (registration and identification, pet passport, breeding certificate and taxes). Consequently, there is an estimated loss of 312 million euros annually in Government income from unpaid taxes. In response to the problems in the companion animal trade EU member states, such as Belgium, ban the sale of imported dogs and cats and provide an online listing of authorised breeders. It was noted by the Eurogroup for Animals that "In Europe, there is a serious lack of traceability implementation of responsible commercial practices as well as responsible ownership". Wildschutz, another presenter, suggested EU member states need to inform the competent authority for the country of dispatch about any non-compliance detected.

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs [ DEFRA]. (2016). The review of animal establishments licensing in England: A summary of responses. London: DEFRA.

This document provides a summary of responses to Defra's consultation on the review of animal establishments licensing in England. This consultation ran for 12 weeks, from the 20th December 2015 until the 12th March 2016. A total of 1,709 responses were received from key stakeholders - animal welfare agencies, local authorities [ LA], commercial and professional organisations, veterinarians and members of the public. Estimates show that there are approximately 2,300 licensed pet shops, 650 licensed dog breeders and 6,300 licensed animal boarding establishments in England. These comprise the fourth largest group of businesses LA's are required by law to issue licences to. The review suggests current regulations are dated, inflexible, incompatible with new welfare legislation and cumbersome for both local authorities and businesses. In relation to dog breeding, there was support from respondents for: a single animal establishment licence (70.5%); the requirement of Model Conditions (consistent standards and practice) by local authorities (71%); prohibiting the sale of puppies below the age of eight weeks (90%); a statutory licensing threshold for breeders at three or more litters of puppies a year (64%); a legal requirement to provide written information when selling animals (90%); removal of calendar-year restrictions on licenses (83%); prohibiting the transfer of licenses to new owners (61%); requiring license owners to notify LA of major changes to the premises or scale of activities (94%); powers of entry for LAs (72%). The key problems raised by respondents regards the breeding and selling of animals included: inconsistencies in enforcement and resource limitations; concern that enhanced licensing conditions may encourage illegal breeding; the need for increased inspections (in particular random unannounced inspections); the need to prohibit online sales and the sale of animals in pet shops; and the need for a mandatory cooling-off period for buyers to reduce impulse buying. In response, DEFRA indicated there is support for updating the licensing system for animal establishments.

Dogs Trust. (2014). The Puppy Smuggling Scandal: An investigation into the illegal entry of dogs into Great Britain under the Pets Travel Scheme. Dogs Trust. London: Dogs Trust.

Dogs Trust published this in-depth investigative report, based on a six month study into the UK Puppy trade, in particular, from Eastern European countries under the PET scheme. The report identifies a significant rise in the UK puppy trade after trade controls were relaxed in 2012 with the introduction of PETS. Prior to this policy change the minimum age of entry for dogs to the UK was 10 months. In the first year, the number of dogs entering the UK via PETS rose by 61%, according to Defra, just 2.5% of these pets were found to be non-compliant with PETS. Dogs Trust argue this number is inconsistent with the numbers reported in the illegal puppy trade, suggesting the majority of puppy smuggling goes undetected. Between 2011 and 2013 the number of dogs 'legally' entering the UK from Lithuania increased by 780%. In Hungary a 663% increase in dogs travelling under PETS into the UK was recorded. The investigators found the illegal puppy trade from Hungry and Lithuania to be prolific and unobstructed, due to: PETS being used by commercial dealers to illegally import puppies, Eastern European vets falsifying PETS passports and breeders supplying puppies too young to travel under PETS, ineffective British border controls and limited sharing of information between key agencies. For example, the investigation uncovered six vets falsifying passport information and fifteen breeders/dealers regularly transporting underage puppies into the UK from Lithuania and Hungary. The report argued for a number of urgent responses which involved key enforcement agencies - APHA, DEFRA and Trading Standards. The recommendations suggested immediate responses focused on enhancing agency availability, multi-agency cooperation, legislation, training for front-line staff, and the introduction of a fixed penalty charge for those. Longer-term recommendations included government investment in consumer education campaigns targeted at people purchasing dogs online and mandatory identification and registration across all EU Member States.

Dogs Trust. (2015). Puppy smuggling the scandal continues: a follow up investigation into the illegal entry of dogs into Great Britain under the Pets Travel Scheme. Dogs Trust. London: Dogs Trust.

Following the in-depth investigative report by Dogs Trust on 'The Puppy Smuggling Scandal' (2014), this follow-up report details the further findings from their investigation from March-June 2015. The research looked to identify if changes to PETS (in December 2014) had changed or reduced the problems identified in the 2014 report. This report is particularly critical of the government response to their initial report, suggesting their findings and recommendations have been ignored. Further evidence suggests the issuing of false passports for underage dogs from Eastern Europe remains widespread, although last year's investigation did have an impact in Lithuania, with some vets and breeders now refusing to issue false passports. In Romania, breeders, dealers and vets regularly exploit PETS loopholes to illegally import puppies into the UK for commercial purposes. Further recommendations are provided including: the need for visual checks of all dogs entering the UK under PETS, intelligence sharing between enforcement agencies; further training for APHA staff and LA personnel, and EU legislation requiring the compulsory permanent identification and registration of dogs - linked to an EU database (as per framework legislation on the regulation of transmissible animal diseases).

Dogs Trust. (2017). Puppy Smuggling a Tragedy Ignored: Investigation into the continuing abuse of the Pet Travel Scheme and the illegal entry of dogs into Great Britain. London: Dogs Trust.

Following the in-depth investigative report by Dogs Trust on 'The Puppy Smuggling Scandal' (2014), this follow-up report in 2015, Dogs Trust launched a Puppy Pilot scheme in to try to disrupt the puppy trade by underwriting the costs of illegally imported puppies through quarantine in order to facilitate their seizure, and then responsibly rehoming them through our network of rehoming centres. The Pilot has successfully rehabilitated and rehomed some 469 puppies, and is identified as hugely successful, as it has allowed Government agency staff to concentrate on their enforcement role. This report details the Dog Trust's third investigation which found that despite positive results from the Lithuanian Government changes to the pet passport controls,and the fact that official Government figures show that no dogs were imported commercially from Lithuania to Great Britain under the Balai Directive in 2016 and only two in 2015, the investigation found Lithuanian puppies openly for sale on the internet in Great Britain, with breeders clearly having used the non-commercial Pet Travel Scheme to import puppies. The investigation has expanded to Poland in order to demonstrate that puppy smuggling extends across Central and Eastern

Europe, beyond the three countries (Hungary, Lithuania and Romania) that our two previous investigations had explored. Figures from the Dogs Trust Puppy Pilot also indicated that Poland had become a significant source country with over 20% of intercepted puppies originating from there. Overall, the report recommends the focus on enforcement of PETS must be shifted from carriers to Government agencies and calls for the introdution of prison sentences to reflect the seriousness of the crimes committed and deter those involved in illegally importing dogs. Furthermore, when the UK leaves the EU, revised legislation must be introduced by Defra as a priority to effectively regulate pet travel and commercial pet movements.

European Commission. (1992). Council Directive 92/65/ EEC. Brussels: European Commission.

This document details how the regulations under the Balai Directive (council directive 92/65/ EEC OJ L 268 14.9.1992 p54) for the commercial trade in dogs and puppies around Europe have been harmonised. With regard to the puppy trade, for example, dogs imported to be sold must be declared to authorities, come from a recognised breeding place, and be identified and vaccinated as per PETS requirements.

European Commission. (2013). Conference on the welfare of dogs and cats in the EU: Building a Europe that cares for animals. Brussels: European Commission.

The report details the 2013 European Commission Conference on the welfare of dogs and cats in the EU. The report recognises the rise in animal commerce across the EU, stating, estimating the population of owned dogs and cats at more than one hundred million animals. The report argues this rise in commercialisation and the profits available raise a number of welfare issues - for the animals themselves, for consumers and the general public. For example, the harms to animals bred in unsuitable environments such as puppy farms are many, they may be victims of inherited diseases or exaggerated features/mutilations and may be inhumanely disposed of if they are unsold or ill. The conference speakers argue the absence of harmonised legislation that addresses the welfare concerns of companion animals is a considerable problem. The only legislation currently at EU level protecting the welfare of dogs and cats relates to their transport in connection with an economic activity or where their movement or trade poses an animal or public health risk. In response, some individual member states reported becoming increasingly proactive in developing and implementing policies that tackle a variety of problems surrounding breeding and trade in this area. The report confirms the launch of a study into the welfare of dogs and cats involved in commercial practices.

Federation of European Companion Animal Veterinary Associations [ FECAVA]. (2011). ' FECAVA News'. The European Journal of Companion Animal Practice. 21(1): 8-9.

This paper details key Newsletter stories (December 2010) from the FECAVA, one of which summarises the opinions raised at the "Responsible Dog Ownership in Europe" conference held in Brussels (4th and 5th October 2010) and organised by CARO-dog The conference attracted 100 participants from over 25 countries, representing European, Member State and International Organisations, NGOs, private sector and veterinary organisations. The conference called for institutional action, urging the EU to recognise the importance of companion animal welfare in EU legislation. Christophe Buhot ( FVE vice president) argued that an effective and reliable system of dog registration is crucial for successful animal health and welfare management which prevents the illegal puppy trade and promotes responsible ownership. He stressed that "Without registration, identification is of little value and traceability is an important tool to fight diseases and to protect welfare"; thereby calling for mandatory pet identification, registration in a national database and the transmission of ID numbers to a central European database. Consequently, the areas for action highlighted in the conference conclusions included the regulation and licensing of breeding and trade, EU-wide compatible identification and registration.

Ferri, G. (2013). 'Transport of animals - practical experience member country perspective'. Seminar for OIE National Focal Points for Animal Welfare of Europe Region.

This presentation by the Italian Ministry of Health detailed the regulation and enforcement of the transportation of animals, including the application of EU regulations across Italy. The Ministry recognised a recent significant increase in the illegal movement of puppies and kittens from Eastern Europe. In response, the Ministry of Health reports increased collaboration to enhance inspection activities by competent authorities (Official Veterinarians and Police corps), leading to the approval of two important operational tools: 1) The procedural manual for the implementation of inspections in the EU movement dogs and cats; 2) Law no. 201 of 4 December 2010 - "Law ratifying and implementing the European Convention for the protection of companion animals, and internal adaptation standards". The latter, identifies penal and administrative responses to the illicit trafficking of companion animals. Administrative sanctions apply for each animal illegally introduced, even without commercial purposes, ranging from €100 up to €2000. Criminal sanctions are in place for the illicit trafficking of companion animals, defined as those who "in order to obtain a profit for itself or others, introduces, transports, sells, or receives on national territory dogs or cats with neither an individual identification system nor the required health certificates (or if required, individual passports)". This is punishable by up to 12 months imprisonment and a fine of 3-15,000 Euro

Four Paws International (2013). Puppy Trade in Europe: Research on the impact of illegal businesses on the market, on consumers, on the one-health concept and on animal welfare. Four Paws International.

This report details research by NGO Four Paws International on the European illegal commercial puppy trade. Through eight months of field research, Four Paws aimed to evaluate the puppy trade networks in Europe and identify the biggest puppy traders likely to be using harmful or illegal practices and breaching current trade, transport and animal welfare legislation. The research identified 30 international trade links that appeared to be operational. In parallel to this research, Four Paws created a platform ( to gather testimonies from people who bought a puppy that was sold through illegal practices, got seriously ill or died. The report details that through collaboration with several online classified advertisement websites in Germany and Austria, they raised consumer awareness of the illegal puppy trade. The Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia were described as key puppy production countries for the trade. The Netherlands was identified as a likely "transit country" due to its weaker puppy trade legislation, when compared to Germany. The report identified, in production countries dogs were cheap to purchase, even with the required identification documents and vaccinations (which were mostly faked or incomplete). The poor enforcement of transport regulations resulted in minimal costs to traders. Thereafter, these cheap puppies demand a high market price in the main distribution countries, resulting in profitable enterprise for the traders. Engaging in illegal trade is a rational choice for breeders, traders, distributers and veterinarians. The cheap supply of puppies creates a market distortion, consequently, regulated and responsible breeders cannot compete (with these prices). In response, legitimate breeders and traders may also rationalise the need to engage in illegal actions. The report argues for stronger law enforcement in order to control known traders and their veterinarians.

Ghirlanda S, et al. (2014). 'Dog Movie Stars and Dog Breed Popularity: A Case Study in Media Influence on Choice'. PLOS 9.

Fashions and fads are important phenomena that influence many individual choices, including the consumption of puppies. They are ubiquitous in human societies and have recently been used as a source of data to test models of cultural dynamics. The authors measured the cultural impact of events using a method capable of disentangling the event's effect from ongoing cultural trends. Although the influence of movies on fashions and fads has declined, according to the authors, this article demonstrates the impact of popular culture on breed popularity. They found the release of movies featuring dogs is often associated with an increase in the popularity and thereby purchasing of these featured breeds, for up to 10 years after the movie's release. The movie's impact on breed popularity correlates with the estimated number of viewers during the movie's opening weekend (a proxy of the movie's reach among the general public). They conclude that their results show that, while fashions may appear erratic, it may be possible to identify specific underlying causes.

Gill, J. A. (2013). Environmental Impacts of One Puppy Mill among Many: A Case History. Humane Society.

In the US, in recent decades, the animal welfare aspects of irresponsibly-managed industrial commercial dog-breeding businesses have attracted national attention and prompted legislative and regulatory responses. However, the environmental impacts of such businesses, also known as puppy mills, have received far less attention. Most puppy mills are secretive; therefore, it is hard to get documented information about their environmental impacts. Reliable environmental information regarding the operation of Whispering Oaks Kennels near Parkersburg, W.Va., became available in 2008 when Wood County cited the facility for violating the water pollution and solid waste statutes. This report is based on documented information generated by legal actions and eventual settlement. A chronological list of events involving Whispering Oaks' effects on the environment is appended.

Goddard, A.D. et al. (2012). 'A Quantitative Release Assessment for the Noncommercial Movement of Companion Animals: Risk of Rabies Reintroduction to the United Kingdom'. Risk Analysis. 31(10): 1769-1783.

This article provides a quantitative risk assessment ( QRA) developed to estimate the risk of introducing rabies into the UK under two different regulations - the EU pet movement policy and UK PETS. The QRA aimed to quantify the risk of rabies introduction should the UK harmonize with the EU policy. The EU implemented its pet movement policy ( EUPMP) in 2004 under regulation 998/2003. As the UK had its own pet movement scheme, PETS, it was granted a temporary derogation from the EU policy until December 2011. The article concludes that assuming complete compliance with the regulations, moving to the EUPMP was predicted to increase the annual risk of rabies introduction by approximately 60-fold (from 7.79 × 10−5 {5.90 × 10−5, 1.06 × 10−4} under the current scheme to 4.79 × 10−3 {4.05 × 10−3, 5.65 × 10−3} under the EUPMP). This corresponds to a decrease from 13,272 (9,408, 16,940) to 211 (177, 247) years between rabies introductions. The risks associated with both the schemes were predicted to increase when less than 100 percent compliance was assumed, with the current scheme of PETS and quarantine being shown to be particularly sensitive to noncompliance. The results of this risk assessment, along with other evidence, provided a scientific evidence base to inform policy decision with respect to companion animal movement.

Hirschman, E. C. (1994). 'Consumers and their animal companions'. Journal of Consumer Research. 20(4): 616-632.

Despite the widespread practice of keeping companion animals, Hirschman identified that virtually no consumer behaviour studies had been conducted on this phenomenon. The article reports on his study which used in-depth interviews with consumers to expand three themes-animals as friends, animals as self, and animals as family members-and to discuss two emergent themes: (1) companion animals' mediation between nature and culture, and (2) the socialization of consumers' companion animal preference patterns. Building on this knowledge, the author discusses several directions for future research on the consumption of companion animals.

Holbrook, M. B. and Woodside, A. G. (2008). 'Animal companions, consumption experiences, and the marketing of pets: Transcending boundaries in the animal-human distinction." Journal of Business Research. 61(5): 377-381.

This article lays the groundwork for a special issue of the Journal of Business Research devoted to "Animal Companions, Consumption Experiences, and the Marketing of Pets." After some preliminary comments on the relevant background, the editors develop a conceptual scheme - based on a typology of consumer value - for organizing the contributions appearing in the special issue. They explain the assignment of various contributions to various value-related categories in order to account for the structure and meanings of the perspectives that emerge. The article highlights the pet-related consumption experience is good for consumers, which suggests a difference between the consumption of companion animals and other products. The special issue articles are divided according to the proposed typology which appears to encapsulate the major ways in which animal companions enrich the lives of consumers by contributing aspects of economic value (as extrinsic means to self-oriented ends); hedonic value (as a self-oriented part of experiences appreciated intrinsically for their own sake); social value (as a facet of consumption used as an extrinsic means to influencing the responses of others); and altruistic value (as an ethical or spiritual component of other-oriented consumption viewed as an intrinsic end in itself).

Holzer, H. M. (2009). Model Statute Regulating Dog Breeding, Facilitation and Sales. PA, USA: International Society for Animal Rights.

This monograph discusses the problems innate in the US 'puppy mill' industry. Problems include the overpopulation of dogs, which is recognised to have "severe economic, social, political, financial, health, environmental and other consequences which are well documented and not debatable". Holzer evaluates the regulations in place and proposes a solution. This involves strict administrative regulation of breeders, facilitators and commercial retail sellers, coupled with harsh penalties for offender and generous "standing to sue" provisions for consumers. Specifically, he proposes the ISAR's Model Statute, which applies to all breeders. It contains certain provisions aimed to address the harms in puppy mills because "they are, by far, the most inhumane kind of dog breeding that exists today in the United States and elsewhere in the world".

IBF International Consulting, Veteffect, Wageningen University & Research Centre and Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Dell'Abruzzo E Del Molise "G. Caporale" ( IZSAM). (2015). Study on the Welfare of Dogs and Cats in Commercial Practices. Specific Contract SANCO 2013/12364: Final Report. Brussels: European Commission.

This report details the study authorised by the European Commission in response to requests from both the Council and the European Parliament to study the pet trade and identify options to improve policy. Specifically, the study aimed to identify the actions necessary to achieve key EU objectives regarding improved functioning of the internal market, consumer and public health protection and animal health and welfare. The study involved the collection of available (published) socioeconomic, technical and legal data, and a survey of almost 30,000 key stakeholders, which involved case studies on twelve member states (including the UK) which comprise 85% of the EU dog population. The study estimates the EU dog population at 60.8 million, with annual sales (of dogs and cats) to be worth 1.3 billion euro. The report identified five main areas of concern for the welfare and health of dogs and cats: compliance with national breeding laws, stress and suffering by animals during transportation and transparent data on transportation, limited consumer knowledge and information for the keeping of pets, discrepancies in market data (for example, intra- EU sales of 46,000 dogs per month) when compared to TRACES registered trade (that is, 20,779 dogs a year), and time-limitations on consumer protection. Two concerns were common to each of these issues; the proper enforcement of legislation and the need for an exchange of knowledge between Member States. The report demonstrates the benefits resulting from changes to legislation through mandatory registration, linking regulation on the internet sales of puppies to responsible breeders and improving the breeding conditions for these animals.

International Fund for Animal Welfare [ IFAW]. (2012). How much is that Doggie on my Browser: The Truth Behind Online Puppy Sales. IFAW. Washington: IFAW.

According to this report, in the past decade, Internet marketplaces have become a major platform for commercial breeders to sell their puppies directly to the public. IFAW argue that the anonymous and unmonitored nature of online sales makes it possible for irresponsible and illegal breeders and traders to skirt existing laws designed to protect dogs from high-volume businesses, who emphasize profit over animal welfare. This report details research conducted by IFAW into the online pet sales, specifically focusing on the scope and scale of online "puppy mill" sales in the US. The one day investigation found almost 10,000 ads from the six dedicated puppy seller websites-representing approximately 10% of total ads on these sites. The investigators conservative estimate was that 62% of the ads were "likely puppy mill" sourced. The results identified that in just one day, on nine websites, well over 733,000 puppies were advertised for sale. The ads featured dozens of breeds, and prices ranging from $1 to thousands of dollars for a single puppy. The findings of this report are intended to be used to (1) educate the public about the cruelty of puppy mills and dissuade consumers from buying puppies online, (2) encourage websites to strengthen efforts to block puppy mills from using their sights to post ads, (3) urge USDA to promulgate regulations that fully and effectively address puppy mill breeders using the Internet to exploit animals, and (4) lobby Congress to provide increased funding to the USDA Animal Care Program under the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service ( APHIS) in order to adequately enforce federal oversight of puppy sales online.

Jones, A. K. (2010). 'Dealing Dogs: Can We Strengthen Weak Laws in the Dog Industry?'. Rutgers Journal of Law & Public Policy. Spring 2010. 442-480.

This article aims to raise awareness of the US legal status of companion animals, in particular, the archaic and flawed federal legislation that protects dogs. Jones argues that legislation has not evolved with the rest of society and fails to recognize that dogs need greater federal protection. The limitation of current provisions is exemplified by the gaping loophole in the Animal Welfare Act [ AWA], which leads to the exploitation of dogs by puppy mills and pet shops. For example, "budgetary constraints and strong opposition from animal breeders, pharmaceutical companies, exhibitors, and experimenters themselves--as well as an inadequate number of inspectors-- have resulted in poor enforcement of the AWA." Comparison of the number of dealers (over 4500) with regulators (3 APHIS Sector Offices, with approximately 70 veterinary inspectors who are entrusted with inspecting the various types of facilities covered by the Act) demonstrates why the Act is under-regulated. The limitations of protection are evident online, exemplified by puppy millers who are able to maintain kennels that are unregulated by federal laws, while producing large numbers of puppies that they sell at high profit margins. Internet sellers are the greatest beneficiaries, as they can sell their dogs to unsuspecting consumers without any sort of regulation at all. Jones suggests amendments to the 2008 Farm Bill have shown promise in improving conditions for animals that are sold over the internet. However, she quotes Francione and Charlton who "maintain that it is the use of animals and not the treatment of animals that ought to be the primary focus of animal advocates and that this involves the abolition rather than just the regulation of animal exploitation."

Kennel Club. (2016). Kennel Club Campaigns: Puppy Awareness Week 12-18 September 2016. Kennel Club.

Available at: Accessed 05.11.16

This Kennel Club [ KC] webpage highlights the key findings from the most recent Kennel Club Puppy Awareness Week ( PAW) survey. These figures are based on a survey of 2,003 dog owners carried out for the Kennel Club by Censuswide, August 2015. The survey details the experiences of dog owners who have purchased puppies online, through local advertisements or from pet shops. They found almost two thirds of puppies were bought solely because of the way they looked. Over a third of puppies (37 percent) bought online or from a newspaper advertisement without first being seen, were bought impulsively. Half of these puppies (49 per cent) fell sick and 17 per cent had serious gastro-intestinal problems. Consequently, they found, one in five consumers who purchased puppies from these traders were required to spend between £500 and £1,000 on vet bills in the first six months of the puppy's life.

Kenny, K. (2011). 'A Local Approach to a National Problem: Local Ordinances as a Means of Curbing Puppy Mill Production and Pet Overpopulation'. Albany Law Review 75(1): 379.

The article evaluates the use of local ordinances in the US to respond to puppy mills (defined as high volume breeding operations populated by poorly treated dogs and pet overpopulation). The article starts from the premise that local initiatives play a crucial role in changing public and governmental perceptions of the social and moral issues and harms involved in the puppy mill industry. For example, a growing number of local governments enactment of local ordinances that ban or severely limit the retail sale of cats and dogs in response to irresponsible puppy traders. These ordinances aim to curtail the demand for puppies and thereby decrease the supply by reducing the ability of retail pet stores to sell their live animals. In doing so, Kenny indicates, it is believed that consumers will turn to more humane breeders and facilities, such as shelters, rescue groups, or small-scale breeders. In conclusion, the article asserts that local ordinances that entirely prohibit the sale of dogs in pet stores (rather than just regulating the prices) should be utilized by more municipalities as a means of tightening market pressure on commercial dog dealers in the face of ineffective federal regulation.

Kristen, H. (2009). 'Ethical Responsibilities Towards Dogs: An Inquiry into the Dog-Human Relationship'. Journal of Agricultural Environmental Ethics. 22(1): 3-14.

This article explores the duties between consumers and their dogs within the context of the great number of companion animals surrendered each year to shelters, the increased development of abnormalities and deformities through selective or irresponsible breeding, and the development of industrial-style puppy mills. Kristen suggests four possible ways of looking at the human-companion animal relationship: master-slave, employer-worker, parent-child, and friend-friend. Dogs, unlike other 'property' in law, are recognised as having a unique relationship with humans, which is translated in legislation into special duties of care. While these generally entail caring for dogs emotional and physical welfare, she argues these duties should also relate to the prevention of harms linked to puppy breeding, suggests these harms are directly connected to consumers, often misplaced, desires and beliefs. For example, beliefs around the characteristics of certain breeds or the desire to buy an expensive breed more cheaply. In conclusion, the author argues that our unique relationship calls for the application of a special set of ethical principles to ensure the protection of dogs.

McMillan, F. D., Duffy, D. L. and Serpell, J. A. (2011). 'Mental health of dogs formerly used as "breeding stock" in commercial breeding establishments'. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 35(1-2): 86-94.

Canine commercial breeding establishments ( CBEs) are defined as large-scale kennel facilities who produce puppies for commercial sale. Many of these establishment are perceived to be problematic as numerous anecdotal reports have suggested that breeding bitches display persistent behavioural and psychological abnormalities when compared with the general dog population upon leaving the CBE. This article details a study which aimed to determine if this anecdotal evidence could be confirmed empirically. A total of 1169 rehomed (for an average of 2 years) ex-breeding CBE dogs were evaluated using the Canine Behavioural Assessment and Research Questionnaire ( C-BARQ). Among these, 76 different breeds were represented, with a sex ratio of 70.3% females and 29.7% males. The article identifies that when this sample was compared with a convenience sample of pet dogs matched for breed, sex, age and neuter status, CBE dogs showed significantly higher rates of health (23.5% versus 16.6%, P = 0.026) and behavioural problems and significantly lower rates of aggression (toward strangers and other dogs), trainability, chasing small animals, excitability, and energy. The authors conclude that "by demonstrating that dogs maintained in these environments develop extreme and persistent fears and phobias, possible learning deficits as evidenced by lower trainability, and often show difficulty in coping successfully with normal existence, this study provides the first quantitative evidence that the conditions prevailing in CBEs are injurious to the mental health and welfare of dogs".

Ministero degliAffari Esteri (Ministry of Foreign Affairs). (2011). Checking procedures for the Movement of Dogs and Cats Within the EU. M. d. Esteri. Italy.

Compiled by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, this guide aims to simplify the checking procedure for competent authorities (official veterinarian and the police) and clarify the complex regulations ( e.g. ( EU) 438/2010 and ( EU) 998/2003) governing the commercial and non-commercial movement of dogs and cats between EU member states. The guide recognises that every year, tens of thousands of kittens and puppies are victims of animal traffickers, who transport these animals illegally, with either no identification or with incomplete, false or forged documents. It details the documents and procedures required to enforce and monitor the trade and the related legislation. It concludes by detailing the criminal and administrative penalties in place for offenders in the commercial and non-commercial movement of dogs and cats.

Pet Food Manufactures' Association [ PFMA]. (2016). Dog Population Details 2016. UK: PFMA.

The Pet Food Manufacturing Association estimates 11 million (that is 40% of) UK households in 2016 will have pets. The UK pet population currently stands at approximately 57 million, of which dogs make up about 24% (n=8.5 million). Within Scotland 22% of households will have a dog, with an average of 1.5 dogs per household.

Pets Advertising Advisory Group [ PAAG]. (2015a). Gumtree PAAG Report. London: PAAG

This report provides the findings of the PAAG moderation projects which aimed to assess the ability of online pet advertisers to impliment the minimum PAAG standards and to self-regulate their pet adverts. Initally, PAAG volunteers looked at approximately 70,000 adverts (81% of the total adverts on the sites) between January and June 2014, noting that the percentage of reported adverts fell during this period from 20 percent to an average of 4-6 percent. However, improvement hit a plateu with websites either implementing the minimum standards to the best of their ability or not achieving adequate progress in line with the commitment promised to PAAG. With the second, snapshot, moderation period (October, November, and December 2014) approximately 3,700 adverts were viewed across these sites, of which 359 adverts (9.7 percent) were reported for minimum standard breaches. In conclusion, the report notes that despite PAAG support and assistance, and some progress made across the board, only one or two sites can be deemed to be of a consistently high standard. PAAG suggest the next step must involve mobilising the public to monitor these sites and to refuse to use websites which do not offer advice and guidance and clearly have no regard for animal welfare. Furthermore, legislation and enforcement require urgent review to tackle the problem of unscrupulous online pet advertising.

Pets Advertising Advisory Group [ PAAG] (2015b). Facebook Animal Group Moderation. London: PAAG

This report provides the findings of the PAAG moderation projects which aimed to assess the use of social media site facebook to sell animals. The report indicates that in 24hours 930 closed groups were identified, of which 230 accepted PAAG volunteers as members. 58% (134 Groups) of the 230 were in breech of PAAG minimum standards, in particular advertising without a photograph or providing the age. Of the 230 monitored groups, 143 groups focused on one species - the majority (60 percent) on dogs.

PDSA (2015). PAW PDSA Animal Wellbing Report. London: PDSA.

This report details the national study conducted by the PDSA, which includes both members of the public and professionals. A sample of 1,127 veterinary professions were surveyed face-to-face and 572 surveyed online. Pet owners were surveyed online, with 5,152 interviewed via You Govand 26,432 surveyed through the PDSA's contact database, website and social media. The survey provides an interesting insight into pet owners, including those who have purchased a puppy. Across the UK, awareness of the Animal Welfare Act had dropped significantly (31% in Scotland). When asked, the vast majority (95%) of pet owner respondents underestimated the cost of pet ownership, with 8% of dog owners believing that their pet would cost them up to £500 over the pet's entire lifetime. The PDSA argue that it is essential for consumers to undertake research prior to obtaining their pet, however, 18% of dog owners conducted no research, 18% took advice from friends, 29% looked on the internet and 36% had previous experience of the breed. Only 4% took advice from a vet before taking on a pet. The majority of dog owners obtained their dog from rehoming centres or recommended breeders, however 20% found their dog through an advert and many would still consider getting their pet from unsuitable places (for example, 22% from a puppy farm). In conclusion the PDSA argue that many of the critical problems identified are rooted in poor pre-purchase decision-making, based on a complete lack of or misguided information on what pet ownership truly involves. In response the PDSA plan to support initiatives looking at the breeding and sale of puppies from the UK and overseas; increase the numbers of PetWise MOTs completed across the UK; and look for partners to help us develop ways to engage the public before they buy a pet.

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals [ RSPCA]. (2012). Do puppies have secrete powers: Understanding the irrational behaviour of the puppy buying publics. RSPCA.

This report presents the findings from RSPCA research on 7,272 adults aged 16-64 who were puppy owners (defined as those who acquired a puppy in the past two years) in the UK between November 2010 and January 2011. The report notes that 12 percent of those surveyed had purchased a puppy, but one in five no longer had their puppy two years later due to changes in personal circumstances, underestimating the dog's needs or behavioural problems. Almost a third of owners had spent less than a day (or no time) researching the breed prior to making the purchase. Almost two-thirds bought a puppy from the first litter they viewed, less than half viewed the mother, while only one in five received advice from a vet. The report concludes that this provides evidence that purchasing a puppy is an impulse buy for most and is linked to relinquishment. In response to this finding the RSPCA investigated three factors which created the impulse to purchase a puppy: nature, culture and cultural shift. Nature referred to the ability of puppies to eclipse rational thought, thereby, challenging the aesthetic factor was unlikely to work and it was too late to intervene once consumers reached the 'consideration' phase. Culture referred to the positive ingrained messages and images around dogs as perfection and completion, which drive consumers to make specific breed purchases. Cultural shift referred to consumer's view of breeds as brands and belief that dogs were consumable objects which could be replaced. In conclusion, the report suggests there is a need to interrupt and challenge consumer's nostalgic and brand oriented views of dogs and to offer support to those who have already purchased a dog.

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals [ RSPCA]. (2016a). Sold a pup? Exposing the breading, trade and sale of puppies. RSPCA.

This report details current RSPCA data on the UK puppy trade gathered from the entirety of their investigations into the puppy trade, that is, "from the breeding of puppies through to the infiltration and successful prosecution of puppy dealers". The report highlights the market and trade in puppies is largely unregulated. Consequently, there are significant animal welfare issues, dissatisfied consumers and an illegal economy. Legislation governing the trade is incompatible with the radical changes, over the past few decades, in how puppies are bred and sold, in particular, the increase in internet sales. The report suggests the demand for puppies is not satisfied by existing UK licensed and small-scale breeder, resulting in a booming international puppy commercial breeding and trading industry from Ireland and Eastern Europe. The report discusses the consequences of the largely unregulated trade, in terms of the impact on the health and welfare of the puppies and breeding dogs. It also makes recommendation on what can be done to improve these welfare concerns. The RSPCA recognise that many consumers are unaware of the origin and breeding conditions of these puppies prior to sale. Marketing strategies are used to encourage consumers to buy the puppies and to convince them the puppies are UK bred. The regulations facilitating the freedom of movement of pets create opportunities and loopholes that are exploited by commercial dealers to illegally move puppies around. For example, they identify the PETS policy (which permits anyone to transport up to five dogs) facilitates puppies to be moved as pets, but then rebranded and traded commercially as British animals. The scale and nature of the illegal and legal international puppy trade, according to the RSPCA, confirms the failure of traditional educational messages around responsible puppy acquisition. The report argues for a new response based on the licensing of all puppy sellers, improved and enforced licensing regulations on breeders, better targeted enforcement of imported puppies, and driving out unregulated dealers through enforcement of financial regulations. The report concludes with their top ten recommendations.

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals [ RSPCA]. (2016b). The trade in puppies: problems and solutions from the Public Affairs Department. RSPCA.

This information sheet, provided by the RSPCA Public Affairs Department, summarized the problems integral to the UK puppy trade and provided recommendations for responding to it. For example, they emphasise there is a lack of clarity on the scale and nature of the trade, in particular, puppy importations, which prevents an appropriate response ( e.g. licensing and regulations appropriate for the internet age). They also recognise that welfare problems can occur at every stage of the trade, resulting in chronic health and behaviour problems and premature death. These harms are exacerbated by profit-driven illegal traders who view puppies as a business to the detriment of their welfare and who are costing the Treasury millions in unpaid taxes. In conclusion, the RSPCA support: further regulation of the trade which would require anyone selling a puppy to be licensed and anyone breeding two or more litters a year to be licensed; model licensing (harmonisation) conditions for puppy breeding and selling and enhanced training and resources for local authorities; increased minimum age for the sale of a puppy to eight weeks old; greater surveillance and enforcement at key boarders for the trade, and greater transparency and information for consumers online.

University of Bristol (2011). One in five puppy buyers no longer have their pet two years later. Bristol: University of Bristol.

According to a study commissioned by the RSPCA nearly one-fifth of people (19%) who bought a puppy in the past two years no longer had their dog. The survey conducted by the University of Bristol revealed that nearly a quarter of the owners (24 percent) who bought a pure-bred puppy in the past two years based their decision mainly on appearance, while 56 percent of buyers did not see the puppy with its mother before they bought it. The report also revealed that many people buying a puppy do a minimal amount of research prior to their purchase (40% spent one week or less researching). Furthermore, more than 60 per cent of puppy buyers only visited one litter of puppies before choosing their puppy. The report concludes with recommendations, suggesting, for example, the RSPCA's Get Puppy Smart campaign may help prospective puppy buyers make the right decision by helping them consider the type of dog that best suits their lifestyle, the costs involved in having a dog, how to find a good breeder and how to select a happy and healthy puppy.

Vier Pfoten/Four Paws (2016). Identification, Vaccination and Movement of Dogs and Cats in Europe: The Pet Passport and the Trade Control and Expert System. ( TRACES). Four Paws.

This report was prepared by the European office of the international animal welfare organization Vier Pfoten/Four Paws, in collaboration with Dr. Sven Hüther (Director of Planet ID and ISO expert for Germany). The report identifies the gaps in the EU's identification system and policies for the movement of dogs and cats across Europe (that is the Pet Passport and TRACES systems) and suggests improvements which need to be integrated into future responses. Their research found it was commonplace for imported cats and dogs to have unreadable or duplicated transponders, the use of the TRACES system facilitates illegal trade (by giving these business an air of legality), and there were too few personnel available to carry out regular and efficient checks in most member states. Due to the limited integration of dogs, cats and ferrets into TRACES, dogs are not actually identified on the traces system, but are recoded under the general category of "Other mammals". The report calls for the urgent harmonisation of the European system which includes the identification and registration of all dogs and cats in Europe (not just those in trade).

Yeates, J. and Bowles, D. (2017). 'Breeding and selling Companion Animals'. In Maher, J., Pierpoint, H. and Beirne, P. International Handbook of Animal Abuse Studies. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

This chapter explores the breeding and trade of pets from a criminological perspective, focusing on the UK puppy trade. It recognises the puppy trade involves harms at each stage of the trade (some of which are covered by specific welfare offences), including, poor care (of breeding animals and progeny) and poor mate-selections and non-compliance with laws designed to minimise international disease transfer (for example, on pet movements to prevent the spread of rabies). These harms can cause animal welfare problems at the time (for example, infectious disease) or in later life (for example, fear-related aggression and inherited health disorders). The authors recognise there are no accurate figures available on the trade, however, through the use of available statistics they estimate the trade to involve between .5 and 1.5 million dogs coming onto the UK market each year. The authors use Rational Choice Theory to explain the underlying behaviour of illegal and irresponsible breeders and traders. Specifically, the trade is facilitated by (a) the lack of guardians for the animals and purchasers (with weaknesses in consumer and animal protection legislation); (b) the presence of suitable victims (that is, vulnerable animals and purchasers); and (c) offenders' strong motivations (particularly for financial gain). The chapter concludes by arguing that appropriate responses to the trade should include enhanced consumer empowerment, updated and appropriate movement and animal welfare laws - which are effectively enforced, clearer and better enforced vending legislation particularly on online purchases; and the use of other legislation (for example, fraud) to challenge offenders.