Fishing practices adapted in commercial fisheries: review

Comprehensive literature review on the specific interventions taken in Scotland, the UK and EU to reduce the climate related impacts of the marine wild capture fisheries sector complemented with a series of stakeholder interviews on direct experiences and challenges.


1. Climate Change Act 2008 (

2. Marine Scotland Assessment Climate Change

3. Future fisheries: management strategy - 2020 to 2030 - (

4. Scottish Sea Fisheries Statistics 2020 (

5. The geographic scope was limited by the resources available; therefore, the focus was on those areas most closely linked to Scotland, including Scotland itself, the wider UK, and other countries within Europe.

6. Global CO2e emissions in 2016 were 32,940,650,079 tonnes; The Data World Bank

7. Resilience can be understood as the ability of a fish stock to recover from a shock, in this case one caused by extreme weather events and changing climate exacerbated by anthropogenic climate change.

8. CO2e = Carbon dioxide equivalent (i.e., emissions of all greenhouse gases with the equivalent global warming potential of CO2)

9. Social cost of carbon, given as £12.76 per tonne of CO2e - Updated short-term traded carbon values used for UK policy appraisal (2018)

10. Fishing vessel energy improvements and re-engining grant: how to apply

11. European Maritime and Fisheries Fund: beneficiaries

12. To measure the pulling capacity of a vessel, a bollard pull test is used to classify tugs on their towing ability. Experimentally, the test is carried out by using a bollard to anchor a vessel to the pier. Then, without slack in the connecting link, the vessel is required to propel itself at maximum thrust.

13. European Maritime and Fisheries Fund: beneficiaries (last accessed: 24/01/2022)

14. 400 litres of carbon neutral fuel as a replacement for diesel will reduce the CO2 emissions from fossil fuels by around 1 tonne, because 1 litre of diesel produces around 2.67kg of CO2 (Valsecchi et al., 2009).

15. Note: All currency conversions were made on In this case the currency conversion was made with rate at 01/01/2015 - the beginning of the year the processing plant was opened

16. Fishing gear manufacturer company website

17. Company website Odyssey Innovation


19. Marine litter issues, impacts and actions

20. Directive (EU) 2019/883

21. The largest average catch or yield that can continuously be taken from a stock under existing environmental conditions" (ICES, 2012)

22. National Indicator Performance | National Performance Framework, Scottish Government

23. "Spawning stock biomass. Total weight of all sexually mature fish in the stock" (ICES, 2012)

24. "Fishing mortality consistent with achieving Maximum Sustainable Yield" (ICES, 2012)

25. "Spawning stock biomass (SSB) that results from fishing at FMSY for a long time" (ICES, 2012)

26. UN Environment Programme

27. GWP is a measure of the amount of energy (i.e., heat) a unit (e.g., 1kg) of gas will absorb in the atmosphere as a multiple of the energy that would be absorbed by the same mass of CO2.

28. Scottish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA)

29. UN Environment Programme

30. Note: All currency conversions were made on In this case the currency conversion was made with rate at 01/01/2020 - the beginning of the year that the findings were published.

31. Marine Conservation Society

32. Marine Conservation Society, Sustainable Fisheries

33. Marine Conservation Society, The Rise of the Conscious Food Consumer

34. Scottish Government, Sea Fisheries

35. Open Seas

36. Seafood Scotland

37. Marine Conservation Society, Good Fish Guide

38. The Guardian

39. Online questionnaire which has been used to engage with the stakeholders in Appendix C

40. Antifouling can be defined as the coating, paint, and surface treatment used on a solid (e.g., ship hull) to control or prevent the attachment of unwanted organisms.

41. A roller clump is used in trawling to reduce interaction with the seabed, therefore reducing drag which can save on fuel

42. Fishing vessel energy improvements and re-engining grant: how to apply

43. Sustainability of Fish Stocks | National Performance Framework



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