Repeat violence in Scotland: a qualitative approach

This report presents findings from a qualitative research study which explored peoples’ experiences of repeat, interpersonal violence. The research involved in-depth interviews with people who have lived experience of repeat violence and community stakeholders who support them.


Batchelor, S., Armstrong, A., and MacLellan, D. (2019) Taking Stock of Violence in Scotland. SCCJR Research Report, 03/2019. Glasgow: SCCJR. [Available online at: (Accessed 31/07/2023)]

Borysik, B. (2019) We Are Victims Too: A peer study into repeat victimisation among people who moved from the street into supported accommodation in London. London: Revolving Doors Agency.

Braun, V. and Clarke, V. (2013) Successful Qualitative Research. London: Sage.

Braun, V. and Clarke, V. (2019) Reflecting on reflexive thematic analysis. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 11(4): 589-597.

Billingham, L. and Irwin-Rodgers, K. (2022) Against Youth Violence: A social harm perspective. Bristol: Bristol University Press.

Bryce, J., Brooks, M., Robinson, P., Stokes, R., Irving, M., Graham-Kevan, N., Willan, V.J., Khan, R. and Karwacka, M. (2016) A qualitative examination of engagement with support services by victims of violent crime. International Review of Victimology, 22(3) 239–255.

Buss, T. F. and Abdu, R. (1995) Repeat victims of violence in an urban trauma centre. Violence and Victims, 10(3): 183-194.

Clifford, G., Hitchcock, C., and Dalgleish, T. (2020) Fractured pasts: the structure of the life story in sexual-trauma survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder. Clinical Psychological Science, 8(4): 723-738.

Connell, R.W. (2005) Masculinities. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Cooper, C., Eslinger, D. and Nash, D. (2000) Repeat victims of violence: report of a large concurrent case-control study. Archives of Surgery, 135(7): 837-843.

Corbin, J. and Morse, J.M. (2003) The unstructured interactive interview: issues of reciprocity and risks when dealing with sensitive topics. Qualitative Inquiry, 9(3): 335-354.

Davies, P., Francis, P. and Greer, C. (2017) 'Victims, Crime and Society: An Introduction' in: Davies, P., Francis, P. and Greer, C. (Eds.) Victims, Crime and Society. London: Sage.

Farrall, S. and Maltby, S. (2003) The victimisation of probationers. The Howard Journal, 42(1): 32-54

Fohring, S. (2014) 'Putting a face on the dark figure: describing victims who don't report crime.' TEMIDA, December 2014: 3-18.

Fohring, S. (2018a) 'Revisiting the non-ideal victim' in M. Duggan (ed.) Values in Victimology: Revisiting the 'ideal victim' thesis. London: Policy Press.

Fohring, S. (2018b) What's in a word? Victims on 'victim.' International Review of Victimology, 24(2): 151–164.

Graham-Kevan, N., Brooks, M., Willan, V. J., Lowe, M., Robinson, P., Khan, R., Stokes, R., Irving, M., Karwacka, M. and Bryce, J. (2015) 'Repeat victimisation, retraumatisation and victim vulnerability', The Open Criminology Journal, 8: 36-48.

Hammersely, R., Reid, M., Dalgarno, P., Wallace, J. and Liddell, D. (2020) Trauma, violence and recovery in the life stories of people who have injected drugs. Qualitative Research in Medicine & Healthcare, 4:65-74.

Harding, J. (2006) Questioning the subject in biographical interviewing. Sociological Research Online, 11(3). [Available online at: (Accessed 31/07/2023)]

Herman, J. (1992) Trauma and Recovery: The aftermath of violence from domestic abuse to political terror. New York: Basic Books.

Hough, M. (1986) 'Victims of violent crime: findings from the British Crime Survey' in E.A. Fattah (ed.) From Crime Policy to Victim Policy. London: Macmillan.

Jansson, K., Budd, S., Lovbakke, J., Moley, S. and Thorpe, K. (2007) Attitudes, Perceptions and Risks of Crime: Supplementary Volume 1 to Crime in England and Wales 2006/07. London: Home Office Statistical Bulletin.

Jennings, W.G., Piquero, A.R., and Reingle, J.M. (2012) On the overlap between victimization and offending: a review of the literature. Aggression and Violent Behaviour, 17:16-26.

Kelly, L. (1988) Surviving Sexual Violence. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Kelly. L. and Westmarland, N. (2016) Naming and defining 'domestic violence': lessons from research with violent men, Feminist Review, 112(1): 113-127.

Kesteren, J., van Dijk, J. and Mayhew, P. (2013) 'The international crime victims surveys: a retrospective.' International Review of Victimology, 20(1): 49-69.

Krug, E.G., Dahlberg, L.L., Mercy, J.A, Zwi, A.B. and Lozano, R. (2002) World Report on Violence and Health, Geneva: World Health Organisation.

Liamputtong, P. (2007) Researching the Vulnerable: A guide to sensitive research methods. London: Sage.

Lewis, J., Ritchie, J., Ormston, R. and Morrell, G. (2014) 'Generalising from qualitative research' in J. Ritchie, J. Lewis, C., McNaughton-Nicholls and R. Ormston (eds.) Qualitative Research Practice (Second edition). London: Sage.

May, C. (1999) Explaining Reconviction Following a Community Sentence: The role of social factors. London: HMSO.

McBride, M. (2016) A Review of the Evidence on Hate Crime and Prejudice- Report for the Independent Advisory Group on Hate Crime, Prejudice and Community Cohesion. SCCJR Research Report, 07/2016. Glasgow: SCCJR. [Available online at: (Accessed 31/07/2023)]

McVie, S., Norris, P. and Pillinger, R. (2020) 'Increasing inequality in experience of victimization during the crime drop: analysing patterns of victimization in Scotland from 1993 to 2014–15.' British Journal of Criminology, 60(3): 782–802.

McVie, S., Norris, P. and Pillinger, R. (2015) 'Is poverty reflected in changing patterns of victimisation in Scotland?' Scottish Justice Matters, 3(3): 6-7.

Mukherjee, S. and Carach, C. (1993) Repeat Victimisation in Australia: Extent, correlates and implications for crime prevention. Sydney: Australian Institute of Criminology.

Murray, K. (2014) Stop and Search in Scotland: An evaluation of police practice. SCCJR Report 01/2014. Glasgow: SCCJR. [Available online at: (Accessed 31/07/2023)]

Neale, J., Bloor, M. and Weir, C. (2005) 'Problem drug users and assault.' International Journal of Drug Policy, 16: 393-402.

Pearson, A., Rose, K., and Rees, J. (2022) 'I felt like I deserved it because I was autistic': Understanding the impact of interpersonal victimisation in the lives of autistic people. Autism, 27(2): 500-511

Peelo, M., Stewart, J., Stewart, G. and Prior, A. (1992) A Sense of Justice: Offenders as victims of crime. London: Association of Chief Officers of Probation.

Pettitt, B., Greenhead, S., Khalifeh, H., Drennan, V., Hart, T., Hogg, J. et al. (2013) At Risk, Yet Dismissed. London: Victim Support/MIND.

Powell, K.E., J.A. Mercy, A.E. Crosby, L.L. Dahlberg, and Simon, T.R. (1999) 'Public health models of violence and violence prevention' in L. Kurtz (ed.) Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace & Conflict, Vol. 3. Oxford: Elsevier.

Public Health Scotland (2022) Unintentional Injuries in Scotland: Hospital admissions year ending 31 December 2021. Edinburgh: Public Health Scotland.

Ritchie, J., Lewis, J., Elam, G., Tennant, R. and Rahim, N. (2014) Designing and selecting samples' in J. Ritchie, J. Lewis, C., McNaughton-Nicholls and R. Ormston (eds.) Qualitative Research Practice (Second edition). London: Sage

Russell, M. and Light L. (2006). Police and victim perspectives on empowerment of domestic violence victims. Police Quarterly, 9(4): 375-396

Scottish Government (2018a) Equally Safe: A joint Scottish Government and COSLA strategy to prevent and eradicate violence against women and girls in Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Government.

Scottish Government (2018b) Recorded Crime in Scotland: Robbery, 2008-09 and 2017-18. Edinburgh: Scottish Government.

Scottish Government (2019a) Recorded Crime in Scotland: Attempted Murder and Serious Assault, 2008-2009 and 2017-2018. Edinburgh: Scottish Government.

Scottish Government (2019b) Repeat Violent Victimisation: A rapid evidence review. Edinburgh: Scottish Government.

Scottish Government (2021) Scottish Crime and Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2019/20: Main Findings. Edinburgh: Scottish Government.

Scottish Government (2020) Scottish Government Urban Rural Classification 2020. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government.

Scottish Government (2023a) Recorded Crime in Scotland, 2022-23. Edinburgh: Scottish Government.

Scottish Government (2023b) Violence Prevention Framework. Edinburgh: Scottish Government.

Shaw, M. and Pease, K. (2000) Research on Repeat Victimisation in Scotland: Final Report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Executive Central Research Unit.

Spalek, B. (2017) Crime Victims: Theory, policy and practice (Second edition). London: Palgrave.

Stapley E., O'Keeffe, S. and Midgley, N. (2021) Essentials of Ideal-type Analysis: A qualitative approach to constructing typologies. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

Stevens, A., Berto, D., Frick, U., Kershcl, V., McSweeney, T., Schaaf, S., Tartari, M., Turnbull, P., Uchtenhagen, A., Waidner, G., Werenich, W. (2007) 'The victimisation of dependent drug users: findings from a European study.' European Journal of Criminology, 4(4): 385-408.

Stanko, E. (1990) Everyday Violence: How men and women experience physical and sexual danger. London: Pandora.

Tillyer, M.S. (2013) Violent victimisation across the life course: Moving a 'victims careers' agenda forward. Criminal Justice and Behaviour, 41: 593-612.

van Reemst, L., Fischer, T. F. C. and van Dongen, J. D. M. (2013) Risk Factors for Repeat Victimisation: A Literature Scan. Erasmus University Rotterdam Commissioned by the Research and Documentation Centre (WODC), Ministry of Security and Justice.

World Health Organisation (no date) The VPA Approach. [Available online at: (Accessed 31/07/2023)]

Weisel, D.L. (2005) Analysing Repeat Victimisation. Problem-Oriented Guides for Police Problem Solving Tools Series, No. 4. Washington: US Department of Justice.

Willis, R. (2019) The use of composite narratives to present research findings. Qualitative Research, 19(4): 471-480.

Yin, R.K. (2013) Validity and generalisation in future case study evaluations. Evaluation, 19(3): 321-332



Back to top