Publication - Research and analysis

Post study work visa options: an international comparative review

Published: 4 Aug 2019

This report presents the main findings of a literature review examining how the UK’s post-study work offer compares with those of its key competitor countries.

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72 page PDF

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Contents
Post study work visa options: an international comparative review
Footnotes

72 page PDF

724.5 kB

Footnotes

1. Czaika, M. (2018). High-Skilled Migration. Introduction and Synopsis, in: Czaika, M. (ed). High-Skilled Migration: Drivers and Policies. Oxford Scholarship Online, 2018, p. 6. 

2. Cerna, L. (2018). European High-Skilled Migration Policy. Trends and Challenges, in: Czaika, M. (ed). High-Skilled Migration: Drivers and Policies. Oxford Scholarship Online, 2018, p. 88.

3. Czaika (2018), op. cit., p. 2.

4. Hawthorne, L and To, A. (2014). Australian Employer Response to the Study‐Migration Pathway: The Quantitative Evidence 2007‐2011. International Migration Vol. 52 (3) 2014.

5. Riaño, Y. and Piguet, E. (2016). International Student Migration, in: Barney, W. (ed). Oxford  Bibliographies  in Geography.  New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 1-24.

6. European Commission (2013). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: European Higher Education in the World, p. 14.

7. de Coning, M.V. and D. Huberts (2016). Stayrate van Internationale Afgestudeerden in Nederland, NUFFIC, 2016.

8. The Expert Council of German Foundations on Integration and Migration (2015). Train and Retain

Career Support for International Students in Canada, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden, p. 16.

9. The Expert Council of German Foundations on Integration and Migration (2015), op. cit., p. 16.

10. See e.g. CIC (Citizenship and Immigration Canada) (2010). Evaluation of the International Student Program. Evaluation Division, July 2010.

11. Institute of International Education (IIE) (2017). A World on the Move. Trends in Global Student Mobility. October 2017.

12. OECD (2018), Education at a Glance 2018: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris.

13. All the countries under review operate a three cycle educational system, where the first cycle equals Bachelor level study, the second equals Masters level study and the third equals Doctoral studies. 

14. IIE (2017), op. cit. 

15. IIE (2017), op. cit.

16. Institute of International Education (IIE) (2018). A World on the Move. Trends in Global Student Mobility. Issue 2, March 2018.

17. Department of Home Affairs (2018). Student visa and Temporary Graduate visa program report ending at 30 June 2018, p. 7. 

18. Finn, M. and Darmody, M. (2017). What predicts international higher education students’ satisfaction with their study in Ireland? Journal of Further and Higher Education. 41(4): 545-555.

19. Higher Education Authority (2016). Internationally oriented, globally competitive higher education institutions. HEA input into the International Education Strategy 2016–2020. Dublin: Higher Education Authority.

20. Nafie, R. (2017). What Germany is doing right to edge past the competition. The PIE News.

21. Note: This number also includes students coming to Germany on temporary mobility programmes, such as Erasmus. Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik, P. and J. Grote (2019). Attracting and retaining international students in Germany. Study by the German National Contact Point for the European Migration Network (EMN). Federal Office for Migration and Refugees, 2019.

22. IIE (2018), op. cit.

23. E.g. Hobsons EMEA (2017). International Student Survey. Welcoming the World. An International Future for European Higher Education; i-graduate International Student Satisfaction Survey (2016). 

24. Mellors-Bourne, R., Humfrey, C., Kemp, N. and Woodfield, S. (2013). The Wider Benefits of International Higher Education in the UK. BIS Research Paper number 128, September 2013, p. 7.

25. Hobsons EMEA (2015). International Student Survey 2015: Value and the Modern International Student. A survey of 45,543 prospective international students from 210 countries and 207 nationalities, of whom 17,336 (from 199 countries and 193 nationalities) had enquired to UK institutions.

26. Institute of International Education (IEE) (2012). International Education: A Global Economic Engine. 2012 International Education Summit on the Occasion of the G8. Washington DC: Institute of International Education.

27. IEE (2018), op. cit.

28. Clarke et al. (2018), p. 46. 

29. Clarke, M., Hui Yang, L., and D. Harmon (2018). The Internationalisation of Irish Higher Education. HEA, 2018, p. 46.

30. Czaika, M. and Parsons, C.R. (2017). The Gravity of High-Skilled Migration Policies. Demography, Springer.

31. Weisser, R. (2016), Internationally mobile students and their post-graduation migratory: An analysis of determinants of student mobility and retention rates in the EU. OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, No. 186, OECD Publishing, Paris, p. 3.

32. Lam, Q.K.H. and Maiworm, F. (2014). English in the classroom and beyond, in: Wächter, B., Maiworm, F. (eds.). English-Taught Programmes in European Higher Education. The State of Play in 2014. Bonn: Lemmens Medien GmbH, 2014, p. 105.

33. Yates, L and Wahid, R. (2013). Challenges to Brand Australia: international students and the problem with speaking, Higher Education Research and Development 32:6, pp. 1037-1050.

34. de Coning, M.V. and D. Huberts (2016). Stayrate van Internationale Afgestudeerden in Nederland, NUFFIC, 2016.

35. Weisser (2016), op. cit., p. 36.

36. Weisser (2016), op. cit., p. 35.

37. Mellors-Bourne et al. (2013), op. cit., p. 82.

38. de Coning, M.V. and D. Huberts (2016), op. cit. p. 35.

39. Riaño, Y., van Mol, C. and Parvati, R. (2018). New directions in  studying  policies  of international student mobility and migration. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 16:3, p. 283-294.  

40. European Commission (2013). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: European Higher Education in the World, p. 8.

41. de Coning, M.V. and D. Huberts (2016). Stayrate van Internationale Afgestudeerden in Nederland, NUFFIC 2016.

42. Hawthorne and To (2014), op. cit. 

43. Czaika, M. (2018). High-Skilled Migration. Introduction and Synopsis, in: Czaika, M. (ed). High-Skilled Migration: Drivers and Policies. Oxford Scholarship Online, 2018, p. 9.

44. Findlay, A. (2011). An Assessment of Supply and Demand-Side Theorizations of International Student Mobility. International Migration 49 (2): 162–190; Universities UK. 2017. The Economic Impact of International Students. London: Universities UK.

45. Hollifield, J. F. (2004). The Emerging Migration State. International Migration Review 38 (3): 885–912.

46. Bouma, K. (2018). Buitenlandse student heerst bij 210 studies. De Volkskrant, March 8 2018; Truijens, A. (2018). Toestroom buitenlandse studenten kost meer dan het oplevert, en zorgt voor boze studenten. Voor

wie is het precies gunstig? De Volkskrant, March 9 2018.

47. Riaño et al. (2018), op. cit., p. 284.

48. Hawthorne (2018), op. cit., p. 211.

49. Miano, J. (2017). A History of the 'Optional Practical Training' Guestworker Program. Centre for Immigration Studies, online report, September 2017. 

50. Borjas, G. J. (2009). ‘Immigration in high-skill labor markets: The impact of foreign students on the earnings of doctorates’, in: R. B. Freeman and D. L. Goroff (eds), Science and Engineering Careers in the United States: An Analysis of Markets and Employment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

51. Migration Advisory Committee (2018). EEA migration in the UK: Final report, September 2018, pp. 16-21.

52. Hawthorne, L. (2018). Attracting and Retaining International Students as Skilled Migrants, in: Czaika, M. (ed). High-Skilled Migration: Drivers and Policies. Oxford Scholarship Online, 2018, p. 216.

53. Miano (2017), op. cit. 

54. Ministry of Education New Zealand (2017). Young, international graduates – employment outcomes. November, 2017.

55. O’Connor, S. (2018). Problematising strategic internationalisation: tensions and conflicts between international student recruitment and integration policy in Ireland. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 16:3.

56. O’Connor, S. (2018), op.cit.

57. Riaño et al. (2018), op. cit., p. 288.

58. Yates, L and Wahid, R. (2013), op. cit.

59. This is part of the national strategy for the ‘Make it in the Netherlands!’ programme:  [https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/documenten/rapporten/2016/09/19/make-it-in-the-netherlands] [DOA: 2/05/2019]

60. Bauer, T.K., Lofstrom, M. and K.F. Zimmermann (2000). Immigration Policy, Assimilation of Immigrants and Natives' Sentiments towards Immigrants: Evidence from 12 OECD-Countries. IZA Discussion Paper No. 187, August 2000, pp. 1-2.

61. Bauer et al. (2000), op. cit., p. 1-2.

62. Hawthorne (2018), op.cit., p. 198. 

63. Hawthorne, L. (2014). A Comparison of Skilled Migration Policy: Australia, Canada and New Zealand, SSRN. 

64. Teitelbaum, M.S. (2018). High-Skilled Migration Policy Challenges from a US Perspective, in: Czaika, M. (ed). High-Skilled Migration: Drivers and Policies. Oxford Scholarship Online, 2018.

65. Koslowski, R. (2018). Shifts in Selective Migration Policy Models. A Comparison of Australia, Canada, and the US, in: Czaika, M. (ed). High-Skilled Migration: Drivers and Policies. Oxford Scholarship Online, 2018.

66. Czaika (2018), op. cit., p. 13. 

67. Tani, M. (2017). Skilled Migration Policy and the Labour Market Performance of Immigrants. IZA DP No. 11241, December 2017.

68. OECD (2008). International Migration Outlook. OECD Publishing, Paris.

69. Spinks, H. (2010). Australia’s Migration Program. Parliament of Australia, Parliamentary Library, 29 October 2010.

70. Faggian, A., Corcoran, J., Rowe, F. (2016). Evaluating the effects of Australian policy changes on human capital: the role of a graduate visa scheme. Environment and Planning C Government and Policy 34(1), p. 153.

71. Koleth, E. (2010). Overseas Students: Immigration Policy Changes 1997–May 2010 (Parliament of

Australia, Department of Parliamentary Services, Canberra).

72. OECD (2008), op. cit.

73. OECD (2018), Education at a Glance 2018: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris, p. 228. 

74.   IEE 2018, op. cit.

75. The Temporary Graduate Visa (subclass 485) also includes the Graduate Work stream for international graduates of Australian HEIs who have a qualification relevant to an occupation on the skilled occupation list [https://immi.homeaffairs.gov.au/visas/getting-a-visa/visa-listing/temporary-graduate-485/graduate-work].

76. Primary applicant is here defined as the person who must satisfy the primary criteria for the grant of a visa. 

77. Department of Home Affairs 2019: https://data.gov.au/dataset/ds-dga-c957d829-4f9b-4213-a0c2-8cbeb9a03ffb/distribution/dist-dga-960da160-ed72-4776-b19c-bf3005ee9aeb/details?q=graduates [DOA: 14/04/2019]

78. Department of Home Affairs (2018b). Student visa and Temporary Graduate visa program report ending at 30 June 2018, p.7.

79. Department of Home Affairs (2018b), op. cit., p.8. 

80. Department of Home Affairs (2019) [dataset] https://data.gov.au/dataset/ds-dga-c957d829-4f9b-4213-a0c2-8cbeb9a03ffb/details?q=graduates (DOA: 29/04/2019). Note: While Malaysia and Philippines have moved down the rank between 2003/14 and 2017/18 and are no longer in the top 5 they still remain in the top 10. Vietnam and Nepal, in turn, were in the top 10 in 2013/14 yet moved up the rank by 2017/18. 

81. Note: This data relates only to Temporary Graduate Subclass 485 Visa holders who moved into another visa category, i.e. remained in Australia. It does not include data on retention, i.e. how many programme participants have stayed in or left Australia after the expiry of their Temporary Graduate Subclass 485 Visa. Source: Department of Home Affairs (2018a). Australia’s Migration Trends 2016–17 Highlights, p. 5.

82. Department of Home Affairs (2018b), op. cit., p.83.

83. Hawthorne (2018), op. cit., p. 212.

84. Hawthorne (2018), op. cit., p. 215.

85. Hawthorne (2018), op. cit., p. 211.

86. Gothe-Snape, J. (2018). ‘Record number of international students sticking around on visas with full work rights.’ ABC News, 26 July 2018.   

87. Department of Home Affairs 2019: https://data.gov.au/dataset/ds-dga-c957d829-4f9b-4213-a0c2-8cbeb9a03ffb/distribution/dist-dga-960da160-ed72-4776-b19c-bf3005ee9aeb/details?q=graduates [DOA: 14/04/2019]

88. Hawthorne (2014), op. cit.

89. Hepburn, E. (2017). Options for Differentiating the UK’s Immigration System. Report prepared for the Culture, Tourism, Europe and External Relations Committee, p. 30.

90. CIC (Citizenship and Immigration Canada)(2010). Evaluation of the International Student Program. Evaluation Division, July 2010.

91. OECD (2018), op. cit., p. 228.

92. IEE 2018, op. cit.

93. OECD (2008), op. cit., p. 26.

94. Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (2018), Annual Report to Parliament on Immigration

2018, p. 30.  

95. CIC (Citizenship and Immigration Canada) (2010). Evaluation of the International Student Program. Evaluation Division, July 2010, p.18.

96. Open Government. Transition from Temporary Resident to Permanent Resident Status – Monthly IRCC Updates: https://open.canada.ca/data/en/dataset/1b026aab-edb3-4d5d-8231-270a09ed4e82 [DOA: 3/05/2019]

97. CIC (2010), op. cit., pp. i-iii.

98. Chiose, S. “International Student Work Program Creating Low-Wage Work Force: Report,” The Globe and Mail, March 31, 2016, https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/international-student-work-program-needs-overhaul-report-says/article29463566/ [DOA: 3/05/2019]

99. CIC (Citizenship and Immigration Canada)(2010). Evaluation of the International Student Program. Evaluation Division, July 2010, pp. i-iii.

100. Chiose, S. (2016), op. cit.  

101. Open Government. Transition from Temporary Resident to Permanent Resident Status – Monthly IRCC Updates: https://open.canada.ca/data/en/dataset/1b026aab-edb3-4d5d-8231-270a09ed4e82 [DOA: 3/05/2019]

102. Trlin, A., Spoonley, P. and Bedford, R. (eds.) (2010). New Zealand and International Migration. A Digest and Bibliography, Number 5. Massey University Printery, Palmerston North, p. 26. 

103. Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE) New Zealand (2018). Migration Trends and Outlook 2016/17, p. 13.

104. Ministry of Education New Zealand (2013a). International student enrolments in New Zealand 2006 – 2012. International Division, Ministry of Education, 1 May 2013. 

105. OECD (2018), op. cit., p.228.

106.   IEE 2018, op. cit.

107. Ministry of Education New Zealand (2011). New Zealand Universities. The International Student Barometer 2011. IGI Services 2011, p.6.

108. Stringer, C. (2016). Worker Exploitation in New Zealand: A Troubling Landscape. Report prepared for: The Human Trafficking Research Coalition.

109. MBIE (2018), op. cit., p. 20.

110. MBIE (2018), op. cit., p. 18.

111. MBIE (2018), op. cit., p. 35.

112. OECD (2008), op. cit.

113. https://www.forbes.com/sites/andyjsemotiuk/2019/01/02/recent-changes-to-the-h1b-visa-program-and-what-is-coming-in-2019/#53d411a84a81 [DOA: 2/05/2019]

114. OECD (2018), op. cit., p.228.

115. IEE 2018, op. cit.

116. Ruiz, N.G and Budiman, A (2018). ‘Number of foreign college graduates staying in the US to work climbed again in 2017, but growth has slowed,’ Pew Research Centre, online article [DOA: 18/05/2019] https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/07/25/number-of-foreign-college-graduates-staying-in-u-s-to-work-climbed-again-in-2017-but-growth-has-slowed/

117. Ruiz, N.G and Budiman, A (2018). ‘Number of Foreign College Students Staying and Working in U.S. After Graduation Surges,’ Pew Research Centre, online article [DOA: 18/05/2019] https://www.pewglobal.org/2018/05/10/number-of-foreign-college-students-staying-and-working-in-u-s-after-graduation-surges/

118. Miano, J. (2017). A History of the 'Optional Practical Training' Guestworker Program. Centre for Immigration Studies, online report, September 2017.

119. Miano, J. (2017), op. cit. 

120. Data on pathways of OPT beneficiaries who have remained in the US and moved to another type of visa, e.g. the H1-B visa, may be available from USCIS though placing a freedom of information request, c.f. Pierce, S. and Gelatt, J. (2018). Evolution of the H1-B. Latest Trends in a Program on the Brink of Reform. Migration Policy Institute Brief, March 2018, p. 6.

121. See for example: United States Government Accountability Office (2014). Report to the Ranking Member, Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. Senate. Student and Exchange Visitor Program. DHS Needs to Assess Risks and Strengthen Oversight of Foreign Students with Employment Authorization, February 2014.

122. Borjas(2009), op. cit. 

123. Business Roundtable (2018). The Economic Impact of Curbing the Optional Practical Training Program. December 2018, p. 1. 

124. Neufeld, J. L. (2019). Optional Practical Training (OPT) and International Students After Graduation. Human Capital, Innovation, and the Labor Market. Niskanen Center, March 2019.

125. European Commission (2018). Attracting and retaining international students in the EU. Common Template for EMN Study 2018.

126. The three cycle structure is as follows: first cycle – Bachelor level study, second cycle – Masters level study, third cycle – Doctoral level study. 

127. European Commission (2013). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: European Higher Education in the World.

128. Levatino, A., Eremenko, T., Molinero Gerbeau, Y., Consterdine, E., Kabbanji, L., Gonzalez-Ferrer, A., Jolivet-Guetta, M. and C. Beauchemin (2018). Opening or closing borders to international students? Convergent and divergent dynamics in France, Spain and the UK. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 16:3, p. 368.

129. European Commission (2011). European Migration Network specifications for Annual Policy Report 2011.

130. Riaño et al. (2018), op. cit., p. 290.

131. The study ‘Attracting and retaining international students in the EU’ is being carried out by the EMN for the European Commission. Its aim is to draw information from all EU Members States on policies related to international students and collect any data on international student mobility. The final specifications for the study were announced in 2018 and the results are expected to be published in May 2019 (as stated in private correspondence with the Author).

132. Levatino et al. (2018), op. cit., p. 368.

133. Lam, Q.K.H., Maiworm, F. (2014). English in the classroom and beyond, in: Wächter, B., Maiworm, F. (eds.). English-Taught Programmes in European Higher Education. The State of Play in 2014. Bonn: Lemmens Medien GmbH, 2014, p. 16.

134. Further analysis of the issue may soon be available with the expected publication of the EMN study on ‘Attracting and retaining international students in the EU’ in May 2019.

135. Weisser (2016), op. cit, p. 35.

136. Levatino et al. (2018), op cit., p. 368.

137. Cerna (2018), op cit., p. 89.

138. European Commission (2017). EMN Inform – Retaining third-country national students in the European Union.

139. OECD (2018), op. cit., p.228.

140. IEE 2018, op. cit.

141. OECD (2008), op cit.

142.   Kabbanji, L., Jolivet-Guetta, M., Consterdine, E. and A. González-Ferrer (2016). Inventory of programs aimed at attracting international students and academics to the EU.  Temper Working Paper Series: Temporary versus Permanent Migration, WP 2 (2016).

143. OECD (2008), op. cit.

144. Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik, P. and J. Grote (2019). Attracting and retaining international students in Germany. Study by the German National Contact Point for the European Migration Network (EMN). Federal Office for Migration and Refugees, 2019. 

145. European Commission (2017), op. cit.

146. Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik, P. and J. Grote (2019), p. 20.

147. OECD (2018), op. cit., p.228.

148. IEE 2018, op. cit.

149. Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik, P. and J. Grote (2019). Attracting and retaining international students in Germany. Study by the German National Contact Point for the European Migration Network (EMN). Federal Office for Migration and Refugees, 2019

150. Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik, P. and J. Grote (2019), op. cit. 

151. Finn, M. and Darmody, M. (2017), op. cit.

152. Higher Education Authority (HEA) (2017). Higher Education Factsheet: Internationalisation. Irish Educated, Globally Connected.

153. Finn and Darmody (2017), op. cit.

154. OECD (2018), op. cit., p.228. 

155. HEA (2016), op. cit.

156. OECD (2018), op. cit., p.228.

157. HEA (2016), op. cit.

158. HEA (2017), op cit.

159. OECD (2008), op. cit.

160. Huberts, D. (2016). Analyse stayrate van internationale afgestudeerden: 2007-14. NUFFIC 2016.

161. European Commission (2017), op. cit.

162. See [https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/documenten/rapporten/2016/09/19/make-it-in-the-netherlands] [DOA: 12/03/2019]

163. https://brainporteindhoven.com/ [DOA: 30/03/2019]

164. OECD (2018), op. cit., p. 228.

165. IEE 2018, op. cit.

166. OECD (2008), op. cit., p. 25.

167. European Commission (2015). European Migration Network Synthesis Report for the EMN Focussed Study 2015 Changes in immigration status and purpose of stay: an overview of EU Member States’ approaches, p. 17.

168. de Coning, M.V. and D. Huberts (2016), op. cit.

169. de Coning, M.V. and D. Huberts (2016), op. cit.

170. de Coning, M.V. and D. Huberts (2016), op. cit.

171. https://www.nuffic.nl/en/subjects/stayrates-of-international-graduates/ [accessed 2/05/2019]

172. de Coning, M.V. and D. Huberts (2016), op. cit., p.15.

173.   https://www.nuffic.nl/en/subjects/stayrates-of-international-graduates/ [accessed 2/05/2019]

174. Migrationsverket (2019). EMN study 2018: Attracting and retaining international students in the EU Country Report Sweden, p.40.

175. OECD (2018), op. cit., p.228.

176. IEE 2018, op. cit.

177. Migrationsverket (2019). EMN study 2018: Attracting and retaining international students in the EU - Country Report Sweden, p. 26.

178. Note: The estimated ‘retention rate’ quoted here is calculated on the basis of the share of third-country nationals who were granted a work permit after having had a residence permit for studies. Migrationsverket (2019). EMN study 2018: Attracting and retaining international students in the EU - Country Report Sweden, p.33. 

179. Migrationsverket (2019). EMN study 2018: Attracting and retaining international students in the EU - Country Report Sweden, p.33-34.

180. Migrationsverket (2019). EMN study 2018: Attracting and retaining international students in the EU - Country Report Sweden.

181. Scottish Parliament (2016). Devolution (Further Powers) Committee. Welcome to Scotland? A Report on Post-Study Work Visas. 2nd Report, 2016 (Session 4).

182. European Commission (2015), op. cit., p. 17. 

183. HM Government (2019). International Education Strategy: global potential, global growth. Department for Education and Department for International Trade, March 2019.

184. Universities UK (2018). Parliamentary Briefing: An improved post-study work system. September 2018.

185. Migration Observatory (2018). Non-European Student Migration to the UK. Briefing, October 2018. [https://migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/resources/briefings/non-european-student-migration-to-the-uk/]

186. OECD (2018), op. cit., p.228.

187. IEE 2018, op. cit.

188. Parliament UK: Past and present post-study work routes. [DOA: 15/04/2019] https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201516/cmselect/cmscotaf/593/59305.htm

189. Hobsons EMEA (2015). International Student Survey 2015: Value and the Modern International Student. A survey of 45,543 prospective international students from 210 countries and 207 nationalities, of whom 17,336 (from 199 countries and 193 nationalities) had enquired to UK institutions.

190. UUK (2018), op cit.

191. Hawthorne (2018), op. cit., p. 203. 

192. This category encompasses a number of reasons, e.g. work, family reasons.

193. Migration Observatory (2018), op. cit. 

194. Hawthorne (2018), op cit., p. 203.

195. Universities UK (2011). Universities UK response to ‘The student immigration system – a consultation,’ February 2011.


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