Information

Pesticide usage in Scotland 2016: soft fruit crops – revised 2020

Revised report to correct inaccuracies in active substance application weight data that were overestimated in the original soft fruit crop 2016 report published in 2017.

This document is part of a collection


Appendix 1 – Estimated application tables

Table 1 Percentage of each crop treated with pesticides and mean number of spray applications - 2016

All Strawberry All Raspberry All Blackcurrant All other
soft fruit
All soft fruit
% sp apps % sp apps % sp apps % sp apps % sp apps
Insecticides/acaricides 92 3.0 81 1.6 92 2.4 81 2.5 88 2.6
Molluscicides 20 1.3 <0.5 1.0 0 0.0 9 1.9 12 1.3
Biologicals(1) 43 2.7 16 1.5 0 0.0 34 2.9 30 2.6
Fungicides 94 7.2 87 4.0 87 5.3 51 3.1 86 6.0
Sulphur 18 1.9 10 1.0 68 2.0 1 2.0 23 1.8
Herbicides 52 2.2 72 1.8 91 1.6 53 1.4 62 1.9
Physical control 1 2.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 2.1
Any pesticide 96 11.3 92 6.4 99 8.1 84 5.8 94 9.3

Cont…

Table 1 Percentage of each crop treated with pesticides and mean number of spray applications - 2016 continued

Non-protected
strawberry
Protected
Strawberry
Non-protected
raspberry
Protected raspberry Non-protected
other soft fruit
Protected other soft fruit
% sp apps % sp apps % sp apps % sp apps % sp apps % sp apps
Insecticides/acaricides 2 1.0 99 3.0 52 1.1 >99 1.7 31 1.4 >99 2.6
Molluscicides 2 2.0 21 1.3 0 0.0 <0.5 1.0 0 0.0 12 1.9
Biologicals(1) 0 0.0 47 2.7 0 0.0 26 1.5 0 0.0 46 2.9
Fungicides 38 2.6 99 7.3 69 4.2 99 3.9 37 3.9 56 2.9
Sulphur 0 0.0 20 1.9 26 1.0 0 0.0 2 2.0 1 2.0
Herbicides 25 2.9 54 2.2 81 2.1 67 1.5 36 1.6 59 1.3
Physical control 0 0.0 1 2.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
Any pesticide 41 4.3 >99 11.6 81 6.0 >99 6.6 41 4.9 100 6.0

Note: (1) Biologicals include biopesticides and biological control agents

The average number of spray applications is calculated only on the areas using each pesticide group and therefore the minimum number of applications is always going to be one (see appendix 3 – definitions and notes for details)

Table 2 Strawberry insecticide and acaricide formulations - 2016

Area (ha) and percentage of crop treated

Insecticides/acaricides Non-protected strawberry Protected
Strawberry
All Strawberry 2014(1)
(Ha) (%) (Ha) (%) (Ha) (%) (Ha)
Abamectin 0 0 858 59 858 55 959
Chlorpyrifos 0 0 159 17 159 16 738
Clofentezine 0 0 595 35 595 32 704
Deltamethrin 0 0 165 18 165 17 188
Etoxazole 0 0 162 18 162 16 287
Fenpyroximate 0 0 2 <0.5 2 <0.5 101
Lambda-cyhalothrin 2 2 884 81 886 75 496
Pirimicarb 0 0 88 10 88 9 947
Pymetrozine 0 0 284 29 284 27 416
Pyrethrins 0 0 60 6 60 6 371
Spinosad 0 0 51 6 51 5 70
Spirodiclofen 0 0 37 4 37 4 174
Spiromesifen 0 0 5 1 5 <0.5 64
Tebufenpyrad 0 0 72 8 72 7 32
Thiacloprid 0 0 433 34 433 32 291
All insecticides 2 2 3,856 99 3,858 92 6,186
Area grown 75 920 995 972

(1) For full list of formulations recorded in 2014 please refer to the 2014 report(3)

Table 3 Strawberry biological, molluscicide and physical control formulations - 2016

Area (ha) and percentage of crop treated

Biological control agents Non-protected
Strawberry
Protected
Strawberry
All Strawberry 2014(2)
(Ha) (%) (Ha) (%) (Ha) (%) (Ha)
Heterorhabditis bacteriophora 0 0 113 7 113 6 53
Neoseiulus californicus 0 0 9 <0.5 9 <0.5 0
Neoseiulus cucumeris 0 0 70 3 70 3 138
Phytoseiulus persimilis 0 0 68 7 68 7 29
Steinernema kraussei 0 0 114 12 114 11 125
All biological control agents 0 374 374 379
Biopesticides
Bacillus subtilis 0 0 767 40 767 37 1,509
Beauveria bassiana ATCC - 74040 0 0 6 1 6 1 85
Beauveria bassiana GHA 0 0 7 1 7 1 0
All biopesticides 0 780 780 1,749
All biologicals(1) 0 0 1,154 47 1,154 43 2128
Molluscicides
Ferric phosphate 3 2 56 4 59 4 67
Metaldehyde 0 0 194 17 194 16 260
All molluscicides 3 2 250 21 253 20 395
Physical control
Carbonic acid diamide/urea 0 0 24 1 24 1 325
Area grown 75 920 995 972

(1) All biologicals includes biopesticides and biological control agents

(2) For full list of formulations recorded in 2014 please refer to the 2014 report(3)

Table 4 Strawberry fungicide and sulphur formulations - 2016

Area (ha) and percentage of crop treated

Fungicides Non-protected
Strawberry
Protected
Strawberry
All Strawberry 2014(1)
(Ha) (%) (Ha) (%) (Ha) (%) (Ha)
Azoxystrobin 0 0 1,109 82 1,109 76 1,237
Boscalid/pyraclostrobin 5 7 782 64 788 59 514
Bupirimate 5 7 852 73 857 68 1,181
Chlorothalonil 16 7 0 0 16 1 36
Cyflufenamid 0 0 70 7 70 6 0
Cyprodinil/fludioxonil 2 2 1,199 95 1,201 88 1,191
Dimethomorph 0 0 104 11 104 10 178
Fenamidone/fosetyl-aluminium 5 7 150 16 155 15 91
Fenhexamid 45 38 1,182 84 1,227 81 1,593
Fenpropimorph 12 9 334 19 346 19 536
Iprodione 5 7 1,073 82 1,078 76 1,390
Kresoxim-methyl 0 0 242 21 242 20 699
Mepanipyrim 0 0 54 6 54 5 347
Meptyldinocap 0 0 250 21 250 19 392
Myclobutanil 5 7 1,603 88 1,608 82 2,201
Penconazole 0 0 177 14 177 13 40
Potassium hydrogen carbonate 0 0 217 13 217 12 1,438
Pyrimethanil 8 9 319 32 327 30 539
Quinoxyfen 0 0 768 64 768 60 731
All fungicides 109 38 10,483 99 10,593 94 15,655
Sulphur 0 0 339 20 339 18 1,307
Area grown 75 920 995 972

(1) For full list of formulations recorded in 2014 please refer to the 2014 report(3)

Table 5 Strawberry herbicide formulations - 2016

Area (ha) and percentage of crop treated

Herbicides Non-protected
Strawberry
Protected
Strawberry
All Strawberry 2014(1)
(Ha) (%) (Ha) (%) (Ha) (%) (Ha)
Carfentrazone-ethyl 0 0 103 11 103 10 0
Clopyralid 10 7 23 3 34 3 0
Cycloxydim 5 7 0 0 5 1 1
Diquat 1 1 828 40 828 37 1,507
Glufosinate-ammonium 0 0 73 6 73 6 686
Glyphosate 0 0 85 8 85 7 56
Isoxaben 17 22 324 33 341 32 88
Lenacil 2 2 0 0 2 <0.5 43
Metamitron 5 7 23 3 29 3 60
Napropamide 17 22 383 39 400 38 163
Pendimethalin 2 2 0 0 2 <0.5 21
Phenmedipham 5 2 0 0 5 <0.5 5
Propyzamide 5 7 90 9 96 9 37
All herbicides 68 25 1,933 54 2,001 52 2,671
Area grown 75 920 995 972

(1) For full list of formulations recorded in 2014 please refer to the 2014 report(3)

Table 6 Raspberry insecticide and acaricide formulations - 2016

Area (ha) and percentage of crop treated

Insecticides/acaricides Non-protected
raspberry
Protected
raspberry
All
raspberry
2014(1)
(Ha) (%) (Ha) (%) (Ha) (%) (Ha)
Abamectin 0 0 152 73 152 44 280
Chlorpyrifos 3 2 33 16 36 11 281
Clofentezine 0 0 6 3 6 2 251
Deltamethrin 67 50 27 14 94 28 12
Lambda-cyhalothrin 3 2 28 14 31 10 32
Pyrethrins 0 0 5 2 5 1 18
Tebufenpyrad 0 0 6 3 6 2 0
Thiacloprid 3 2 113 53 116 33 94
All insecticides/acaricides 77 52 370 >99 446 81 1,184
Area grown 131 199 329 314

(1) For full list of formulations recorded in 2014 please refer to the 2014 report(3)

Table 7 Raspberry biological and molluscicide formulations - 2016

Area (ha) and percentage of crop treated

Biological control agents Non-protected
raspberry
Protected
raspberry
All
raspberry
2014(2)
(Ha) (%) (Ha) (%) (Ha) (%) (Ha)
Neoseiulus californicus 0 0 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 0
Phytoseiulus persimilis 0 0 3 1 3 1 0
Steinernema kraussei 0 0 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 29
All biological agents 0 3 3 45
Biopesticides
Bacillus subtilis 0 0 64 24 64 15 0
Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki 0 0 7 4 7 2 0
All biopesticides 0 72 72 8
All biologicals(1) 0 0 75 26 75 16 53
Molluscicides
Ferric phosphate 0 0 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 0
All molluscicides 0 0 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 12
Area grown 131 199 329 314

(1) All biologicals includes biopesticides and biological control agents

(2) For full list of formulations recorded in 2014 please refer to the 2014 report(3)

Table 8 Raspberry fungicide and sulphur formulations - 2016

Area (ha) and percentage of crop treated

Fungicides Non-protected
raspberry
Protected
raspberry
All
raspberry
2014(1)
(Ha) (%) (Ha) (%) (Ha) (%) (Ha)
Azoxystrobin 6 2 51 24 57 15 146
Boscalid/pyraclostrobin 26 19 152 77 179 54 20
Bupirimate 29 22 0 0 29 9 15
Cyprodinil/fludioxonil 78 43 158 75 236 62 195
Dimethomorph 63 48 61 31 124 38 36
Fenhexamid 161 51 189 77 351 66 320
Fenpropimorph 0 0 7 4 7 2 24
Fluazinam 0 0 33 16 33 10 6
Iprodione 40 28 69 24 109 26 15
Myclobutanil 34 26 35 18 69 21 0
Pyrimethanil 34 26 46 22 80 24 62
Tebuconazole 35 25 13 4 48 12 17
All fungicides 507 69 815 99 1,322 87 856
Sulphur 34 26 0 0 34 10
Area grown 131 199 329 314

(1) For full list of formulations recorded in 2014 please refer to the 2014 report(3)

Table 9 Raspberry herbicide formulations - 2016

Area (ha) and percentage of crop treated

Herbicides Non-protected
raspberry
Protected
raspberry
All
raspberry
2014(1)
(Ha) (%) (Ha) (%) (Ha) (%) (Ha)
Carfentrazone-ethyl 37 28 78 39 115 35 105
Diquat 122 81 79 40 201 56 128
Fluazifop-P-butyl 34 26 0 0 34 10 12
Glyphosate 0 0 15 8 15 5 29
Isoxaben 79 61 33 16 112 34 52
Lenacil 1 1 4 2 5 2 1
Napropamide 29 22 64 32 94 28 26
Pendimethalin 68 52 0 0 68 21 39
Propyzamide 44 34 32 16 76 23 3
All herbicides 414 81 305 67 719 72 434
Area grown 131 199 329 314

(1) For full list of formulations recorded in 2014 please refer to the 2014 report(3)

Table 10 Blackcurrant insecticide and acaricide formulations - 2016

Area (ha) and percentage of crop treated

Insecticides/acaricides Blackcurrants 2014(1)
(Ha) (%) (Ha)
Deltamethrin 1 <0.5 0
Lambda-cyhalothrin 387 68 435
Spinosad 57 19 0
Spirotetramat 153 27 67
Thiacloprid 345 72 279
All insecticides/acaricides 943 92 1,656
Area grown 304 341

(1) For full list of formulations recorded in 2014 please refer to the 2014 report(3)

Note: no biologicals were recorded on blackcurrants

Table 11 Blackcurrant fungicide and sulphur formulations - 2016

Area (ha) and percentage of crop treated

Fungicides Blackcurrants 2014(1)
(Ha) (%) (Ha)
Boscalid/pyraclostrobin 200 66 485
Chlorothalonil <0.5 <0.5 47
Copper oxychloride 2 <0.5 0
Cyprodinil/fludioxonil 198 65 355
Dodine 1 <0.5 0
Fenhexamid 84 28 188
Fenpropimorph 3 <0.5 5
Kresoxim-methyl 397 67 84
Myclobutanil 518 87 387
Penconazole 3 <0.5 0
Pyrimethanil 53 17 105
All fungicides 1,459 87 1,667
Sulphur 402 68 633
Area grown 304 341

(1) For full list of formulations recorded in 2014 please refer to the 2014 report(3)

Table 12 Blackcurrant herbicide formulations - 2016

Area (ha) and percentage of crop treated

Herbicides Blackcurrants 2014(1)
(Ha) (%) (Ha)
Diquat 268 63 304
Flufenacet/metribuzin 191 63 301
Glyphosate 107 34 42
Isoxaben 143 47 2
Napropamide 1 <0.5 1
Pendimethalin 256 84 303
Propyzamide 1 <0.5 5
All herbicides 968 91 982
Area grown 304 341

(1) For full list of formulations recorded in 2014 please refer to the 2014 report(3)

Table 13 Other soft fruit insecticide, molluscicide and biological formulations - 2016

Area (ha) and percentage of crop treated

Insecticides/acaricides Non-protected other soft fruit Protected other soft fruit All other soft fruit crops 2014(1)
(Ha) (%) (Ha) (%) (Ha) (%) (Ha)
Abamectin 0 0 25 14 25 10 7
Deltamethrin 13 9 0 0 13 3 1
Lambda-cyhalothrin 5 5 52 29 57 22 57
Pyrethrins 0 0 125 39 125 28 109
Spinosad 0 0 7 4 7 3 0
Thiacloprid 11 17 257 93 268 72 155
All insecticides/acaricides 29 31 465 >99 494 81 410
Molluscicides
Ferric phosphate 0 0 40 12 40 9 1
All molluscicides 0 0 40 12 40 9 4
Biological control agents
Aphidoletes aphidimyza 0 0 23 12 23 9 0
Heterorhabditis bacteriophora 0 0 136 39 136 29 0
Parasitic wasps 0 0 25 7 25 5 0
Steinernema kraussei 0 0 61 19 61 14 42
All biological agents 0 0 245 46 245 34 42
Area grown 68 180 248 172

(1) For full list of formulations recorded in 2014 please refer to the 2014 report(3)

Table 14 Other soft fruit fungicide and sulphur formulations - 2016

Area (ha) and percentage of crop treated

Fungicides Non-protected other soft fruit Protected other soft fruit All other soft fruit crops 2014(1)
(Ha) (%) (Ha) (%) (Ha) (%) (Ha)
Azoxystrobin 0 0 28 15 28 11 12
Boscalid/pyraclostrobin 14 11 29 15 42 14 6
Bupirimate 4 6 0 0 4 2 28
Copper oxychloride 2 2 4 1 6 1 4
Cyprodinil/fludioxonil 4 6 151 56 155 42 137
Fenhexamid 15 22 28 15 42 17 50
Fenpropimorph 23 16 0 0 23 4 27
Myclobutanil 26 23 0 0 26 6 42
Penconazole 14 10 0 0 14 3 0
Pyrimethanil 14 10 50 28 64 23 4
Quinoxyfen 9 6 0 0 9 2 13
All fungicides 125 37 289 56 414 51 327
Sulphur 2 2 4 1 6 1 4
Area grown 68 180 248 172

(1) For full list of formulations recorded in 2014 please refer to the 2014 report(3)

Table 15 Other soft fruit herbicide formulations - 2016

Area (ha) and percentage of crop treated

Herbicides Non-protected other soft fruit Protected other soft fruit All other soft fruit crops 2014(1)
(Ha) (%) (Ha) (%) (Ha) (%) (Ha)
Diquat 22 32 85 47 107 43 63
Flufenacet/metribuzin 13 19 2 1 15 6 2
Glyphosate 0 0 55 12 55 9 9
Isoxaben 11 17 2 1 13 5 3
Napropamide 8 12 52 29 60 24 45
Pendimethalin 10 15 0 0 10 4 1
Propyzamide 9 13 2 1 10 4 17
All herbicides 72 36 197 59 270 53 158
Area grown 68 180 248 172

(1) For full list of formulations recorded in 2014 please refer to the 2014 report(3)

Table 16 Strawberry insecticide and acaricide active substances - 2016

Area (ha), Quantity (kg) and percentage of crop treated

Insecticides/acaricides Non-protected
strawberry
Protected
strawberry
All
strawberry
(Ha) (%) (Kg) (Ha) (%) (Kg) (Ha) (%) (Kg)
Abamectin 0 0 0 858 59 6 858 55 6
Chlorpyrifos 0 0 0 159 17 75 159 16 75
Clofentezine 0 0 0 595 35 76 595 32 76
Deltamethrin 0 0 0 165 18 1 165 17 1
Etoxazole 0 0 0 162 18 5 162 16 5
Fenpyroximate 0 0 0 2 <0.5 <0.5 2 <0.5 <0.5
Lambda-cyhalothrin 2 2 <0.5 884 81 8 886 75 8
Pirimicarb 0 0 0 88 10 25 88 9 25
Pymetrozine 0 0 0 284 29 57 284 27 57
Pyrethrins 0 0 0 60 6 3 60 6 3
Spinosad 0 0 0 51 6 4 51 5 4
Spirodiclofen 0 0 0 37 4 1 37 4 1
Spiromesifen 0 0 0 5 1 1 5 <0.5 1
Tebufenpyrad 0 0 0 72 8 9 72 7 9
Thiacloprid 0 0 0 433 34 52 433 32 52
All insecticides/acaricides 2 2 <0.5 3,856 99 322 3,858 92 322
Area grown 75 920 995

Table 17 Strawberry biological, molluscicide and physical control active substances - 2016

Area (ha), Quantity (kg) and percentage of crop treated

Biological control agents Non-protected
strawberry
Protected
strawberry
All
strawberry
(Ha) (%) (Kg) (Ha) (%) (Kg) (Ha) (%) (Kg)
Heterorhabditis bacteriophora 0 0 NA 113 7 NA 113 6 NA
Neoseiulus californicus 0 0 NA 9 <0.5 NA 9 <0.5 NA
Neoseiulus cucumeris 0 0 NA 70 3 NA 70 3 NA
Phytoseiulus persimilis 0 0 NA 68 7 NA 68 7 NA
Steinernema kraussei 0 0 NA 114 12 NA 114 11 NA
All biological agents 0 NA 374 NA 374 NA
Biopesticides
Bacillus subtilis 0 0 0 767 40 62 767 37 62
Beauveria bassiana ATCC - 74040 0 0 0 6 1 1 6 1 1
Beauveria bassiana GHA 0 0 0 7 1 1 7 1 1
All biopesticides 0 0 780 64 780 64
All biologicals(1) 0 0 0 1,154 47 421 1,154 43 421
Molluscicides
Ferric phosphate 3 2 1 56 4 12 59 4 12
Metaldehyde 0 0 0 194 17 47 194 16 47
All molluscicides 3 2 1 250 21 59 253 20 59
Physical control
Carbonic acid diamide/urea 0 0 0 24 1 47 24 1 47
Area grown 75 920 995

(1) All biologicals includes biopesticides and biological control agents. NA = not applicable

Note: invertebrate biological control agents are applied by number of organisms rather than weight therefore data are not presented

Table 18 Strawberry fungicide and sulphur active substances - 2016

Area (ha), Quantity (kg) and percentage of crop treated

Fungicides Non-protected
strawberry
Protected
strawberry
All
strawberry
(Ha) (%) (Kg) (Ha) (%) (Kg) (Ha) (%) (Kg)
Azoxystrobin 0 0 0 1,109 82 276 1,109 76 276
Boscalid 5 7 2 782 64 264 788 59 266
Bupirimate 5 7 2 852 73 295 857 68 297
Chlorothalonil 16 7 16 0 0 0 16 1 16
Cyflufenamid 0 0 0 70 7 1 70 6 1
Cyprodinil 2 2 <0.5 1,199 95 448 1,201 88 448
Dimethomorph 0 0 0 104 11 155 104 10 155
Fenamidone 5 7 <0.5 150 16 36 155 15 36
Fenhexamid 45 38 27 1,182 84 864 1,227 81 891
Fenpropimorph 12 9 8 334 19 242 346 19 251
Fludioxonil 2 2 <0.5 1,199 95 299 1,201 88 299
Fosetyl-aluminium 5 7 5 150 16 358 155 15 363
Iprodione 5 7 4 1,073 82 791 1,078 76 795
Kresoxim-methyl 0 0 0 242 21 36 242 20 36
Mepanipyrim 0 0 0 54 6 22 54 5 22
Meptyldinocap 0 0 0 250 21 52 250 19 52
Myclobutanil 5 7 <0.5 1,603 88 133 1,608 82 133

Cont…

Table 18 Strawberry fungicide and sulphur active substances - 2016 continued

Area (ha), Quantity (kg) and percentage of crop treated

Fungicides Non-protected
strawberry
Protected
strawberry
All
strawberry
(Ha) (%) (Kg) (Ha) (%) (Kg) (Ha) (%) (Kg)
Penconazole 0 0 0 177 14 8 177 13 8
Potassium hydrogen carbonate 0 0 0 217 13 935 217 12 935
Pyraclostrobin 5 7 1 782 64 66 788 59 67
Pyrimethanil 8 9 6 319 32 232 327 30 238
Quinoxyfen 0 0 0 768 64 96 768 60 96
All fungicides 122 38 72 12,615 99 5,611 12,736 94 5,682
Sulphur 0 0 0 339 20 185 339 18 185
Area grown 75 920 995

Table 19 Strawberry herbicide active substances - 2016

Area (ha), Quantity (kg) and percentage of crop treated

Herbicides Non-protected
strawberry
Protected
strawberry
All
strawberry
(Ha) (%) (Kg) (Ha) (%) (Kg) (Ha) (%) (Kg)
Carfentrazone-ethyl 0 0 0 103 11 2 103 10 2
Clopyralid 10 7 2 23 3 2 34 3 4
Cycloxydim 5 7 2 0 0 0 5 1 2
Diquat 1 1 <0.5 828 40 244 828 37 244
Glufosinate-ammonium 0 0 0 73 6 45 73 6 45
Glyphosate 0 0 0 85 8 110 85 7 110
Isoxaben 17 22 1 324 33 17 341 32 18
Lenacil 2 2 2 0 0 0 2 <0.5 2
Metamitron 5 7 18 23 3 24 29 3 43
Napropamide 17 22 21 383 39 431 400 38 452
Pendimethalin 2 2 1 0 0 0 2 <0.5 1
Phenmedipham 5 2 2 0 0 0 5 <0.5 2
Propyzamide 5 7 4 90 9 72 96 9 76
All herbicides 68 25 54 1,933 54 946 2,001 52 1,000
Area grown 75 920 995

Table 20 Raspberry insecticide and acaricide active substances - 2016

Area (ha), Quantity (kg) and percentage of crop treated

Insecticides/acaricides Non-protected
raspberry
Protected
raspberry
All
raspberry
(Ha) (%) (Kg) (Ha) (%) (Kg) (Ha) (%) (Kg)
Abamectin 0 0 0 152 73 1 152 44 1
Chlorpyrifos 3 2 2 33 16 16 36 11 18
Clofentezine 0 0 0 6 3 1 6 2 1
Deltamethrin 67 50 1 27 14 <0.5 94 28 1
Lambda-cyhalothrin 3 2 <0.5 28 14 <0.5 31 10 <0.5
Pyrethrins 0 0 0 5 2 <0.5 5 1 <0.5
Tebufenpyrad 0 0 0 6 3 <0.5 6 2 <0.5
Thiacloprid 3 2 <0.5 113 53 14 116 33 14
All insecticides/acaricides 77 52 3 370 >99 33 446 81 36
Area grown 131 199 329

Table 21 Raspberry biological and molluscicide active substances - 2016

Area (ha), Quantity (kg) and percentage of crop treated

Biological control agents Non-protected
raspberry
Protected
raspberry
All
raspberry
(Ha) (%) (Kg) (Ha) (%) (Kg) (Ha) (%) (Kg)
Neoseiulus californicus 0 0 NA <0.5 <0.5 NA <0.5 <0.5 NA
Phytoseiulus persimilis 0 0 NA 3 1 NA 3 1 NA
Steinernema kraussei 0 0 NA <0.5 <0.5 NA <0.5 <0.5 NA
All biological agents 0 NA 3 NA 3 NA
Biopesticides
Bacillus subtilis 0 0 0 64 24 7 64 15 7
Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki 0 0 0 7 4 0 7 2 <0.5
All biopesticides 0 0 72 7 72 7
All biologicals(1) 0 0 75 26 75 16
Molluscicides
Ferric phosphate 0 0 0 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5
Area grown 131 199 329

(1) All biologicals includes biopesticides and biological control agents

Note: invertebrate biological control agents are applied by number of organisms rather than weight therefore data are not presented

NA = not applicable

Table 22 Raspberry fungicide and sulphur active substances - 2016

Area (ha), Quantity (kg) and percentage of crop treated

Fungicides Non-protected raspberry Protected
raspberry
All
raspberry
(Ha) (%) (Kg) (Ha) (%) (Kg) (Ha) (%) (Kg)
Azoxystrobin 6 2 2 51 24 13 57 15 14
Boscalid 26 19 10 152 77 51 179 54 61
Bupirimate 29 22 7 0 0 0 29 9 7
Cyprodinil 78 43 23 158 75 59 236 62 82
Dimethomorph 63 48 65 61 31 92 124 38 157
Fenhexamid 161 51 90 189 77 138 351 66 228
Fenpropimorph 0 0 0 7 4 5 7 2 5
Fluazinam 0 0 0 33 16 25 33 10 25
Fludioxonil 78 43 15 158 75 39 236 62 55
Iprodione 40 28 30 69 24 51 109 26 81
Myclobutanil 34 26 3 35 18 2 69 21 5
Pyraclostrobin 26 19 2 152 77 13 179 54 15
Pyrimethanil 34 26 14 46 22 15 80 24 28
Tebuconazole 35 25 6 13 4 3 48 12 8
All fungicides 612 69 267 1,125 99 505 1,737 87 772
Sulphur 34 26 270 0 0 0 34 10 270
Area grown 131 199 329

Table 23 Raspberry herbicide active substances - 2016

Area (ha), Quantity (kg) and percentage of crop treated

Herbicides Non-protected
raspberry
Protected
raspberry
All
raspberry
(Ha) (%) (Kg) (Ha) (%) (Kg) (Ha) (%) (Kg)
Carfentrazone-ethyl 37 28 <0.5 78 39 1 115 35 2
Diquat 122 81 30 79 40 13 201 56 42
Fluazifop-P-butyl 34 26 4 0 0 0 34 10 4
Glyphosate 0 0 0 15 8 19 15 5 19
Isoxaben 79 61 11 33 16 1 112 34 12
Lenacil 1 1 1 4 2 5 5 2 6
Napropamide 29 22 33 64 32 85 94 28 118
Pendimethalin 68 52 62 0 0 0 68 21 62
Propyzamide 44 34 20 32 16 15 76 23 35
All herbicides 414 81 161 305 67 140 719 72 301
Area grown 131 199 329

Table 24 Blackcurrant insecticide active substances - 2016

Area (ha), Quantity (kg) and percentage of crop treated

Insecticides/acaricides Blackcurrants
(Ha) (%) (Kg)
Deltamethrin 1 <0.5 <0.5
Lambda-cyhalothrin 387 68 4
Spinosad 57 19 5
Spirotetramat 153 27 11
Thiacloprid 345 72 41
All insecticides/acaricides 943 92 62
Area grown 304

Table 25 Blackcurrant fungicide and sulphur active substances - 2016

Area (ha), Quantity (kg) and percentage of crop treated

Fungicides Blackcurrants
(Ha) (%) (Kg)
Boscalid 200 66 80
Chlorothalonil <0.5 <0.5 <0.5
Copper oxychloride 2 <0.5 2
Cyprodinil 198 65 74
Dodine 1 <0.5 1
Fenhexamid 84 28 62
Fenpropimorph 3 <0.5 2
Fludioxonil 198 65 49
Kresoxim-methyl 397 67 40
Myclobutanil 518 87 40
Penconazole 3 <0.5 <0.5
Pyraclostrobin 200 66 20
Pyrimethanil 53 17 41
All fungicides 1,856 87 412
Sulphur(1) 402 68 3,207
Area grown 304

(1) Sulphur can be used on blackcurrants as an insecticide to control big bud mite. Sulphur can also be used as a fungicide or as a foliar fertiliser

Table 26 Blackcurrant herbicide active substances - 2016

Area (ha), Quantity (kg) and percentage of crop treated

Herbicides Blackcurrants
(Ha) (%) (Kg)
Diquat 268 63 46
Flufenacet 191 63 47
Glyphosate 107 34 93
Isoxaben 143 47 16
Metribuzin 191 63 34
Napropamide 1 <0.5 1
Pendimethalin 256 84 137
Propyzamide 1 <0.5 1
All herbicides 1,159 91 375
Area grown 304

Table 27 Other soft fruit insecticide, molluscicide and biological active substances - 2016

Area (ha), Quantity (kg) and percentage of crop treated

Insecticides/acaricides Non-protected
other soft fruit
Protected
other soft fruit
All
other soft fruit
(Ha) (%) (Kg) (Ha) (%) (Kg) (Ha) (%) (Kg)
Abamectin 0 0 0 25 14 <0.5 25 10 <0.5
Deltamethrin 13 9 <0.5 0 0 0 13 3 <0.5
Lambda-cyhalothrin 5 5 <0.5 52 29 <0.5 57 22 <0.5
Pyrethrins 0 0 0 125 39 8 125 28 8
Spinosad 0 0 0 7 4 1 7 3 1
Thiacloprid 11 17 1 257 93 31 268 72 32
All insecticides/acaricides 29 31 2 465 <100 40 494 81 42
Molluscicides
Ferric phosphate 0 0 0 40 12 8 40 9 8
Biological control agents
Aphidoletes aphidimyza 0 0 NA 23 12 NA 23 9 NA
Heterorhabditis bacteriophora 0 0 NA 136 39 NA 136 29 NA
Parasitic wasps 0 0 NA 25 7 NA 25 5 NA
Steinernema kraussei 0 0 NA 61 19 NA 61 14 NA
All biological agents 0 NA 245 NA 245 NA
Area grown 68 180 248

Note: invertebrate biological control agents are applied by number of organisms rather than weight therefore data are not presented

NA = not applicable

Table 28 Other soft fruit fungicide and sulphur active substances - 2016

Area (ha), Quantity (kg) and percentage of crop treated

Fungicides Non-protected
other soft fruit
Protected
other soft fruit
All
other soft fruit
(Ha) (%) (Kg) (Ha) (%) (Kg) (Ha) (%) (Kg)
Azoxystrobin 0 0 0 28 15 7 28 11 7
Boscalid 14 11 3 29 15 10 42 14 13
Bupirimate 4 6 2 0 0 0 4 2 2
Copper oxychloride 2 2 2 4 1 4 6 1 6
Cyprodinil 4 6 2 151 56 40 155 42 42
Fenhexamid 15 22 8 28 15 21 42 17 29
Fenpropimorph 23 16 14 0 0 0 23 4 14
Fludioxonil 4 6 1 151 56 27 155 42 28
Myclobutanil 26 23 1 0 0 0 26 6 1
Penconazole 14 10 <0.5 0 0 0 14 3 <0.5
Pyraclostrobin 14 11 1 29 15 2 42 14 3
Pyrimethanil 14 10 3 50 28 40 64 23 43
Quinoxyfen 9 6 1 0 0 0 9 2 1
All fungicides 143 37 41 468 56 150 611 51 189
Sulphur 2 2 9 4 1 15 6 1 25
Area grown 68 180 248

Table 29 Other soft fruit herbicide active substances - 2016

Area (ha), Quantity (kg) and percentage of crop treated

Herbicides Non-protected
other soft fruit
Protected
other soft fruit
All
other soft fruit
(Ha) (%) (Kg) (Ha) (%) (Kg) (Ha) (%) (Kg)
Diquat 22 32 5 85 47 13 107 43 19
Flufenacet 13 19 5 2 1 <0.5 15 6 5
Glyphosate 0 0 0 55 12 55 55 9 55
Isoxaben 11 17 2 2 1 <0.5 13 5 2
Metribuzin 13 19 3 2 1 <0.5 15 6 4
Napropamide 8 12 8 52 29 60 60 24 68
Pendimethalin 10 15 5 0 0 0 10 4 5
Propyzamide 9 13 4 2 1 1 10 4 4
All herbicides 85 36 32 199 59 130 284 53 162
Area grown 68 180 248

Table 30 Mode of action/chemical group of insecticide active substances - 2016

Area (ha) and quantity (kg) of active substances for all crops

Mode of Action Active substances Chemical Group IRAC Group Total
Soft Fruit
(Ha) (Kg)
Acetylcholinesterase (Ache) inhibitors Pirimicarb Carbamate 1A 88 25
Chlorpyrifos Organophosphate 1B 195 92
All Ache inhibitors 283 117
Sodium channel modulators Deltamethrin Pyrethroid 3A 273 2
Lambda-Cyhalothrin Pyrethroid 3A 1,360 13
Pyrethrins Pyrethrin 3A 190 12
All sodium channel modulators 1,823 26
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (naAChR) competitive modulators Thiacloprid Neonicotinoid 4A 1,163 140
All naAChR competitive modulators 1,163 140
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (naAChR) allosteric modulators Spinosad Spinosyns 5 115 10
All naAChR allosteric modulators 115 10
Glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) allosteric modulators Abamectin Avermectins 6 1,035 7
All GluCl allosteric modulators 1,035 7
Chordotonal organ TRPV channel modulators Pymetrozine Pyridine azomethine derivatives 9B 284 57
All chordotonal organ TRPV channel modulators 284 57

Cont …

Table 30 Mode of action/chemical group of insecticide active substances - 2016 continued

Area (ha) and quantity (kg) of active substances for all crops

Mode of Action Active substances Chemical Group IRAC Group Total
Soft Fruit
(Ha) (Kg)
Mite growth inhibitors Clofentezine Tetrazine 10A 601 77
Etoxazole Etoxazole 10B 162 5
All mite growth inhibitors 763 82
Mitochondrial complex I electron transport inhibitors Fenpyroximate METI acaricides/insecticides 21A 2 0
Tebufenpyrad METI acaricides/insecticides 21A 78 9
All mitochondrial complex I electron transport inhibitors 80 9
Inhibitors of acetyl CoA carboxylase Spirotetramat Tetramic acid 23 153 11
Spirodiclofen Tetronic acid 23 37 1
Spiromesifen Tetronic acid 23 5 1
All Inhibitors of acetyl CoA carboxylase 195 13
All insecticides 5,741 461
Area grown 1,876

Note: Active substances have been grouped by their mode of action. Full details on mode of action classification can be found on the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) webpage(7).

Table 31 Mode of action/chemical group of fungicide active substances - 2016

Area (ha) and quantity (kg) of active substances for all crops

Mode of action Active substance Group name Chemical Group FRAC Group Total
Soft Fruit
(Ha) (Kg)
Amino acids and protein synthesis Cyprodinil Anilino - pyrimidine Anilino - pyrimidine 9 1,789 646
Mepanipyrim Anilino - pyrimidine Anilino - pyrimidine 9 54 22
Pyrimethanil Anilino - pyrimidine Anilino - pyrimidine 9 524 350
All amino acids and protein synthesis 2,368 1,018
Cell wall biosynthesis Dimethomorph Carboxylic acid amide Morpholine/cinamic acid amides 40 228 312
All cell wall biosynthesis 228 312
Multi-site contact activity Chlorothalonil Chloronitriles Chloronitriles M5 16 16
Copper oxychloride Inorganic Inorganic M1 8 8
All multi-site contact activity 25 24
Not classified Potassium hydrogen carbonate Diverse Diverse NC 217 935
All not classified 217 935
Nucleic acids synthesis Bupirimate Hydroxy-(2-amino-) pyrimidines Hydroxy-(2-amino-) pyrimidines 8 891 306
All nucleic acids synthesis 891 306
Boscalid SDHI Pyridine-carboxamides 7 1,208 419
Azoxystrobin Qo inhibitor Methoxy-acrylates 11 1,194 297
Fenamidone Qo inhibitor Imidazolinones 11 155 36
Kresoxim-methyl Qo inhibitor Oximino-acetates 11 639 76

Cont…

Table 31 Mode of action/chemical group of fungicide active substances - 2016 continued

Area (ha) and quantity (kg) of active substances for all crops

Mode of action Active substance Group name Chemical Group FRAC Group Total
Soft Fruit
(Ha) (Kg)
Respiration Pyraclostrobin Qo inhibitor Methoxy-carbamates 11 1,208 105
Fluazinam 2,6-dinitro-anilines 29 33 25
Meptyldinocap Dinitrophenyl crotonates 29 250 52
All respiration 4,687 1,011
Signal transduction Iprodione Dicarboximide Dicarboximide 2 1,187 876
Fludioxonil Phenylpyrroles Phenylpyrroles 12 1,789 431
Quinoxyfen Azanaphthalenes Aryloxyquinoline 13 777 97
All signal transduction 3,753 1,404
Sterol biosynthesis in membranes Myclobutanil DeMethylation inhibitor Triazole 3 2,221 180
Penconazole DeMethylation inhibitor Triazole 3 193 9
Tebuconazole DeMethylation inhibitor Triazole 3 48 8
Fenpropimorph Morpholine Morpholine 5 379 273
Fenhexamid (SBI: Class III) Hydroxyanilides 17 1,704 1,211
All sterol biosynthesis in membranes 4,547 1,681
Unknown mode of action Cyflufenamid Phenyl-acetamide Phenyl-acetamide U6 70 1
Dodine Guanidines Guanidines U12 1 1
Fosetyl-aluminium Phosphonates Ethyl phosphonates 33 155 363
All unknown mode of action 226 365
All fungicides 16,940 7,055
Sulphur 781 3,687
Area grown 1,876

Note: Active substances have been grouped by their mode of action. Full details on mode of action classification can be found on the Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) webpage(8).

Table 32 Mode of action/chemical group of herbicide active substances - 2016

Area (ha) and quantity (kg) of active substances for all crops

Mode of Action Active substances Chemical Group HRAC Group Total
Soft Fruit
(Ha) (Kg)
Inhibition of acetyl CoA carboxylase Cycloxydim Cyclohexanedione A 5 2
Fluazifop-P-Butyl Aryloxyphenoxy-propionate A 34 4
All inhibition of acetyl CoA carboxylase 39 7
Inhibition of photosynthesis at photosystem II Lenacil Uracil C1 7 7
Metamitron Triazinone C1 29 43
Metribuzin Triazinone C1 205 38
Phenmedipham Phenyl-carbamate C1 5 2
All inhibition of photosynthesis at photosystem II 245 90
Photosystem-I-electron diversion Diquat Bibyridylium D 1,404 351
All photosystem-I-electron diversion 1,404 351
Inhibition of protoporphyrinogen oxidase Carfentrazone-Ethyl Triazolinone E 218 4
All Inhibition of protoporphyrinogen oxidase 218 4
Inhibition of EPSP synthase Glyphosate Glycine G 262 277
All inhibition of EPSP synthase 262 277
Inhibition of glutamine synthetase Glufosinate-Ammonium Phosphinic acid H 73 45
All inhibition of glutamine synthetase 73 45
Microtubule assembly inhibition Pendimethalin Dinitroaniline K1 336 206
Propyzamide Benzamide K1 183 115
All microtubule assembly inhibition 519 321

Cont…

Table 32 Mode of action/chemical group of herbicide active substances - 2016 continued

Area (ha) and quantity (kg) of active substances for all crops

Mode of Action Active substances Chemical Group HRAC Group Total
Soft Fruit
(Ha) (Kg)
Inhibition of VLCFAs Flufenacet Oxyacetamide K3 205 52
Napropamide Acetamide K3 555 640
All inhibition of VLCFAs 760 692
Inhibition of cell wall synthesis Isoxaben Benzamide L 609 47
All inhibition of cell wall synthesis 609 47
Action like indole acetic acid Clopyralid Pyridine carboxylic acid O 34 4
All action like indole acetic acid 34 4
All herbicides 4,163 1,837
Area grown 1,876

Note: Active substances have been grouped by their mode of action. Full details on mode of action classification can be found on the Herbicide Resistance Action Committee (HRAC) webpage(9).

Table 33 Principal active substance by area - 2016

Area (ha) treated with the 20 most used active substances on all soft fruit crops surveyed

Active substance Type(1) 2016 2014 % change
1 Myclobutanil F 2,221 2,630 -16
2 Fludioxonil F 1,789 1,878 -5
3 Cyprodinil F 1,789 1,878 -5
4 Fenhexamid F 1,704 2,151 -21
5 Diquat H 1,404 2,001 -30
6 Lambda-cyhalothrin I 1,360 1,020 33
7 Pyraclostrobin F 1,208 1,024 18
8 Boscalid F 1,208 1,024 18
9 Azoxystrobin F 1,194 1,395 -14
10 Iprodione F 1,187 1,405 -16
11 Thiacloprid I 1,163 820 42
12 Abamectin I 1,035 1,246 -17
13 Bupirimate F 891 1,235 -28
14 Bacillus subtilis BP 831 1,509 -45
15 Sulphur SU 781 1,964 -60
16 Quinoxyfen F 777 746 4
17 Kresoxim-methyl F 639 783 -18
18 Isoxaben H 609 145 319
19 Clofentezine I 601 956 -37
20 Napropamide H 555 235 136

(1) Pesticide type = BP: Biopesticide, F: Fungicide, H: Herbicide, I: Insecticide/acaricide,

SU: Sulphur

Table 34 Principal active substance by weight - 2016

Quantity (kg) of the 20 most used active substances on all soft fruit crops surveyed

Active substance Type(1) 2016 2014 % change
1 Sulphur SU 3,687 5,913 -38
2 Fenhexamid F 1,211 1,446 -16
3 Potassium Hydrogen Carbonate F 935 4,511 -79
4 Iprodione F 876 1,051 -17
5 Cyprodinil F 646 688 -6
6 Napropamide H 640 293 119
7 Fludioxonil F 431 459 -6
8 Boscalid F 419 385 9
9 Fosetyl-Aluminium F 363 215 69
10 Diquat H 351 751 -53
11 Pyrimethanil F 350 496 -29
12 Dimethomorph F 312 266 17
13 Bupirimate F 306 408 -25
14 Azoxystrobin F 297 344 -14
15 Glyphosate H 277 158 75
16 Fenpropimorph F 273 365 -25
17 Pendimethalin H 206 291 -29
18 Myclobutanil F 180 220 -18
19 Thiacloprid I 140 100 40
20 Propyzamide H 115 37 213

(1) Pesticide type = F: Fungicide, H: Herbicide, I: Insecticide, SU: Sulphur

Table 35 Pesticides encountered in the soft fruit survey for the first time in 2016

Active substance Type(1) Area treated (ha) Amount used (kg)
Cyflufenamid F 70 1
Aphidoletes aphidimyza B 23 N/A
Neoseiulus californicus B 10 N/A
Beauveria bassiana GHA BP 7 1

(1) Pesticide type = B: Biological control agent, BP: Biopesticide, F: Fungicide

N/A = arthropod biological control agents are applied by number of organisms

rather than weight therefore data are not presented

Table 36 Total soft fruit crop, comparison with previous years

Pesticide usage 2016, 2014 & 2011/12(1), total pesticide treated area (ha) of formulations, active substances (a.s.) and quantities used (kg)

2011/12(1) 2014 2016
Formulations
(ha)
a.s.
(ha)
kg Formulations
(ha)
a.s.
(ha)
kg Formulations
(ha)
a.s.
(ha)
kg
Insecticides/acaracides 7,744 7,744 1,340 9,435 9,435 1,480 5,741 5,741 461
Molluscicides 747 747 193 412 412 109 293 293 68
Fungicides 19,007 22,071 14,240 18,505 21,498 13,392 13,788 16,940 7,055
Sulphur 1,131 1,131 3,171 1,964 1,964 5,913 781 781 3,687
Herbicides 3,309 3,386 1,949 4,246 4,549 2,187 3,958 4,163 1,837
Biological control agents 426 426 N/A 466 466 N/A 622 622 N/A
Biopesticides 1,787 1,787 153 1,759 1,759 136 852 852 70
Physical control 347 347 289 42 325 447 6 24 47
All pesticides 34,498 37,639 21,183 36,828 40,407 23,663 26,041 29,416 13,225
Area grown (ha)(2) 1,662 1,800 1,876

(1) Note: 2014 was the first soft fruit report to contain both non-protected and protected soft fruit which makes data comparison with previous surveys difficult. Non-protected and semi-protected data from the 2012 Soft Fruit Crop survey have been amalgamated with protected data from the 2011 Protected Edible report to allow some comparison. Data users should be aware that there have been minor differences in crop range, crop areas and methods used for estimating pesticide use between surveys. Please see appendix 4 – survey methodology for changes in method between years. (2) Area grown includes multi-cropping. N/A = not applicable.

Contact

Email: psu@sasa.gov.scot

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