A new definition of fuel poverty in Scotland: review of recent evidence
A report by a panel of independent experts who conducted a review of the definition of fuel poverty in Scotland.
Anand, P., Hunter, G. & Smith, R. (2005). Capabilities and well-being: evidence based on the Sen-Nussbaum approach to welfare . Social Indicators Research,74, 9-55.
Bailey, N. & Bramley, G. (2017). Introduction. In G. Bramley and N. Bailey (Eds.) Poverty and Social Exclusion in the UK: Vol 2: The Dimensions of Disadvantage'. Bristol: Policy Press.
BEIS (2017). Quarterly Energy Prices. London: Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy.
Beizaee, A., Allinson, D., Lomas, K. J., Foda, E., & Loveday, D. L. (2015). Measuring the potential of zonal space heating controls to reduce energy use in UK homes: The case of un-furbished 1930s dwellings. Energy and Buildings, 92, 29-44.
Boardman, B. (1991). Fuel Poverty: From Cold Homes to Affordable Warmth. London: Belhaven Press.
Boardman, B. (2010). Fixing Fuel Poverty: Challenges and Solutions. London: Routledge.
Bradshaw, J. (Ed) (1993). Budget Standards for the United Kingdom. Aldershot: Avebury/Ashgate.
Bramley, G. (2012). Affordability, poverty and housing need: triangulating measures and standards, Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 27, 133-151.
Bouzarovski, S. (2007). When homes become prisons: the relational spaces of postsocialist energy poverty. Environment and Planning A, 39, 1908-25.
Bouzarovski, S., Tirado Herrero, S. Petrova, S. et al., (2017). Multiple transformations: theorizing energy vulnerability as a socio-spatial phenomenon. Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography , 99, 20-41.
Bradshaw, J. & Hutton, S. (1983). Social policy options and fuel poverty . Journal of Economic Psychology. 3, 249 - 266.
Brennan, P. J., Greenberg, G., Miall, W.E. et al. (1982). Seasonal variation in arterial blood pressure. British Medical Journal, 285, 919-923.
BRE (1995) Domestic Energy Fact File. Building Research Establishment: Watford, UK.
BRE (2001). Building Regulation, Health and Safety. Garston, UK: Building Research Establishment.
BRE (2003) Domestic Energy Fact File. Building Research Establishment: Watford, UK.
BRE (2013). Report 10. Household Underspend. Watford, UK: Building Research Establishment.
Cauvian, J. & Bouzarovski, S. (2016). Energy vulnerability in multiple occupancy housing: a problem that policy forgot. People, Place and Policy, 10, 88-106.
CFU (2016). Taking the Temperature: Review of Energy Efficiency and Fuel Poverty Schemes in Scotland. London: Consumer Futures Unit.
CPSB (2017). Child Poverty (Scotland) Bill. http://www.parliament.scot/ResearchBriefingsAndFactsheets/S5/SB_17-10_Child_Poverty_Scotland_Bill.pdf
Darby, S. (2017). Coal fires, steel houses and the man in the moon: Local experiences of energy transition. Energy Research and Social Science, in press.
Davis, A., Hill, K. & Padley, (2016). A Minimum Income Standard for the UK in 2016. JRF Rowntree.
Day, R., Walker, G. & Simcock, N. (2016). Conceptualising energy use and energy poverty using a capabilities framework. Energy Policy , 93, 255-264.
DECC (2015). Cutting the Cost of Keeping Warm: A Fuel Poverty Strategy for England. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
DEFRA (2001). The UK Fuel Poverty Strategy. London. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.
DeGroot, D. W., & Kenney, W. L. (2007). Impaired defense of core temperature in aged humans during mild cold stress. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 292, R103-R108.
DHHPA (2011). Cold Weather Plan for England: Protecting health and reducing harm from severe cold weather. London: Department of Health and Health Protection Agency.
DOH (2011). Cold Weather Plan. Protecting Health and Reducing Harm from Severe Cold. London: Department of Health.
Donaldson, G.C. and Keatinge, W.R. (1997). Mortality related to cold weather in elderly people in Southeast England, 1979-94. B ritish Medical Journal, 315 1055-6.
DuBois, U. (2012). From targeting to implementation: The role of identification of fuel poor households. Energy Policy, 47, 107-115.
Eisenstadt, N. (2016). Shifting the Curve: A Report to the First Minister. Edinbugh: Scottish Government.
EU (2009). Electricity and Gas Directives (Directive 2009/72/ EC; Directive 2009/73/ EC).Brussels: European Union.
Eurowinter-Group (1997) Cold exposure and winter mortality from ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, and all causes in warm and cold regions of Europe. The Lancet, 349, 1341-6.
Family Budget Unit (2002) Summary Budgets at Low Cost but Acceptable Level. University of York. www.york.ac.uk/res/fbu/documents/lcba_budget_aug2002.pdf
Fischer, J. E., Crabtree, A., Colley, J. A., Rodden, T. & Costanza, E. (2017). Data Work: How Energy Advisors and Clients Make IoT Data Accountable. Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 26, 597-626.
Fitzpatrick, S., Bramley, G., Sosenko, F., Blenkinsopp, J., Johnsen, S., Littlewood, M., Gina Netto & Watts, B. (2016). Destitution in the UK. Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
Fletcher, A., Lewisham Council, & Warren, L. (2017). The Health of the Nation. Eaga Charitable Trust.
Galvin, R. (2015). The Rebound Effect in Home Heating: A Guide for Policymakers and Practitioners, London: Routledge/Earthscan.
Gillard, R., Snell, C. & Bevan, M. (2017). Advancing an energy justice perspective of fuel poverty: Household vulnerability and domestic retrofit policy in the United Kingdom. Energy Research and Social Science, 29, 53-61.
Grey, C. B., Jiang,S., Nascimento, C., Rodgers, S. E., Johnson, R. et al., (2017) The short-term health and psychosocial impacts of domestic energy efficiency investments in low-income areas: a controlled before and after study. BMC Public Health 17, DOI: 10.1186/s12889-017-4075-4.
Guio, A.C., Gordon, D. and Marlier, E. (2012), Measuring Material Deprivation in the EU: Indicators for the Whole Population and Child-specific Indicators. Publications office of the European Union, Luxembourg : Eurostat Methodologies and Working Papers.
Guio, A.C., Gordon, D., Najera, H. and Pomati, M. (2017), Revising the EU material deprivation variables (analysis of the final 2014 EU-SILC data)', Final report of the Eurostat Grant. Action Plan for EU-SILC improvements.
Gupta, R. & Kapsali, M. (2016). Empirical assessment of indoor air quality and overheating in low-carbon social housing dwellings in England, UK. Advances in Building Energy Research, 10, 46-68.
Hajat, S., Vardoulakis, S., Heaviside, C. & Eggen, B. (2014). Climate change effects on human health: projections of temperature-related mortality for the UK during the 2020s, 2050s and 2080s. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health , 68, 641-648.
Hamilton, I. G., O'Sullivan, A. Huebner, G. et al., (2017). Old and cold? Findings on the determinants of indoor temperatures in English dwellings during cold conditions. Energy and Buildings, 141, 142-157.
Hansard (2017). House of Commons Parliamentary Debate on Fuel Poverty. 21 st March, Vol. 63.
Hanssen, M.J., Hoeks, J., brans, B., van der Lans, A., Schaart, J. J. van den Driessche, J. et al., (2015). Short-term acclimation improves insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus . Nature Medicine, 21, 863-865.
Healy, J. D. & Clinch, J. P. (2002). Fuel poverty, thermal comfort and occupancy: results of a national household-survey in Ireland. Applied Energy, 73, 329-343.
Herrera Gutierrez-Avellanosa, D.H. & Bennadji, A. (2015). Analysis of indoor climate and occupants' behaviour in traditional Scottish dwellings. Energy Procedia, 78, 639-644.
Herrero, S. T. (2017). Energy poverty indicators: A critical review of methods. Indoor and Built Environment, 26, 1018-103.
Herring, H. & Roy, R. (2007). Technological innovation, energy efficient design and the rebound effect. Technovation, 27, 192-203.
Hills, J, (2011). Fuel Poverty: The Problem and its Measurement. Interim Report of the Fuel Poverty Review. London: LSE.
Hills, J. (2012). Getting the Measure of Fuel Poverty. Final Report of the Fuel Poverty Review. CASE Report 72. ISSN 1465-3001. Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion. London School of Economics.
Hirsch, D., Padley, M, & Valadez, L. (2016) A Poverty Indicator Based on a Minimum Income Standard. CRSP Working Paper 656. Loughborough University, Centre for Research in Social Policy.
Hodges, N., Redgrove, Z., Morris, P., Simpson, K. & Asher, M. (2016). Affordable Warmth and Health Impact Evaluation Toolkit. London: DECC and Centre for Sustainable Energy.
Hong, S. H., Oreszczyn, T., Ridley, I. & The Warm Front Study Group (2006). The impact of energy efficient refurbishment on the space heating fuel consumption in English dwellings. Energy and Buildings, 38, 1171-1181.
Housing (Scotland) Act (2001). http://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2001/10/contents.
Huebner, G. M., Shipworth, D., Hamilton, I. & Oreszczyn, T. (2016). Too hot or too cold? An analysis of factors associated with thermal comfort in English homes . Proceedings of 9 th Windsor Conference, 7-10 April.
Hunt, D. & Gidman, M. (1982). A national field survey of house temperatures. Building and Environment, 17, 107-124.
IEA (2014). Capturing the Multiple Benefits of Energy Efficiency. Copenhagen: International Energy Agency.
Imbert, I., Nogues, P. & Sevenet, M. (2016). Same but different: On the applicability of fuel poverty indicators across countries-Insights from France. Energy Research and Social Science, 17, 75-85.
Isherwood, B. C., & Hancock, R. M. (1979). Household expenditure on fuel: distributional aspects. Economic Adviser's Office, DHSS, London.
Jansz, A. & Guertler, P. (2012). The Impact on the Fuel Poor of the Reduction in Fuel Poverty Budgets in England. London: Association for the Conservation of Energy.
Jevons, R., Carmichael, C., Crossley, A. & Bone, A. (2016). Minimum indoor temperature threshold recommendations for English homes in winter - A systematic review. Public Health, 136, 4-12.
Kane, T. Firth, S. K. & Lomas, K. J. (2015). How are UK homes heated? A city-wide, socio-technical survey and implications for energy modelling. Energy and Building, 86, 817-832.
Liddell, C. (2012). Measuring and monitoring fuel poverty: National and regional perspectives. Energy Policy, 49, 27-32.
Liddell, C. (2012). The missed exam: conversations with Brenda Boardman. Energy Policy, 49, 12-18.
Liddell, C. & Guiney, C. (2015). Living in a cold and damp home: frameworks for understanding impacts on mental health. Public Health, 129, 191-199.
Liddell, C. & Guiney, C. (2017). An Evaluation of Low Income Households Using Wood Pellet Boiler Systems. Belfast: Bryson Energy.
Liddell, C. & McKenzie, P. (2013). Tackling Fuel Poverty in Northern Ireland
An Area-Based Approach to Finding Households Most in Need. OFMdFMNI : Belfast.
Liddell, C. & Morris, C. (2010). Fuel poverty and human health: a review of recent evidence. Energy Policy, 38, 2987-2997.
Liddell, C., Morris, C., Gray, B. et al. (2016). Excess winter mortality associated with Alzheimer's Disease and related dementias in the UK: A case for energy justice. Energy Research and Social Science, 11, 256-262.
Liddell, C., Morris, C. McKenzie, S. J. P. & Rae, G. (2011). Defining Fuel Poverty in Northern Ireland: A Preliminary Review. Coleraine: University of Ulster.
Lullaby Trust (2017). https://www.lullabytrust.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/Evidence-Base-2016.pdf.
Mack, J. (2017 forthcoming) 'Fifty years of poverty in the UK', in G. Bramley and N. Bailey (eds) Poverty and Social Exclusion in the UK: Vol 2: The Dimensions of Disadvantage'. Bristol: Policy Press.
JRF (2016) UK Poverty: Causes, Costs and Solutions #solveukpoverty. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
Mack, J. (in press) Fifty years of poverty in the UK.. In G. Bramley and N. Bailey (Eds.) Poverty and Social Exclusion in the UK: Vol 2: The Dimensions of Disadvantage. Bristol: Policy Press.
Mavrogianni, A., Johnson, F., Ucci, M., Marmot, A., Wardle, J. Oreszczyn, T. & Summerfield, A. (2011). Historic variations in winter indoor temperatures and potential implications for body weight gain. Indoor and Built Environment, 22, 360-375.
Middlemiss, L. & Gillard, R. (2015). Fuel poverty from the bottom-up: Characterising household energy vulnerability through the lived experience of the fuel poor. Energy Policy, 6, 146-154.
Milner, J. & Wilkinson, P. (2017) Commentary: Effects of Home Energy Efficiency and Heating Interventions on Cold-related Health. Epidemiology. 28, 86-89.
Moore, R. (2009). A New Approach to Assessing Fuel Poverty. Newcastle, UK: Energy Action.
Moore, R. (2012a). Definitions of fuel poverty: Implications for policy. Energy Policy, 49, 19-26.
Moore, R. (2012b). Improving the Hills Approach to Measuring Fuel Poverty. London: Association for the Conservation of Energy.
Moore, R. Wilkinson, B. & Jobson, K. (2015). An assessment tool for low income/high costs fuel poverty. https://www.eagacharitabletrust.org/an-assessment-tool-for-low-incomehigh-costs-fuel-poverty/
Moore, R. (2017). Linking the Fuel Poverty Tool to the JRF Minimum Income Calculator. Eaga Charitable Trust.
Morgan, C., Foster, J.A., Sharpe, T. & Poston, A. (2015). Overheating in Scotland: Lessons From 26 Monitored Low Energy Homes. CIBSAT: Lausanne.
Mould, R., & Baker, K.J (2017a). Uncovering hidden geographies and socio-economic influences on fuel poverty using household fuel spend data: A meso-scale study in Scotland. Indoor and Built Environment, in press.
Mould, R. & Baker, K. J. (2017b). Documenting fuel poverty from the householders' perspective . Energy Research & Social Science, in press.
MRT (2011) The Health Impacts of Cold Homes and Fuel Poverty. London: Marmot Review Team.
NHS Sheffield (2017). Safe Sleep for your Baby
NICE (2015). Excess Winter Deaths and Illness and the Health Risks Associated with Cold Homes. Guideline NG6. London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.
Nussbaum, M. (2011). Creating Capabilities: The Human Development Approach. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Ofgem (2013). Ofgem Consumer Vulnerability Strategy. London: Office of Gas and Electricity Markets.
Ormandy, D. & Ezratty, V. (2012). Health and thermal comfort: From WHO guidance to housing strategies. Energy Policy, 49, 116-121.
Ormandy, D. & Ezratty, V. (2015). Thermal discomfort and health: protecting the susceptible from excess cold and excess heat in housing. Advances in Building Energy Research, 10, 84-98.
Parker Morris Committee (1961). Homes for Today and Tomorrow. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
Pett, J. (2009). Minimum Income Standards, Fuel Poverty and Vulnerable People. Working Paper 09/0.
PHE (2014). Minimum Home Temperature thresholds for Health in Winter - A Systematic Literature Review. London: Public Health England.
PHE (2015). The Cold Weather Plan for England. Protecting Health and Reducing Harm from Cold Weather. London: Public Health England.
Preston, I., White, V., Blacklaws, K. & Hirsch, D. (2014). Fuel and Poverty: A Rapid Evidence Assessment for the Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Bristol: Centre for Sustainable Energy.
RIBA (1983). Homes for the Future. London : Institute of Housing. Royal Institute of British Architects. IBA.
Rupp, R.F., Vásquez, N.G. & Lamberts, R. (2015). A review of human thermal comfort in the built environment. Energy and Buildings, 105, 178-205.
Scottish Executive (2002). The Scottish Fuel Poverty Statement. http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2002/08/15258/9951.
Scottish Government (2012). Fuel Poverty Evidence Review: Defining, Measuring and Analysing Fuel Poverty in Scotland.
ScotPHN (2016). Addressing Fuel Poverty, Guidance for Directors of Public Health on taking action in support of: A Scotland without fuel poverty is a fairer Scotland: Four steps to achieving sustainable, affordable and attainable warmth and energy use for all. (Report of the Scottish Fuel Poverty Strategic Working Group to the Cabinet Secretary for Communities, Social Security and Equalities, October 2016). Glasgow: Scottish Public Health Network.
Sen, A. & Nussbaum, M. (1993). The Quality of Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
SFPSWG (2016). A Scotland without fuel poverty is a fairer Scotland: Four steps to achieving sustainable, affordable and attainable warmth and energy use for all. Scottish Fuel Poverty Strategic Working Group. http://www.gov.scot/publications/scotland-without-fuel-poverty-fairer-scotland-four-steps-achieving-sustainable/
SHCS (2015). Scottish House Condition Survey. http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/SHCS/Downloads
SHCS (2015) Scottish House Condition Survey. Methodological Notes. http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0051/00511110.pdf
Scottish Rural Fuel Poverty Task Force (2016). An Action Plan to Deliver Affordable Warmth in Rural Scotland. http://www.gov.scot/publications/action-plan-deliver-affordable-warmth-rural-scotland-proposed-scottish-rural/
Sen, A. (1992). Inequality reexamined. New York Oxford New York: Russell Sage Foundation Clarendon Press Oxford Univ. Press.
Shekarriz, M. & Spinelli, G. (2012). Getting to Know You: A Novel Approach in Segmenting the Ageing Consumer Market. Uxbridge, England: Brunel University.
Shiue, I. (2016). Cold homes are associated with poor biomarkers and less blood pressure check-up: English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, 2012-2013. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23, 7055-7059.
Snell, C., Bevan, M. & Thomson, H. (2015). Justice, fuel poverty, and disabled people in England. Energy Research and Social Science, 10, 123-132.
Stearn, J. (2012). Tackling Consumer Vulnerability. An Action Plan for Empowerment. London: Consumer Focus
Stone, M. (2006b) 'A housing affordability standard for the UK', Housing Studies, 21, 453-476
Sutherland Tables (2017) Comparative Domestic Heating Costs. www.sutherlandtables.co.uk
Teli, D., Dimitriou, T., James, P.A.B. et al. (2016) Fuel poverty-induced 'prebound effect' in achieving the anticipated carbon savings from social housing retrofit. Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, 37, 176-193,
Thompson, H., Sellstrom, T.S. & Petticrew, M. (2013). Housing Improvements for Health and the Associated Socio-Economic Outcomes.The Cochrane Collaboration: Wiley.
Thomson, H., Bouzarovski, S. & Snell, (2017). Rethinking the measurement of energy poverty in Europe: A critical analysis of indicators and data. Indoor and Built Environment, in press.
Thomson, H., Snell, C. & Liddell, C. (2016). Fuel poverty in the European Union: A concept in need of a definition? People, Place and Policy, 10. 5-24.
Townsend, P. (1979). Poverty in the United Kingdom: A Survey of Household Resources and Standards of Living. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.
Tweed, C., Humes, N. & Zapata, Lancaster, G. (2015). The changing landscape of thermal experience and warmth in older people's dwellings. Energy Policy, 84, 223-232.
Uttley, J.I. & Shorrock, L.D. (2008). Domestic Fact File. Garston, UK: Building Research Establishment.
van Hoof, J., Schellen, L., Soebarto, V., Wong, J. K. W. & Kazak, J. K. (2017). Ten questions concerning thermal comfort and ageing. Building and Environment, in press.
WAG (2010). Fuel Poverty Strategy 2010. Welsh Assembly Government.
Walker, G., Simcock, N. & Day, R. (2016). Necessary energy uses and a minimum standard of living in the United Kingdom: Energy justice or escalating expectations? Energy Research & Social Science 18, 129-138
Walker, R., Liddell, C., McKenzie, S. J. P. & Morris, C. (2014). Fuel poverty in Northern Ireland: Humanizing the plight of vulnerable households. Energy Research and Social Science, 4, 89-99.
Walker, R., McKenzie, S. J. P., Liddell, C. & Morris, C. (2015). Spatial analysis of residential fuel prices: Local variations in the price of heating oil in Northern Ireland. Applied Geography, 63, 369-379.
WHO (1961). Expert Committee on the Public Health Aspects of Housing. Geneva: Technical Report Series 225.
WHO (1968). The Physiological Basis for Health Standards in Housing. Public Health paper No.33. World Health Organization.
WHO (1979). Public Health Aspects of Housing: First Report of the Expert Committee. Geneva: World Health Organization.
WHO (1984). The Effects of the Indoor Housing Climate on the Health of the Elderly: Report on a WHO Working Group. World Health Organization for Europe, Copenhagen.
WHO (1987 ). Health Impacts of Low Indoor Temperatures. Copenhagen: World Health Organization.
WHO (2007). Housing, Energy and Thermal Comfort. Denmark: World Health Organization.
WHO (2010). International Workshop on Housing, Health and Climate Change. World Health Organization: Geneva.
There is a problem
Thanks for your feedback