Publication - Impact assessment

National litter and flytipping consultation: strategic environmental assessment

Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) for the proposed actions for the National Litter and Flytipping Strategy.

National litter and flytipping consultation: strategic environmental assessment
5. Human health

5. Human health

Human health consists of a person’s physical, mental and social well-being and the environment in which they live has an important influence on these factors. Scotland still has significant public health challenges to overcome. Socio-economics are a significant influence on population and human health[77]. A variety of policies and statutes, either directly or indirectly influence human health and many of these cut across many other SEA topics, including air and water quality, management of flood risk and climate change.

A positive sense of place is important to people, and the importance of the quality of the environment raises concerns that detrimental effects on amenity could affect well-being, perceptions of locations as well as property values and businesses.

This section provides the contextual information to inform the assessment (in terms of the review of Plans, Programmes and Strategies (PPS) and the baseline information) as well as an assessment of the effects of the proposals for the prevention of litter and flytipping, regarding human health impacts.

5.1 Relationship with other Plans, Programmes, Strategies and Environmental Objectives

The PPS that are relevant to human health topic that have been reviewed to inform the assessment of the proposals for the prevention of litter and flytipping are shown in Figure 5-1 and summarised thereafter.

Figure 5-1 Plans, Policies and Strategies related to Human Health

Plans, Policies and Strategies (PPS)

International PPS

  • UN Transforming Our World: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
  • International Health Regulations (IHR)
  • Protocol on Water and Health (programme 2020-2022)

European PPS

  • Single Use Plastics Directive
  • Waste framework Directive
  • Bathing Water Quality Directive
  • Drinking Water Directive
  • Seveso III Directive

UK PPS

  • Environmental Protection Act
  • Control of Major Accident Hazards Regulations

Scottish PPS

  • The Land Reform (Scotland) Act
  • Bathing Water (Scotland) Regulations
  • Bathing Water (sampling & analysis) Directions
  • Scotland's Biodiversity A route Map to 2020
  • The Scottish Soil Framework
  • Public Water Supplies (Scotland) Regulations
  • National Planning Framework 3
  • Scottish Biodiversity Strategy
  • The Scottish Government Programme for Scotland
  • Cleaner Air for Scotland: The Road to a Healthier Future
  • Scottish Government 2020 Challenge for Scotland Biodiversity

5.1.1 International level

International Health Regulations (IHR) in 2005, the international community agreed to improve the detection and reporting of potential public health emergencies worldwide. The regulations require that all countries have the ability to detect, assess, report and respond to public health events.

United Nations (2015): Transforming our World - the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development sets out 17 global goals agreed by the United Nations. These goals are embedded within the agenda for 15 years and include commitments to protect the planet through sustainable consumption and sustainable management of resources. The new National Litter and Flytipping Strategy supports the 17 global goals in seeking to embed sustainability and resource minimisation across all sectors of society. Some of the key sustainable development goals relevant to Human Health are, Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages; Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all; Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable; Goal 12: Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns; and Goal 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts. The Protocol on Water and Health (programme 2020-2022), jointly serviced by UNECE and WHO-Europe, is a unique legally binding instrument aiming to protect human health by better water management and by reducing water-related diseases. The Protocol provides a practical framework to translate into practice the human rights to water and sanitation and to implement Goal 6.

5.1.2 European level

The Waste Framework Directive (as amended) (2006/12/EC): seeks to protect human health and the environment against harmful effects caused by the collection, transport, treatment, storage and tipping of waste. Specifically, by requiring the development of waste management plans, and encouraging the recovery of waste and the use of recovered materials as raw materials in order to conserve natural resources.

The Drinking Water Directive (98/83/EC) set legislation in place to prevent and control any adverse health effects arising from the contamination of drinking water resources.

Bathing Water Quality Directive (2006/7/EC) prevents and controls any adverse health effects arising from the contamination of water resources.

Directive 2012/18/EU (the Seveso III Directive) strengthens preceding legislation aimed at reducing the incidence of major industrial accidents as well as pre-emptively mitigating their environmental effects, with an emphasis on limiting consequences to human health.

European Union (2019): Single Use Plastics Directive. The Directive highlights the significant negative environmental, health and economic impact of certain plastic products with a particular focus on single-use plastic items. The Directive draws attention to the significant negative environmental, health and economic impact of littered products and associated deleterious materials. Restricting the prevalence of plastics in litter and flytipped materials in Scotland could reduce pollution and enhance health and well-being.

5.1.3 UK level

The Environmental Protection Act 1990 protects people against exposure to pollution and disturbance and promotes the remediation of contaminated land.

Control of Major Accident Hazards Regulations 2015 implements the Seveso III Directive.

5.1.4 Scottish level

The Land Reform (Scotland) Act 2003 introduced a new right of responsible access covering Scottish onshore, inland water, and coastal environments. The Land Reform (Scotland) Act 2016, making minor amendments to the previous Act regarding access to land. The new National Litter and Flytipping Strategy complements these responsible access regulations by seeking to keep the Scottish landscape free of litter and waste materials.

Bathing Waters (Scotland) Regulations 2008 (as amended) and the Bathing Waters (Sampling & Analysis) (Scotland) Directions 2008 transpose the European Bathing Water Quality Directive (2006/7/EC). The new National Litter and Flytipping Strategy aims to reduce littering of the marine and coastal environment by concentrating on reducing the number of waste items going into the water drainage systems and entering the seas.

The Public Water Supplies (Scotland) Regulations 2014 regulations transpose the Drinking Water Directive. Flytipping near reservoirs or water courses can affect public water supply quality, as such the new National Litter and Fytipping strategy can help protect public drinking water.

The National Planning Framework 3 (2014) promotes physical activity, active travel and access to greenspace with associated health benefits. These aims are also supported through Let’s make Scotland more active: A Strategy for Physical Activity[78] and the Cycling Action Plan for Scotland[79]. Maintaining clean and litter free local amenities can encourage physical activity and healthy benefits.

Cleaner Air for Scotland: The Road to a Healthier Future, 2015: Sets out proposals to further reduce air pollution to protect human health and comply with European and Scottish legal requirements relating to air quality.

The Scottish Government Programme for Scotland. A Fairer, Greener Scotland: Programme for Government 2021-2022. Plans to improve national well-being with increased investment in mental health – at least 25% over this Parliament by providing £120 million specifically to support the recovery and transformation of services, with a renewed focus on prevention and early intervention. By aiming to keep the environment free of litter, the new National Litter and Flytipping Strategy may contribute to support human health and wellbeing.

Scottish Executive: The Scottish Biodiversity Strategy (2004) was supplemented by TheScottish Governments 2020 Challenge for Scotland’s Biodiversity (2013) document; both of which combine to form the Scottish Biodiversity Strategy. The aims of the 2020 challenge are to sustain and enhance the ecosystems on both land and at sea so to maximise benefits to Scotland through natural diversity and economic growth. Actions are detailed in the Scotland’s Biodiversity A Route Map to 2020. Progress is measured using the Scottish Biodiversity Strategy Indicators. The biodiversity indicators include a requirement for government and businesses to implement plans for sustainable productions and consumption and to keep natural impacts within safe ecological limits, including by 2020, ecosystems that provide essential services related to water, health, livelihoods etc are to be restored and safeguarded.

5.2 Baseline Characteristics

There are limited studies on the health impacts of litter, with most studies associating high incidences of litter as contributory effects to adverse mental health impacts, particularly anxiety and depression. The potential for physical health hazards from litter and flytipping is also acknowledged but information is limited in terms of the scale of the effects on physical health and differentiating between the level of risk associated with materials present in the waste, e.g. injury or disease from sharps or glass, toxins from chemicals or animal waste, or asbestos-related diseases.

5.2.1 Quality of life

Poverty and mental health issues are highly interlinked, and poor environment- as created by littering- tends to be found in deprived areas. In addition, as was found by the Scottish Household Survey, and in surveys completed in other parts of the UK[80]- those living in deprived areas are more likely than those that are not to experience litter or rubbish, 27% compared with 18%.

Although it is difficult to establish the extent to which littering contributes to poor mental health, researchers have found that even when other contributory factors to mental health conditions (such as age, gender or socioeconomic status), are taken into account, those who reported the highest incidence of environmental incivilities, were more likely to report anxiety, depression, poor health, smoking and poor exercise, than those with more positive views on this aspect of their local environment[81]. Another study found that even with the introduction of new community resources, the severity of depression in littered communities remained stable or increased[82]. Studies in the United States (US) that used the US Departments of Health and Human Services Center for Epidemiological Depression scale and Patient Health Questionnaire to measure the correlation between litter and mental health, support these conclusions, finding that patients who communicated a more negative perception of neighbourhood characteristics displayed more depressive symptoms[83].

Littering and flytipping may also contribute to hindering recovery for those with existing mental health ailments. A study analysing marine litter used photographs to analyse the psychological impacts of visiting littered beaches. Researchers found that photographs that showed un-littered coasts tended to provide participants with a sense of happiness and less stress; in contrast, photographs exhibiting littered coasts caused participants to exhibit stress and a lack of the positive psychological benefits that beach destinations normally provide[84].

5.2.2 Physical Health Risks

As well as their contribution to mental conditions, litter and flytipped material can present a health hazard to the local community[85]. Littered food attracts scavenger animals and raises the risk of spreading disease, particularly airborne scavengers, such as gulls, which may contribute to risks of contamination of surfaces and swimming waters through the associated faeces[86]. Plastic, when eroded into microplastics, can resemble food to sea creatures and transfer through the food web (i.e. indirect impact as it enters the human food chain)[87].

It is reported that contact with drug-related litter (needles or chemicals) can result in expensive medical investigations, fear on part of the victim, along with the risk, albeit small, of contracting a life-altering illness[88]. The report highlights that studies investigating the risk of disease transmission from ‘community acquired needle-stick injury’ (i.e. from discarded needles), identify that the risk of transmission is low, although it is acknowledged that there are a number of well-attested cases where infection has been passed on in this way.

The presence of asbestos in flytipped materials can release microscopic fibres and dust into the air, which if ingested may lead to an aggressive form of lung cancer called mesothelioma[89]. Asbestos waste requires specialist handling and controlled disposal in dedicated landfill cells to prevent the uncontrolled release of fibres into the environment, therefore, asbestos in flytipped material presents a health risk to members of the public, as well as though carrying out the illegal dumping of asbestos. There are several reports highlighting the problems associated with asbestos flytipping in Scotland[90,91], although there is limited information regarding the scale of the issue or the level of risk to human health from asbestos in flytipped material. Based on the latest flytipping statistics available for England, asbestos accounted for less than 1% of total flytipping incidents reported in 2019/20[92].

5.2.3 Likely Evolution of the Baseline without the NLFS

It is difficult to quantify, and subsequently project, the impact of litter on health as litter and its effects are pervasive with effects not easily associated to, and subsequently recorded, as being related to litter. However, in 2018/9, 12% of adults reported two or more depression symptoms, and 14% reported two or more anxiety symptoms in Scotland. This prevalence has increased since 2012/3[93]. As section 5.2.1 highlights, decreasing litter can help alleviate mental health conditions of patients and contribute to recovery.

Without the implementation of proposals in the new National Litter and Flytipping strategy it is considered that there would be no improvement to the effects on human health, with the potential for a worsening of effects if incidents of littering and flytipping increase.

5.3 Consideration of likely significant effects

5.3.1 Methodology

The new National Litter and Flytipping strategy has the potential to have a range of effects on the health of people in Scotland by preventing or limiting waste materials entering and affecting the environment. The assessment considers the potential impacts on human health through the implementation of the proposed actions to prevent litter and flytipping, developed across the four strategy themes: behaviour change; infrastructure and services; enforcement; and data and research.

Although the adverse impacts of litter and flytipping on human health may be similar it is recognised that litter and flytipping are distinct issues with different drivers, so the assessment provides separate appraisals of the actions proposed for the Litter strategy (Table 5-1) and the Flytipping strategy (Table 5-2). The SEA criteria for assessing the effects on human health are listed at the start of each table. The effects against these criteria are considered against a baseline which is effectively a continuation of the existing National Litter Strategy.

5.3.2 Results

The tables below provide summary assessments of the likely significant environmental effects of implementing proposed actions to prevent litter and flytipping across the four strategy themes, with regard to Human Health. Table 5-1 presents the results of the assessment of actions for Litter and Table 5-2 present the findings assessing the actions for the Flytipping.

The key to each assessment score is shown below:

Score Key:

++ Significant positive effect

+ Minor positive effect

0 No overall effect

- Minor negative effect

-- Significant negative effect

? Score uncertain

NB: Where a box contains a “?” but also another Score Key, this indicates uncertainty over whether the effect could be a minor or significant effect although a professional judgement is expressed in the Score Key used. A conclusion of uncertainty arises where there is insufficient evidence for expert judgement to conclude an effect.

Table 5-1 Assessment of Effects of Litter Actions on SEA Criteria for Human Health

Litter Strategy

Human Health

SEA Criteria:

  • To safeguard the amenity of recreational assets.
  • To safeguard human health.

Behaviour Change – Actions

Overall Score: +/?

Conduct research to understand the full range of influences on littering behaviours across various contexts and audience groups.

Action Score: +/?

Develop a sustained, evidence based, national anti-littering campaign and deliver this consistently and collaboratively across Scotland.

Action Score: +

Commentary:

There are global studies that raise concerns that litter, especially plastics and microplastics, are causing negative impacts on human health[94]. Actions enabling research focused on littering behaviour are expected to be beneficial in terms of reduce littering and safeguarding recreational assets and human health. There are very few studies that have examined the impact of littering on human health, so if research into littering behaviour can encompass a review of effects on well-being and health this should also deliver benefits. The development of a national campaign for litter prevention and collaboration between organisations could improve understanding of littering behaviour and measures for prevention, which has the potential to deliver positive effects for human health. A coordinated campaign could also gather information on the prevalence of litter and build on the experience of local litter picking campaigns.

Services and Infrastructure – Actions

Overall Score: +

Explore the use of flexible and innovative interventions to support litter prevention and removal.

Action Score: +

Establish an action focused group to encourage collaboration and share best practice between local authorities, national parks and other duty bodies to optimise services

Action Score: +

Create a national litter hub to provide information and advice to community groups.

Action Score: +

Increase the use of citizen science to support data on levels and composition of litter.

Action Score: +

Carry out a review of the development, implementation and progress of the Code of Practice for Litter and Refuse (2018).

Action Score: ?

Commentary:

The proposed actions do not principally relate to the direct construction and operational effects of infrastructure and operational facilities on human health but are indirectly expected to benefit human health by reducing and removing litter from the Scottish environment. Exploring innovation and flexibility of services and infrastructure should have some positive impacts on safeguarding the amenity of recreational assets and human health. For example, this may include prevention of litter causing blockages and flooding of drainage infrastructure, detrimental to human health. Increased collaboration can encourage sharing information on best practice and ensure a more coordinated approach to the use of litter and waste services and infrastructure, which would help reduce the presence of litter in the physical environment and improve the quality of recreational assets and human health.

The creation of a national litter information hub may allow for more effective clean-up of littering in local communities, which would be beneficial to human health, as well providing information on health and safety aspects for litter picking groups.

The scope for actions in citizen science and collaboration between organisations is varied and wide, for example it could focus on a social study gathering information on litter picking experience and impacts on health and wellbeing. Actions using citizen science are assessed as having a positive impact on human health. It is not clear whether a review of the Code of Practice for Litter and Refuse (COPLAR) will result in any changes beyond those currently established for preventing and reducing the impacts of litter in the environment, so this is considered to have an uncertain effect for human health at this stage

Enforcement – Actions

Overall Score: +/?

Conduct an evidence review of barriers to enforcement of litter offences.

Action Score: ++/?

Explore raising current fixed penalty notice amounts for a litter offence.

Action Score: +/?

Develop guidance on enforcement best practices and seek agreement for this to be voluntarily adopted by Local Authorities and National Parks.

Action Score: ++/?

Review current powers for enforcing littering offences.

Action Score: +/?

Explore potential alternative penalties to monetary fixed penalties for a litter offence.

Action Score: ?

Explore using civil penalties in relation to littering offences.

Action Score: ?

Create fixed penalties for the registered keeper of the vehicle for littering from vehicles.

Action Score: +/?

Commentary:

Evidence suggests that stringent enforcement measures will lead to less incidences of littering (see Table 4-3 for Biodiversity), so it is anticipated that actions exploring barriers to enforcement and the development of best practice for enforcement bodies, will help to reduce incidents of littering. Due to the association between littering and poor effects on health actions that support improved enforcement are considered to create positive benefits for recreational sites and human health. This would be dependent though on the extent to which enforcement measures are adopted by Local Authorities and other organisations with an enforcement role. Reviewing existing powers for enforcement also has the potential to deter littering, with subsequent benefits for human health.

As discussed in the assessment of Enforcement actions in relation to Biodiversity (see Table 4-2), the further raising of fixed penalties or introducing legislation to strengthen enforcement of litter from vehicles by issuing a fine to the registered keeper of the vehicle is expected to deter littering, although the level of significance for human health is uncertain. It is considered that further details on civil penalties and potential alternatives to financial penalties and their effectiveness are required before the effects on human health can be determined, so these are assessed to be uncertain impacts.

Data and Research – Actions

Overall Score: +/?

Review the available litter data and approach to data collection across Scotland and reach an agreement between stakeholders on a common approach to collecting data.

Action Score: +/?

Identify commonly littered items and litter hotspots and work with Local Authorities and other duty bodies to develop targeted interventions to reduce litter.

Action Score: +/?

Commentary:
Whilst there is established research into the correlation between areas of high deprivation and poor mental health, there is limited research into the direct impact of littering on human health.

The action to review available litter data and approach to data collection (including from public health bodies), may allow for a holistic understanding of the impacts of littering on human health, although the level of significance is not certain. The identification of litter composition and hotspots may help to tackle persistent littering issues (which is noted to have close links to the Infrastructure and Services strategy theme). The potential reduction of litter in the environment is assessed to be a positive effect for human health, although there is some uncertainty regarding the practical implementation of interventions by Local Authorities and other duty bodies.

Table 5-2 Assessment of Effects of Flytipping Actions on SEA Criteria for Human Health

Flytipping Strategy

Human Health

SEA Criteria:

  • To safeguard the amenity of recreational assets.
  • To safeguard human health.

Behaviour Change – Actions

Oversall Score: +/?

Conduct research to understand the full range of influences on flytipping behaviour across various context and audience groups and use this to design effective responses.

Action Score: +/?

Develop a sustained, evidence based, national anti-flytipping campaign and deliver this consistently and collaboratively across Scotland.

Action Score: +

Develop social media campaigns and guidance targeted at waste carriers and other businesses[95].

Action Score: +/?

Commentary:

Conducting research to understand how to safeguard the amenity of recreational assets in relation to flytipping behaviour could have a positive impact effect on human health, if this was included as part of the scope of the commissioned research. There is uncertainty though whether the proposed research would enhance the existing understanding of flytippng behaviour (e.g. Zero Waste Scotland, Evidence Review of Flytipping Behaviour, 2017). Linking the research to a review of the effects of flytipping on well-being and health could deliver further benefits.

Encouraging a national campaign against flytipping is expected to have some positive impacts in safeguarding recreational assets and human health.

The development of social media campaigns and guidance may help to raise awareness of the adverse effects of flytipping, although the level of positive effect for human health is uncertain as waste carriers and businesses should already be aware of their responsibilities and the potential impacts of flytipping in the environment.

Services and Infrastructure – Actions

Overall Score: +/?

Support and encourage information and resource sharing between Local Authorities, waste sector, SEPA and other organisations through the flytipping forum.

Action Score: +

Explore the role of technology in assisting private landowners and land managers deter flytipping on their land.

Action Score: ?

Produce updated guidance for private landowners on dealing with flytipping.

Action Score: ?

Explore alternative financial support mechanisms available to private landowners.

Action Score: ?

Explore how to support and encourage more reuse and repair of products that are commonly flytipped.

Action Score: ++/?

Explore a flexible approach to waste disposal (such as mobile HWRCs and targeted amnesties), and targeted interventions, with a view to trial these.

Action Score: +

Carry out research to create a single information point on the disposal of commonly flytipped materials.

Action Score: +

Commentary:

Information and resource sharing of services between organisations could help to highlight areas where flytipping adversely effects recreational assets, and human health and improve measures to mitigate the impact of flytipping on human health.

The extent to which flytipping on private land effects human health is not clear, so actions relating to private landowners are assessed as a potential neutral impact with respect to the Human Health SEA criteria.

Support in encouraging more reuse and repair of products is considered to have potential for significant positive effects, as this would prevent items being flytipped and so remove adverse effects on human health. Further monitoring would be required though to confirm the effectiveness of the action. Exploring a more flexible approach to waste disposal and interventions to prevent flytipping, as well as creation of a single information point are expected to help improve the management of flytipped material through the coordination of relevant services and visibility of information on flytipping. The actions may help prevent flytipping, which should help to reduce impacts on human health.

Enforcement – Actions

Overall Score: +/?

Conduct an evidence review of barriers to enforcement.

Action Score: +/?

Develop guidance on enforcement best practices, including on private land and seek for this to be voluntarily adopted by statutory bodies.

Action Score: +/?

Initially raise current fixed penalties issued by Police, Loch Lomond and Trossachs National Park for flytipping to the maximum (£500) and explore possibility of raising the maximum further at a later date.

Action Score: +/?

Explore raising current fixed penalties that can be issue by SEPA for flytipping offences to the maximum (£1000) and explore possibility of raising the maximum further at a later date.

Action Score: +/?

Review existing legislative powers for enforcing flytipping offences.

Action Score: +/?

Explore the ability to remove, suspend or deny Waste Carrier’s Registration to individuals/companies fined for flytipping.

Action Score: +/?

Support information sharing on flytipping incidents and offenders between Local Authorities, Police and National Parks.

Action Score: +

Create powers to enable seizure of vehicles by SEPA used in flytipping.

Action Score: +/?

Explore the possibility and benefits of using civil penalties to enforce flytipping offences.

Action Score: ?

Commentary:

There is limited evidence available to confirm the effectiveness of more stringent enforcement measures at preventing flytipping (see Table 4-3 for Biodiversity). It is understood though that the low probability of being caught for flytipping offences is a significant factor contributing to incidents of flytipping[96], therefore, the actions proposed in the new National Litter and Flytipping strategy for a review of enforcement measures (including barriers to enforcement, existing powers, guidance on best practice, removal of Waste Carrier Registrations, and seizure of vehicles), should be beneficial in improving understanding of what is effective in combating flytipping. This is expected to create positive benefits in preventing flytipping and subsequently impacts on human health, however, there is still uncertainty on the level of significance of the effects.

Sharing information on flytipping between Local Authorities, Police and National Parks should improve responses to flytipping incidents and may potentially help to prevent flytipping, which would have some positive impacts for human health.

As discussed in the review of proposed Enforcement actions for Biodiversity (see Table 4-4), increased financial penalties should provide some deterrent to flytipping, although the level of significance for human health is uncertain. Further details on the use civil penalties and their effectiveness are required before the effects on human health can be determined, so this is considered to be an uncertain impact.

Data and Research – Actions

Overall Score: +/?

Create a data sharing agreement and work with Local Authorities, other duty bodies, National Parks, private landowners and land managers, businesses and the third sector to improve consistency of data collected in Scotland.

Action Score: +/?

Explore and seek to support the use of appropriate technology in data collection.

Action Score: +/?

Work with stakeholders to improve consistency of data collection in Scotland.

Action Score: +/?

Explore incorporating data into a national database.

Action Score: +/?

Review the Dumb Dumpers system and ensure that a fit for purpose mechanism for citizen reporting of flytipping exists in Scotland.

Action Score: +/?

Explore the development of a live picture of flytipping across Scotland.

Action Score: 0/?

Commentary:

Whilst there is established research into the correlation between areas of high deprivation and poor mental health, there is limited research into the direct impact of flytipping on human health. Improved collection of data from duty bodies, including public health bodies, in a national database may allow for a holistic understanding of the impacts of flytipping on human health. Exploration of technology to streamline and facilitate the reporting of data may improve the quality of regional data though it is not certain how this would be implemented or applied to improving human health. Improving consistency of data, will improve monitoring accuracy and may allow for more localised monitoring of its impact on human health. Due to uncertainty regarding the complexity of reporting ‘live’ data it is considered that this would have little to offer in terms of benefits to human health.

5.4 Mitigation and Enhancement

The following measures are suggested to enhance the proposals in the new National Litter and Flytipping strategy, with respect to human health:

  • Carry out research to improve the understanding of the effects of litter and flytipping on the physical health risks from exposure to materials in litter and flytipping, along with the mental health and well-being associated with blight from these wastes.
  • Public health bodies should be included in data sharing agreements in order to study impacts from litter and flytipping on human health.

Please also refer to Section 4.4 Mitigation and Enhancement for the Biodiversity topic for a list of recommendations supporting the wider aims to prevent or improve management of litter and flytipped materials, which are considered to be common to each environmental topic.


Contact

Email: NLFS@gov.scot