Publication - Research publication

The microsegmentation of the autism spectrum: research project

Published: 26 Mar 2018

Economic research on autism and implications for Scotland, including how the economic cost of autism can inform strategy and planning.

357 page PDF

4.7 MB

357 page PDF

4.7 MB

Contents
The microsegmentation of the autism spectrum: research project
List of Tables

357 page PDF

4.7 MB

List of Tables

Table 1.1 Prevalence of autism in Scotland by age and intellectual disability

Table 1.2 The Scottish Autism Survey: respondent characteristics

Table 4.1 Summary of search strategies

Table 4.2 Summary of final set of prevalence studies

Table 4.3 Summary of random-effects meta-analysis of prevalence estimates from 13 ASD samples included in 8 studies

Table 4.4 Summary of random-effects meta-analysis of prevalence estimates from 13 ASD samples included in 8 studies, with age group as a between-group variable

Table 4.5 Final random effects meta-analysis prevalence estimates for six years and above

Table 5.1 Summary of the samples assessed by the five studies and the measures of IQ used

Table 5.2 Distribution of IQ scores across the five studies included in the final meta-analysis

Table 6.1 Prevalence of autism in Scotland by age and intellectual disability

Table 6.2 Prevalence of autism by Council area and intellectual disability

Table 6.3 Prevalence of autism by Health Board and intellectual disability

Table 7.1 Respondent characteristics3

Table 7.2 Age of ASD individuals (n = 950)

Table 7.3 Comparison of the ethnicity of respondents in the Scottish Autism Survey sample with data from the 2011 Scottish Census

Table 7.4 Comparison of number of responses relating to ASD individuals in each council area to the total population of each council area

Table 7.5 Frequency of ASD Diagnosis

Table 7.6 ASD diagnosis by age.

Table 7.7 ASD diagnosis and sex 89

Table 7.8 Co-occurring intellectual disability (ID) according to ASD diagnosis

Table 7.9 Co-occurring intellectual disability (ID) according to age

Table 7.10 Co-occurring intellectual difficulty status (ID) according to sex

Table 7.11 Presence of co-occurring diagnoses (excluding ID) amongst ASD individuals ≥ 16 years

Table 7.12 Co-occurring conditions by type of ASD

Table 7.13 Educational placement of individuals with ASD aged ≥ 16 years

Table 7.14 Educational placement of individuals aged ≥16 years according to ID presence and level

Table 7.15 Ranking of school type according to associated level of support 99

Table 7.16 Highest educational placement for ASD individuals aged ≥ 16 years according to ASD diagnosis a

Table 7.17 Highest educational placement amongst individuals aged ≥ 16 years according to the presence and level of intellectual disability a

Table 7.18 School providing highest level of educational support amongst individuals aged ≥ 16 years according to age a

Table 7.19 School providing highest level of educational support amongst ASD individuals ≥ 16 years according to sex

Table 7.20 School providing highest level of educational support according to presence of co-occurring conditions amongst individuals aged ≥ 16 years

Table 7.21 Binary logistic Regression of the factors which predict mainstream school as the highest level of educational support

Table 7.22 Binary logistic Regression of the factors which predict a special unit in a mainstream school as the highest level of educational support

Table 7.23 Changes in level of support provided at preschool and primary amongst ASD individuals ≥ 16 years (n = 319)

Table 7.24 Changes in level of support provided at primary and secondary school amongst ASD individuals ≥ 16 years (n = 361)

Table 7.25 Attendance of further education establishments according to ID status amongst individuals ≥ 16 years

Table 7.26 Qualifications achieved by individuals with ASD according to diagnosis

Table 7.27 Employment status of individuals aged ≥ 16 years with ASD

Table 7.28 Employment status amongst individuals aged ≥ 16 years with autism according to ID status

Table 7.29 Employment status amongst individuals aged ≥ 16 years with other ASD according to ID status

Table 7.30 Employment Status amongst individuals aged ≥ 16 years according to age

Table 7.31 Sex differences in employment amongst individuals aged ≥ 16 years

Table 7.32 Co-occurring neurological and mental health conditions and employment amongst individuals aged ≥ 16 years a

Table 7.33 Employment status and ability to travel independently amongst individuals aged ≥ 16 years

Table 7.34 Employment status according to school providing individual with highest level of educational support amongst individuals aged ≥ 16 years

Table 7.35 Employment status amongst individual ≥ 16 years, according to qualifications achieved

Table 7.36 Logistic regression analysis testing the factors predicting employment status amongst ASD individuals aged ≥ 16 years

Table 7.37 Relationship status amongst ASD individuals aged ≥ 16 years according to type of diagnosis.

Table 7.38 Long-term relationship status amongst ASD individuals aged ≥ 16 years according to age

Table 7.39 Sex differences in relationship status amongst ASD individuals aged ≥ 16 years

Table 7.40 Long-term relationship status amongst individuals aged ≥ 16 years and co-occurring conditions

Table 7.41 Long-term relationship status amongst ASD individuals aged ≥ 16 years according to highest level of educational provision

Table 7.42 Long-Term Relationship Status amongst individuals aged ≥ 16 years according to employment status

Table 7.43 Logistic regression analysis testing the factors predicting relationship status amongst individuals with ASD aged ≥ 16 years

Table 7.44 Residential status of ASD individuals aged ≥ 16 years (n = 404)

Table 7.45 Re-categorisation of residential status

Table 7.46 Residential status of ASD individuals aged ≥ 16 years according to type of ASD diagnosis

Table 7.47 Residential status of ASD individuals aged ≥ 16 years (n =386) according to ID status and level.

Table 7.48 Residential status amongst ASD individuals aged ≥ 16 years (n = 386) according to age

Table 7.49 Sex differences in residential status amongst ASD individuals aged ≥ 16 years

Table 7.50 Residential status amongst individuals aged ≥ 16 years and co-occurring conditions

Table 7.51 Residential status amongst individuals aged ≥ 16 years (n = 386) according to employment status a

Table 7.52 Residential and relationship status amongst ASD individuals aged ≥ 16 years a 134

Table 7.53 Logistic regression analysis testing the factors predicting residential status amongst individuals with ASD aged ≥ 16 years 136

Table 7.54 Independent living amongst ASD individuals aged ≥ 16 years

Table 7.55 Service use by ASD individuals and the parents of ASD individuals in the last 6 months

Table 7.56 Service use amongst ASD individuals ≥ 16 years according to age, sex, ASD diagnosis and ID status

Table 7.57 Service use amongst ASD individuals ≥ 16 years according to co-occurring conditions, employment status, relationship status and residential status

Table 7.58 Number and percentage of responses to rating scale statements assessing parental and familial impact associated with caring for individuals with ASD according to diagnosis of ASD individual

Table 7.59 Number and percentage of responses to Likert scale statements assessing parental and familial impact associated with caring for individuals with ASD according to diagnosis of ASD individual

Table 7.60 Linear regression model testing the factors which predict parent and carer likert scale responses to the statement ‘To what extent does caring for an individual with ASD influence the extent to which you can be in employment, training or education’.

Table 7.61 Summary of significant relationships ( p < .001) emerging from chi square analyses

Table 7.62 Summary of significant relationships ( p < .001) emerging from regression analyses (final models)

Table 8.1 Unit costs (£, 2013/14)

Table 8.2 Annual cost in the general population (£, 2013/14)

Table 8.3 Average annual service cost for children with ASD, by diagnosis and sector (£, 2013/14) (N=546)

Table 8.4 Average annual service cost for adults with ASD, by diagnosis and sector (£, 2013/14) (N=404)

Table 8.5 Average annual service cost for carers of children with ASD, by diagnosis and sector (£, 2013/14) (N=520)

Table 8.6 Average annual service cost for carers of adults with ASD, by diagnosis and sector (£, 2013/14) (N=267)

Table 8.7 Average annual and lifetime cost per capita for people with ASD and their carers, by level of ID, disaggregated by sector (PV, £, 2013/14)

Table 8.8 Estimated number of individuals with ASD with and without ID

Table 8.9 Estimated number of individuals with ASD with and without ID by living accommodation

Table 8.10 Average annual costs per capita for individuals with ASD and their carers, by level of ID, disaggregated by sector (£, 2013/14)

Table 8.11 National annual costs for individuals with ASD and their carers, by level of ID, disaggregated by sector (£, 2013/14)

Table 11.1 Presence of co-occurring diagnoses (excluding ID) amongst ASD individuals, total sample, n = 950)

Table 11.2 School placement amongst individuals with ASD (n = 950) now or in the past

Table 11.3 Highest level of educational support amongst individuals with ASD according to type of diagnosis (n = 950)

Table 11.4 Highest level of educational support amongst individuals with ASD according to ID status (n = 649)*

Table 11.5 Candidate variables for model testing the likelihood of individuals receiving their highest level of educational support from a mainstream school

Table 11.6 Candidate variables excluded from logistic regression model focusing on highest level of educational support mainstream

Table 11.7 Logistic Regression of the factors which predict mainstream school as the highest level of educational support – original model including all cases

Table 11.8 Candidate variables for model testing the likelihood of individuals receiving their highest level of educational support from a special unit mainstream school

Table 11.9 Candidate variables excluded from logistic regression model testing whether or not someone received their highest level of educational support from a special unit in a mainstream school

Table 11.10 Candidate variables for model testing the likelihood of individuals being in employment

Table 11.11 Candidate variables excluded from logistic regression model focusing on highest level of educational support special unit

Table 11.12 Logistic Regression of the factors which predict the ASD employment (alternative model including cases with Cook’s distances > 1 and studentised residuals > 2)

Table 11.13 Candidate variables for model testing the likelihood of individuals being involved in a long-term relationship

Table 11.14 Candidate variables excluded from logistic regression model focusing on relationship status

Table 11.15 Logistic regression analysis testing the factors predicting relationship status amongst ASD individuals aged ≥ 16 years (n = 398): original model including all cases

Table 11.16 Candidate variables for model testing the likelihood of individuals living independently

Table 11.17 Candidate variables excluded from logistic regression model testing whether or not someone received their highest level of educational support from a special unit in a mainstream school

Table 11.18 Logistic regression analysis testing the factors predicting likelihood of

Table 11.19 Service use by ASD individuals and the parents of ASD individuals in the last 6 months (n = 404)

Table 11.20 Service use amongst ASD individuals (n = 950) according to age, gender, ASD diagnosis and ID status

Table 11.21 Service use amongst ASD individuals (n = 950) according to co-occurring conditions, employment status, relationship status and residential status

Table 11.22 Candidate variables for model testing predictors of responses to the question ‘To what extent does caring for an individual with ASD influence the extent to which you can be in employment, training or education?’

Table 11.23 Candidate variables excluded from logistic regression testing predictors of responses to the question ‘To what extent does caring for an individual with ASD influence the extent to which you can be in employment, training or education?’

Table 11.24 Free comments from individuals with ASD (N = 9) and associated themes

Table 11.25 Comments from parents/carers (N=68) and associated themes and sub-themes

Table 11.26 Comments from individuals with ASD: Number of respondents linking themes/sub-themes

Table 11.27 Comments from parents/carers with ASD: Number of respondents linking themes/sub-themes

Table 11.28 Annual service use for children with ASD, by diagnosis (N=546)

Table 11.29 Average annual service use for children with ASD, by diagnosis (N=546)

Table 11.30 Average annual service cost for children with ASD, by diagnosis (£, 2013/14) (N=546)

Table 11.31 Annual service use for adults with ASD, by diagnosis (N=404)

Table 11.32 Average annual service use for adults with ASD, by diagnosis (N=404)

Table 11.33 Average annual service cost for adults with ASD, by diagnosis (£, 2013/14) (N=404)

Table 11.34 Average annual service use for carers of children with ASD, by diagnosis (N=520)

Table 11.35 Average annual service cost for carers of children with ASD, by diagnosis (£, 2013/14) (N=520)

Table 11.36 Average annual service use for carers of adults with ASD, by diagnosis (N=267)

Table 11.37 Average annual service cost for carers of adults with ASD, by diagnosis (£, 2013/14) (N=267)

Table 11.38 Average annual service costs per capita for children with ASD with ID and their carers, by age and place of residence (£, 2013/14)

Table 11.39 Average annual service costs per capita for children with ASD without ID and their carers, by age and place of residence (£, 2013/14)

Table 11.40 Average annual service costs per capita for adults with ASD with ID and their carers, by age and place of residence (£, 2013/14)

Table 11.41 Average annual service costs per capita for adults with ASD without ID and their carers, by age and place of residence (£, 2013/14)

Table 11.42 National annual costs for children with ASD diagnosis with ID and their carers, by type of accommodation, disaggregated by sector (£, 2013/14)

Table 11.43 National annual costs for children with ASD diagnosis without ID and their carers, by type of accommodation, disaggregated by sector (£, 2013/14)

Table 11.44 National annual costs for adults with ASD diagnosis with ID and their carers, by type of accommodation, disaggregated by sector (£, 2013/14)

Table 11.45 National annual costs for adults with ASD diagnosis without ID and their carers, by type of accommodation, disaggregated by sector (£, 2013/14)

Table 11.46 Predictors of any service use by service group for children with Asperger’s/ HFA; logistic regression

Table 11.47 Predictors of service costs by service group for children with Asperger’s/HFA

Table 11.48 Predictors of any service use by service group for children with autism; logistic regression

Table 11.49 Predictors of service costs by service group for children with autism 321

Table 11.50 Predictors of any service use by service group for adults with Asperger’s/ HFA; logistic regression

Table 11.51 Predictors of service costs by service group for adults with Asperger’s/HFA

Table 11.52 Predictors of any service use by service group for adults with autism; logistic regression 324

Table 11.53 Predictors of service costs by service group for adults with autism


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