Annex A – LHEES Considerations
As set out in Section 1, each of the following LHEES Considerations (summarised in Table 2) should be examined to set out the long-term plan for decarbonising heat in buildings and improving their energy efficiency across an entire local authority area.
Table 2: Summary of the LHEES Considerations
LHEES Considerations: Description
1 Off-gas grid buildings: Transitioning from heating oil and LPG in off-gas areas
2 On-gas grid buildings: On-gas grid heat decarbonisation
3 Heat networks: Decarbonisation with heat networks
Energy efficiency and other outcomes
4 Poor building energy efficiency: Poor building energy efficiency
5 Poor building energy efficiency as a driver for fuel poverty: Poor building energy efficiency as a driver for fuel poverty
6 Mixed-tenure, mixed-use and historic buildings: Mixed-tenure, mixed-use buildings, listed buildings, and buildings in conservation areas
Off-gas grid buildings. In order to meet our interim climate targets and ensure long-term delivery of our net zero objectives, by 2030 the vast majority of the 170,000 off-gas homes that currently use high emissions oil, LPG, and solid fuels must convert to zero emissions heating. LHEES should identify low regrets off-gas heat decarbonisation pathways and opportunities at a strategic level and at a delivery level.
On-gas grid heat decarbonisation. To meet Scotland's statutory targets for emissions reduction, we must reduce significantly – and eventually phase out entirely – our use of natural gas. By 2030 at least 1 million homes will need to switch to zero emissions heat, away from high carbon heating such as gas. LHEES should identify potential on-gas heat decarbonisation pathways and opportunities at a strategic and delivery level.
Heat networks. LHEES should highlight zones within a local authority where heat networks present a potential decarbonisation option. Local authorities should consider heat demand density, the proximity of large heat demands that could form the basis of a network, and any opportunities or constraints relating to development potential e.g. proximity of identified zones to existing heat networks. Zoning that takes place within LHEES will serve as an initial analysis that will inform the designation of heat network zones. See Section 2 for more information on how LHEES interacts with local authorities' duties under the Heat Networks (Scotland) Act 2021.
Poor building energy efficiency. LHEES should identify possible locations at a strategic and delivery level where poor building energy efficiency exists across the local authority. This could be low levels of wall insulation, loft insulation or glazing – or a combination of these measures.
Poor building energy efficiency as a driver of fuel poverty. Poor building energy efficiency is a recognised factor that can contribute to fuel poverty. LHEES should identify possible locations at a strategic and delivery level where poor building energy efficiency acts as a driver for fuel poverty. Within areas of high fuel poverty, this could be where low levels of wall insulation, loft insulation or glazing exist, potentially in combination. This should help to ensure that area-based energy efficiency and heat decarbonisation projects will be effective in reducing fuel poverty, as well as highlighting where extreme fuel poverty is prevalent and further measures and support may be needed.
Mixed-tenure, mixed-use and historic buildings. For mixed-tenure and mixed-use (including the non-domestic sector), building level intervention is likely to be the most effective way to reduce emissions caused by heating. For historic buildings (including those in listed buildings and conservation areas), these are categories that may require tailored approaches to the installation of zero emissions heat and energy efficiency solutions, or where specific advice and support might be available. Identifying such areas will enable the public sector to coordinate or regulate to achieve this outcome. LHEES should identify at a strategic and delivery level where there are buildings of mixed-tenure or mixed-use and also where there are historic buildings (covering listed buildings and conservation areas).
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