Volunteering for All: national framework - literature review

This report outlines a systematic review of the research literature on volunteering.


Adams, A., & Deane, J. (2009). Exploring Formal and Informal Dimensions of Sports Volunteering in England. European Sport Management Quarterly, 9(2), 119-140. 

Ahn, S., Phillips, K. L., Smith, M. L., & Ory, M. G. (2011). Correlates of volunteering among aging Texans: the roles of health indicators, spirituality, and social engagement. Maturitas, 69(3), 257-262. 

Ahn, Y.-J. (2018). Recruitment of volunteers connected with sports mega-events: A case study of the PyeongChang 2018 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 8, 194-203. 

Akintola, O. (2011). What motivates people to volunteer? The case of volunteer AIDS caregivers in faith-based organizations in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Health Policy and Planning, 26(1), 53-62. 

Allen, J. B., & Bartle, M. (2014). Sport event volunteers' engagement: management matters. Managing Leisure, 19(1), 36-50. 

Amichai-Hamburger, Y. (2008). Potential and promise of online volunteering. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(2), 544-562. 

Anderson, C., Maher, J., & Wright, H. (2018). Building sustainable university-based community gardens: Volunteer perceptions of enablers and barriers to engagement and benefits received from volunteering in the Moving Feast. Cogent Social Sciences, 4(1). doi:10.1080/23311886.2018.1488211

Ayalon, L. (2008). Volunteering as a predictor of all-cause mortality: what aspects of volunteering really matter? International psychogeriatrics, 20(5), 1000-1013. 

Bailey, A. W., & Russell, K. C. (2012). Volunteer Tourism: Powerful Programs or Predisposed Participants? Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 19(1), 123-132. 

Baines, S., & Hardill, I. (2008). 'At Least I Can Do Something': The Work of Volunteering in a Community Beset by Worklessness. Social Policy and Society, 7(3), 307-317. doi:10.1017/s1474746408004284

Bartels, K. P. R., Cozzi, G., & Mantovan, N. (2013). 'The Big Society,' Public Expenditure, and Volunteering. Public Administration Review, 73(2), 340-351. 

Binder, M., & Freytag, A. (2013). Volunteering, subjective well-being and public policy. Journal of Economic Psychology, 34, 97-119. 

Body, A., & Hogg, E. (2018). What mattered ten years on? Young people's reflections on their involvement with a charitable youth participation project. Journal of Youth Studies

Bortree, D. S., & Waters, R. D. (2014). Race and Inclusion in Volunteerism: Using Communication Theory to Improve Volunteer Retention. Journal of Public Relations Research, 26(3), 215-234. 

Bowes, A., Dawson, A., & Greasley-Adams, C. (2013). Satisfaction with adult social care among Bangladeshi, Pakistani and white British populations: literature review. Retrieved from

Bowes, A., Dawson, A., Greasley-Adams, C., & McCabe, L. (2016). Design of residential environments for people with dementia and sight loss: A structured literature review. 34(3), 225-237. doi:10.1177/0264619616653991

Bowes, A., Dawson, A., Jepson, R., & McCabe, L. J. B. G. (2013). Physical activity for people with dementia: a scoping study. 13(1), 129. doi:10.1186/1471-2318-13-129

Boz, I., & Palaz, S. (2007). Factors Influencing the Motivation of Turkey's Community Volunteers. Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 36(4), 643-661. 

Bradford, S., Hills, L., & Johnston, C. (2016). Unintended volunteers: the volunteering pathways of working class young people in community sport. International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 8(2), 231-244. doi:10.1080/19406940.2016.1161654

Brewis, G., & Holdsworth, C. (2011). University Support for Student Volunteering in England: Historical Development and Contemporary Value. Journal of Academic Ethics, 9(2), 165-176. 

Brown, E., & Ferris, J. M. (2007). Social Capital and Philanthropy: An Analysis of the Impact of Social Capital on Individual Giving and Volunteering. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 36(1), 85-99. 

Bullock, K. (2017). Shoring up the ‘home guard’? Reflections on the development and deployment of police support volunteer programmes in England and Wales. Policing & Society, 27(4), 341-357. 

Bussell, H., & Forbes, D. (2008). How UK universities engage with their local communities: a study of employer supported volunteering. International Journal of Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Marketing, 13(4), 363-378. 

Campbell, A. (2010). Volunteering at the Stock Camp: Negotiating social positions. World Leisure Journal, 52(3), 222-231. 

Caputo, R. K. (2009). Religious Capital and Intergenerational Transmission of Volunteering as Correlates of Civic Engagement. Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 38(6), 983-1002. 

CASP. (2013). CASP Checklist. Retrieved from!casptools-checklists/c18f8

Casselden, B., Walton, G., Pickard, A., & McLeod, J. (2017). Issues of quality and professionalism of library volunteers Reporting from a qualitative case study. Performance Measurement and Metrics, 18(2), 118-126. doi:10.1108/pmm-05-2017-0017

Celdran, M., & Villar, F. (2007). Volunteering among Older Spanish Adults: Does the Type of Organization Matter? Educational Gerontology, 33(3), 237-251. 

Chareka, O., Nyemah, J., & Manguvo, A. (2010). Conceptions of Volunteerism among Recent African Immigrants in Canada: Implications for Democratic Citizenship Education. Canadian Social Studies, 43(1). 

Charlesworth, G., Sinclair, J. B., Brooks, A., Sullivan, T., Ahmad, S., & Poland, F. (2017). The impact of volunteering on the volunteer: findings from a peer support programme for family carers of people with dementia. Health & social care in the community, 25(2), 548-558. 

Chatwin, J., & Ackers, L. (2018). Organisational barriers to the facilitation of overseas volunteering and training placements in the NHS. BMC health services research, 18(1), 69. 

Cinelli, R. L., & Peralta, L. R. (2015). 'Achievement, pride and inspiration': outcomes for volunteer role models in a community outreach program in remote Aboriginal communities. Rural and remote health, 15(4), 3482. 

Clary, E. G., Snyder, M., & Ridge, R. (1992). Volunteers' motivations: a functional strategy for the recruitment, placement, and retention of volunteers. 2(4), 333. 

Clary, E. G., Snyder, M., Ridge, R. D., Copeland, J., Stukas, A. A., Haugen, J., & Miene, P. (1998). Understanding and assessing the motivations of volunteers: A functional approach. 74(6), 1516-1530. 

Claxton-Oldfield, S., Claxton-Oldfield, J., & Paulovic, S. (2013). Personality traits of British hospice volunteers. The American journal of hospice & palliative care, 30(7), 690-695. 

Claxton-Oldfield, S., Claxton-Oldfield, J., Paulovic, S., & Wasylkiw, L. (2013). A study of the motivations of British hospice volunteers. The American journal of hospice & palliative care, 30(6), 579-586. 

Cloke, P., Johnsen, S., & May, J. (2007). Ethical citizenship? Volunteers and the ethics of providing services for homeless people. Geoforum, 38(6), 1089-1101. 

Connolly, S., & O'Shea, E. (2015). The perceived benefits of participating in voluntary activities among older people: Do they differ by volunteer characteristics? Activities, Adaptation & Aging, 39(2), 95-108. 

Cramm, J. M., & Nieboer, A. P. (2015). Background characteristics, resources and volunteering among older adults (aged ≥70 years) in the community: A longitudinal study. Geriatrics & gerontology international, 15(8), 1087-1095. 

Curran, R., Taheri, B., MacIntosh, R., & O'Gorman, K. (2016). Nonprofit Brand Heritage: Its Ability to Influence Volunteer Retention, Engagement, and Satisfaction. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 45(6), 1234-1257. 

Currie, M. J. B., Lackova, P., & Dinnie, E. (2016). Greenspace matters: exploring links between greenspace, gender and well-being with conservation volunteers. Landscape research, 41(6), 641-651. 

Daniels, K., Sanders, D., Daviaud, E., & Doherty, T. (2015). Valuing and Sustaining (or Not) the Ability of Volunteer Community Health Workers to Deliver Integrated Community Case Management in Northern Ghana: A Qualitative Study. PLoS One, 10(6). 

Daoud, N., Shtarkshall, R., Laufer, N., Verbov, G., Bar-El, H., Abu-Gosh, N., & Mor-Yosef, S. (2010). What do women gain from volunteering? The experience of lay Arab and Jewish women volunteers in the Women for Women's Health programme in Israel. Health & social care in the community, 18(2), 208-218. 

Darley, S. (2018). Learning as a process of personal-social transformation: volunteering activity in health and social care charities. Mind, Culture & Activity, 25(3), 199-215. 

Darwen, J., & Rannard, A. G. (2011). Student volunteering in England: a critical moment. Education & Training, 53(2/3), 177-190. 

Davies, A., Lockstone-Binney, L., & Holmes, K. (2018). Who are the future volunteers in rural places? Understanding the demographic and background characteristics of non-retired rural volunteers, why they volunteer and their future migration intentions. Journal of Rural Studies, 60, 167. 

Dawson, A., Bowes, A., Kelly, F., Velzke, K., & Ward, R. (2015). Evidence of what works to support and sustain care at home for people with dementia: a literature review with a systematic approach. BMC Geriatrics, 15(1), 59. doi:10.1186/s12877-015-0053-9

Dawson, P., & Downward, P. (2013). The Relationship between Participation in Sport and Sport Volunteering: An Economic Analysis. International Journal of Sport Finance, 8(1), 75-92. 

Dean, J. (2014). How structural factors promote instrumental motivations within youth volunteering: a qualitative analysis of volunteer brokerage. Voluntary Sector Review, 5(2), 231-247. doi:10.1332/204080514x14013591527611

Dean, J. (2016). Recruiting Young Volunteers in an Area of Selective Education: A Qualitative Case Study. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 37(4), 643-661. 

Detollenaere, J., Willems, S., & Baert, S. (2017). Volunteering, income and health. PLoS One, 12(3). 

Dougherty, G. W., & Easton, J. (2011). Appointed Public Volunteer Boards: Exploring the Basics of Citizen Participation Through Boards and Commissions. American Review of Public Administration, 41(5), 519-541. 

Dyson, S. E., Liu, L., van den Akker, O., & O'Driscoll, M. (2017). The extent, variability, and attitudes towards volunteering among undergraduate nursing students: Implications for pedagogy in nurse education. Nurse education in practice, 23, 15-22. 

EPOC. (2015). EPOC resources for review authors. Retrieved from

Erasmus, B., & Morey, P. J. (2016). Faith-Based Volunteer Motivation: Exploring the Applicability of the Volunteer Functions Inventory to the Motivations and Satisfaction Levels of Volunteers in an Australian Faith-Based Organization. Voluntas, 27(3), 1343-1360. doi:10.1007/s11266-016-9717-0

Erlinghagen, M. (2010). VOLUNTEERING AFTER RETIREMENT. European Societies, 12(5), 603-625. 


Flores, R. (2014). From personal troubles to public compassion: charity shop volunteering as a practice of care. Sociological Review, 62(2), 383-399. 

Francis, J. E., & Jones, M. (2012). Emergency service volunteers: a comparison of age, motives and values. Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 27(4), 27-32. 

Frederiksen, M., Henriksen, L. S., & Qvist, H.-P. (2014). Mainstreaming Effects on Volunteering? The Case of Denmark. Journal of Civil Society, 10(3), 317-334. 

Garcia Mainar, I., Marcuello Servos, C., & Saz Gil, M. I. (2015). Analysis of Volunteering Among Spanish Children and Young People: Approximation to Their Determinants and Parental Influence. Voluntas, 26(4), 1360-1390. doi:10.1007/s11266-014-9487-5

Gates, T. G., Russell, E. B., & Gainsburg, J. (2016). Volunteers work for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer rights: Motivations at a Rochester social justice organization. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 28(1), 39-53. 

Gesthuizen, M., & Scheepers, P. (2012). Educational Differences in Volunteering in Cross-National Perspective: Individual and Contextual Explanations. Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 41(1), 58-81. 

Ghose, T., & Kassam, M. (2014). Motivations to Volunteer Among College Students in India. Voluntas, 25(1), 28-45. doi:10.1007/s11266-012-9327-4

Gil-Lacruz, A. I., Marcuello, C., & Saz-Gil, I. (2017). Individual and social factors in volunteering participation rates in Europe. Cross-Cultural Research: The Journal of Comparative Social Science, 51(5), 464-490. 

Gronlund, H., Holmes, K., Kang, C., Cnaan, R. A., Handy, F., Brudney, J. L., . . . Zrinscak, S. (2011). Cultural Values and Volunteering: A Cross-cultural Comparison of Students' Motivation to Volunteer in 13 Countries. Journal of Academic Ethics, 9(2), 87-106. doi:10.1007/s10805-011-9131-6

Henriksen, L. S., Koch-Nielsen, I., & Rosdahl, D. (2008). Formal and Informal Volunteering in a Nordic Context: The Case of Denmark. Journal of Civil Society, 4(3), 193-209. 

Holdsworth, C. (2010). Why Volunteer? Understanding Motivations For Student Volunteering. British Journal of Educational Studies, 58(4), 421-437. 

Kahana, E., Bhatta, T., Lovegreen, L. D., Kahana, B., & Midlarsky, E. (2013). Altruism, helping, and volunteering: pathways to well-being in late life. Journal of aging and health, 25(1), 159-187. 

Kay, T., & Bradbury, S. (2009). Youth Sport Volunteering: Developing Social Capital? Sport, Education and Society, 14(1), 121-140. 

Kerschner, H., & Rousseau, M. (2008). Volunteer drivers: their contributions to older adults and to themselves. Gerontology & Geriatrics Education, 29(4), 383-397. 

Lee, S., Saito, T., Takahashi, M., & Kai, I. (2008). Volunteer participation among older adults in Japan: an analysis of the determinants of participation and reasons for non-participation. Archives of gerontology and geriatrics, 47(2), 173-187. 

Martinez, I. L., Crooks, D., Kim, K. S., & Tanner, E. (2011). Invisible civic engagement among older adults: valuing the contributions of informal volunteering. Journal of cross-cultural gerontology, 26(1), 23-37. 

Moen, P., & Flood, S. (2013). Limited Engagements? Women's and Men's Work/Volunteer Time in the Encore Life Course Stage. Social problems, 60(2). 

Neymotin, F. (2016). Individuals and Communities: the Importance of Neighbors Volunteering. Journal of Labor Research, 37(2), 149-178. 

NHS CRD. (2001). Undertaking Systematic Reviews of Research on Effectiveness Retrieved from York, UK

Nichols, G., & Ralston, R. (2011). Social Inclusion through Volunteering: The Legacy Potential of the 2012 Olympic Games. Sociology, 45(5), 900-914. 

Nichols, G., & Ralston, R. (2012). The rewards of individual engagement in volunteering: a missing dimension of the Big Society. Environment & Planning A, 44(12), 2974-2987. 

O'Brien, L., Townsend, M., & Ebden, M. (2010). 'Doing Something Positive': Volunteers' Experiences of the Well-Being Benefits Derived from Practical Conservation Activities in Nature. Voluntas, 21(4), 525-545. doi:10.1007/s11266-010-9149-1

Scottish Government. (2017a). A nation with ambition: the Government's Programme for Scotland 2017-2018. Retrieved from Edinburgh 

Scottish Government. (2017b). Scottish Household Survey Retrieved from

Scottish Government. (2018). Delivering for today, Investing for Tomorrow: The Government's Programme for Scotland 2018-19. Retrieved from Edinburgh: 

Scottish Volunteering Forum. (2015). Why Volunteering Matters: The case for change. Retrieved from

Shandra, C. L. (2017). Disability and social participation: The case of formal and informal volunteering. Social science research, 68, 195-213. 

Tang, F. (2009). Late-Life Volunteering and Trajectories of Physical Health. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 28(4), 524-533. 

Tang, F. (2016). Retirement Patterns and Their Relationship to Volunteering. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 45(5), 910-930. 

Taylor, P. D., Panagouleas, T., & Nichols, G. (2012). Determinants of sports volunteering and sports volunteer time in England. International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 4(2), 201-220. doi:10.1080/19406940.2012.656679

Village, A., & Francis, L. J. (2010). All in the mind? Psychological, social, and religious predictors of civic volunteerism among churchgoers in England. Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, 21, 1-26. 

Warburton, J. (2010). Volunteering as a productive ageing activity: evidence from Australia. China Journal of Social Work, 3(2/3), 301-312. 

Warburton, J., & Stirling, C. (2007). Factors Affecting Volunteering Among Older Rural and City Dwelling Adults in Australia. Educational Gerontology, 33(1), 23-43. 

Warburton, J., & Winterton, R. (2017). A far greater sense of community: The impact of volunteer behaviour on the wellness of rural older Australians. Health & Place, 48, 132. 

Whittaker, C. G., & Holland-Smith, D. (2016). Exposing the Dark Side, an Exploration of the Influence Social Capital Has upon Parental Sports Volunteers. Sport, Education and Society, 21(3), 356-373. 

Whittall, D., Lee, S., & O'Connor, M. (2016). Factors affecting rural volunteering in palliative care - an integrated review. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 24(6), 350-356. 

Wicki, M. T., & Meier, S. (2016). Supporting Volunteering Activities by Adults With Intellectual Disabilities: An Explorative Qualitative Study. Journal of Policy & Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 13(4), 320-326. 

Wilson, M., Mirchandani, D., & Shenouda, R. (2017). Older-person volunteering in rural and regional Australia: Recruitment, retention, and health benefits. Educational Gerontology, 43(3), 139-146. 

Windebank, J. E. (2008). Volunteering and the gender division of labour: A Franco-British comparison. Community, Work & Family, 11(4), 457-473. 

Yeomans, D., Le, G., Pandit, H., & Lavy, C. (2017). Is overseas volunteering beneficial to the NHS? The analysis of volunteers' responses to a feedback questionnaire following experiences in low-income and middle-income countries. BMJ open, 7(10), 1. 



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