Publication - Research and analysis

Fireworks regulations - impact: case studies

Published: 3 Nov 2020

This paper consists of seven case studies, each one aligned to one or more of the legislative options being considered by the Firework Review Group.

73 page PDF

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73 page PDF

1.1 MB

Contents
Fireworks regulations - impact: case studies
Footnotes

73 page PDF

1.1 MB

Footnotes

1.  The Firework Review Group was established in 2019 to look at options for legislative change and to provide clear, evidence based recommendations to Scottish Ministers on tightening legislation on fireworks in Scotland. The Group is externally chaired and has representation from a number of key stakeholder organisations including the fireworks industry, animal welfare representatives, the Scottish Fire and Rescue Service and NHS Scotland. The Group submitted their final report and recommendations to Ministers at the end of October 2020. 

2.  In some countries fireworks related eye injuries are looked at separately from injuries as a whole.

3.  The specific aspects covered within this area varies according to the case study country and the available data.

4.  https://www.gov.scot/publications/fireworks-legislation-impacts-international-evidence-review/pages/3/

5.  Around the Halloween period, 17 October to 14 November each year.

6.  With the exception of 2007.

7. Around the Halloween period, 17 October to 14 November each year.

8.  Consumer fireworks were banned in Western Australia in 1967, Queensland 1972, Victoria 1985, New South Wales 1987, South Australia 2001 and the Australian Capital Territory 2009.

9.  Some exceptions exist e.g. in New South Wales a person can apply for a fireworks single use licence if they are holding a public display and have successfully completed training/instruction given by a person with a current pyrotechnicians licence or pyrotechnicians permit. Other conditions also apply.

10.  https://worksafe.nt.gov.au/safety-and-prevention/fireworks

11.  https://worksafe.tas.gov.au/topics/licensing-permits-and-registration/fireworks-permits

12. Information provided by WorkSafe Tasmanian via email, 31 July 2020.

13.  Includes: police, fire service, local council and local property/land owners.

14.  Previously could be sold for a week from 8 am on the first Monday in June until 5 pm on the second Monday in June.

15.https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&ved=2ahUKEwikj5fygvLqAhUjQUEAHXdED6QQFjAAegQIAxAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.legislation.act.gov.au%2Fsl%2F2008-21%2F20080514-36588%2Fpdf%2F2008-21.pdf&usg=AOvVaw2wLbQxqctPCC3n80R36vbh

Previously could be used on three nights on the Queen's Birthday long weekend (Saturday, Sunday and Monday). 

16.  https://www.abc.net.au/news/2009-08-24/act-bans-fireworks/1402218#:~:text=The%20ACT%20Government%20has%20banned,of%20fireworks%20in%20the%20Territory.

17.  https://dtsc.nt.gov.au/arts-and-museums/northern-territory-archives-service/cabinet-records/1982-records/fireworks 

18.  https://www.racp.edu.au/docs/default-source/events/congress-2019-presentations/racp-mon-6-priya--janagaraj.pdf?sfvrsn=4f93181a_2

19.  Compared to 18 years in the UK.

20.  The study is subject to a number of limitations including: it does not capture all injured persons as some people would present to their primary health care centre or not present at all, it is restricted to the days around Territory Day and there have been slight methodological changes over the years. In addition the small numbers involved renders further breakdowns and analysis difficult.

21.  https://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-10-19/territory-day-report-recommends-fireworks-restrictions-bans/10392362

22.  Includes text strings 'firework', 'fire work' or 'f/work'.

23.  In 2018/19 a total of 29,619 offences were recorded by police in the Northern Territory. https://pfes.nt.gov.au/police/community-safety/nt-crime-statistics

24.  Excludes offences relating to fireworks that are recorded under another description, as there is no way to identify them as specifically related to fireworks.

25.  Relates to the description given to the incident. Not all incidents result in offences being recorded.

26.  Less than 20 mm in diameter.

27.  de Faber, J.T., Kivelä, T.T. & Gabel-Pfisterer, A. National studies from the Netherlands and Finland and the impact of regulations on incidences of fireworks-related eye injuries. Ophthalmologe 11736–42 (2020)

28.  Does not include very minor injuries that may be managed without consulting an ophthalmologist.

29.  de Faber, J.T., Kivelä, T.T. & Gabel-Pfisterer, A. National studies from the Netherlands and Finland and the impact of regulations on incidences of fireworks-related eye injuries. Ophthalmologe 11736–42 (2020)

30.  Harmonised system code 360410. The International Harmonised System is a hierarchical classification for imported and exported commodities. Goods are assigned a numeric HS code according to their end use.

31.  https://www.nytimes.com/2019/12/30/world/europe/germany-fireworks-ban.html

32.  Representative survey of 2,000 respondents, conducted December 2019.

33.  https://www.thelocal.de/20191227/majority-of-germans-back-new-years-eve-fireworks-ban

34.  Study carried out over the five days at the turn of the year.

35.  Gabel-Pfisterer, A., Böhringer, D. & Agostini, H. Three-year results of the Germany-wide survey on eye injuries caused by Gabel-Pfisterer, A., Böhringer, D. & Agostini, H. Three-year results of the Germany-wide survey on eye injuries caused by fireworks. Ophthalmologist 116, 1138-1151 (2019).

36.  https://de.statista.com/statistik/daten/studie/1365/umfrage/bevoelkerung-deutschlands-nach-altersgruppen/

37.  Jan Darius Unterlauft, Matus Rehak, Peter Wiedemann & Petra Meier (2018) Firework-Related Eye Trauma in Germany, Current Eye Research, 43:12, 1522-1528

38.   Emissions based on the statistical reported sales of approved fireworks in Germany.

39.  https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/sites/default/files/medien/479/publikationen/hgp_wenn_die_luft_zum_schneiden_ist_2019.pdf

40.  The UBA report is currently awaiting peer review and any subsequent versions will be considered.

41.  Alexanderplatz and Schoeneberg North. These were the first firework free zones introduced in a public space without a special reason e.g. a party. Prior to this there was a fireworks free zone around Brandenburg Gate due to the large NYE party and was controlled by private security companies.

42.  Information provided by Berlin Police via email, 16 July 2020. 

43.  Information provided by the City of Munich via email, 15 July 2020.

44.  Harmonised system code 360410. The International Harmonised System is a hierarchical classification for imported and exported commodities. Goods are assigned a numeric HS code according to their end use.

45. https://business.gov.nl/regulation/fireworks/

46.  https://www.dutchnews.nl/news/2020/02/government-gives-in-to-pressure-brings-in-partial-firework-ban/

47.  https://nltimes.nl/2020/02/14/amsterdam-implement-complete-fireworks-ban

48.  https://zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/stb-2014-416.html

49.  https://ec.europa.eu/growth/tools-databases/tris/en/search/?trisaction=search.detail&year=2019&num=341

50.  https://www.dutchnews.nl/news/2017/12/ban-rockets-and-firecrackers-on-new-years-eve-says-dutch-safety-board/

51.  https://nltimes.nl/2020/01/08/rotterdam-first-large-city-completely-ban-consumer-fireworks

52.  Survey covered two weeks around New Year's Eve.

53.  de Faber, J.T., Kivelä, T.T. & Gabel-Pfisterer, A. National studies from the Netherlands and Finland and the impact of regulations on incidences of fireworks-related eye injuries. Ophthalmologe 11736–42 (2020)

54.  https://zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/kst-28684-594.html

55.  Not all incidents are subsequently recorded as crimes.

56.  Information provided by Dutch Police via email, 23 September 2020.

57.  Harmonised system code 360410. The International Harmonised System is a hierarchical classification for imported and exported commodities. Goods are assigned a numeric HS code according to their end use.

58.  https://www.mfe.govt.nz/more/cabinet-papers-and-related-material-search/cabinet-papers/hazards/regulatory-options-reduce

59.  Excludes day patients, readmissions for the same incident and where there was not a primary diagnosis of injury. In addition, it also doesn't count those injuries which were treated at home or out-with a public hospital.

60.  Summary Offences Act 1981, S.35. Sets off or throws any firework or explosive material in such a manner as to be likely to cause injury to, or to alarm, any person.

61.  If an offence is recorded or resolved 15 days after the end of a year it will not appear in the official statistics for that year.

62.  https://join.stjohn.org.nz/role?si

63.  Sales period reduced to four days, legal age limit raised to 18.

64.  Around the Halloween period, 17 October to 14 November each year.

65.  https://www.nidirect.gov.uk/articles/fireworks#toc-4

66.  17 October-14 November each year 

67.  Includes SB4904092 'possessing fireworks without a licence'; S4904098 'purchasing fireworks without a licence'; SB4904044 'purchasing fireworks without a licence'; SB4904093 'using fireworks without a licence'; AA4904044 'aiding and abetting purchasing fireworks without a licence'; SB4904064 'possession of fireworks without a licence'; SB4904067 'purchasing fireworks without a licence'; SB4904075 'using fireworks without a licence'.

68.  Database does not specify the grade of fireworks involved.

69.  Includes SB4904045 'selling fireworks without a licence'; SB4904097 'selling fireworks without a licence'; SB4904054 'selling fireworks when licence not produced'; SB4904067 'selling fireworks without production of a licence'.

70.  Noise covers both public and private firework displays.

71.  http://www.inis.gov.ie/en/JELR/FireworksPolicy.pdf/Files/FireworksPolicy.pdf

72.  2000: 5,759 items. 2001: 15,000 items. 2002: 16,690 items. 2003: 25,771 items. 2004: 36,223 items

73.  2006 offences: 'igniting a firework or causing it to be ignited', 'throws, directs or propels an ignited firework at or towards a person or property', 'possessing a firework with intent to sell or otherwise to supply it to another and not holding a licence'.

74.  Number of discharges from acute public hospitals reported to the Hospital In-Patient Enquiry (HIPE) scheme. HIPE is a health information system designed to collect medical and administrative data regarding discharges from, and deaths in, acute public hospitals. Excludes information on Emergency Department activity and out-patient activity. Each HIPE discharge record represents one episode of care.

75. Data concerns discharges with any diagnosis of code W39 'discharge of firework'. Code W39 Discharge of Firework is an external cause code. External cause codes are intended for use as additional codes to identify the external cause of conditions. HIPE discharges are coded using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and related health problems, 10th revision - Australian Modification/Australian Classification of Health Interventions/Australian Coding standards (ICD10-AM/ACHI/ACS).From 2009 to 2014 the 6th edition of this classification was used, from 2015 to 2019 inclusive the 8th edition of this classification was in use.

76.  Code 114 'firework offences' in Irish Crime Classification System. The primary offence is that offence to which the greater penalty may apply. The Recorded Crime Statistics series is categorised as being 'under reservation' by the CSO. This reflects the fact that there are data quality issues in the underlying sources used to compile statistics for some incidents and they may be subject to revision.

77.  The year corresponds to the year in which they were recorded by An Garda Siochana.

78.  Information provided by WorkSafe South Australia via email on 05 June 2020.

79.  Queensland Explosives Inspectorate 

80.  Information provided by the Queensland Explosives Inspectorate via email on 24 June.

81.  Does not include complaints made to the Queensland Police Service or to local government authorities, as these are not generally communicated to the Inspectorate.

82. Other categories of complaints included display noise and safety. In some cases one complaint may contain multiple reasons, e.g. noise and no notification. All are captured individually.

83.  Included in response received from the Explosives Inspectorate, 24 June 2020

84.  Included in response received from the Explosives Inspectorate, 24 June 2020

85.  Information provided by the Department of Mines, Industry Regulation and Safety via email on 03 July 2020.

86.  Accidental- fire started without the intent to cause damage (i.e. an accident), Deliberate- fire started with the intent to cause damage, Suspicious- fire suspected to have been started with the intent to cause damage.


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