Paragraphs 5 and 6 of schedule 6 of the Welfare of Farmed Animals (Scotland) Regulations 2010 state that:
5.—(1) A pig must be free to turn round without difficulty at all times.
(2) The accommodation used for pigs must be constructed in such a way as to allow each pig to—
(a) stand up, lie down and rest without difficulty;
(b) have a clean, comfortable and adequately drained place in which it can rest;
(c) see other pigs, unless the pig is isolated for veterinary reasons;
(d) maintain a comfortable temperature; and
(e) have enough space to allow all the animals to lie down at the same time.
6.—(1) The dimension of any stall or pen used for holding individual pigs in accordance with these Regulations must be such that the internal area is not less than the square of the length of the pig, and no internal side is less than 75% of the length of the pig, the length of the pig in each case being measured from the tip of its snout to the base of its tail while it is standing with its back straight.
(2) Sub-paragraph (1) does not apply to a female pig for the period between 7 days before the predicted day of its farrowing and the day on which the weaning of its piglets (including any piglets fostered by it) is complete.
(3) Sub-paragraph (1) does not apply to a pig held in a stall or pen—
(a) while it is undergoing any examination, test, treatment or operation carried out for veterinary purposes;
(b) for the purposes of service, artificial insemination or collection of semen;
(c) while it is fed on any particular occasion;
(d) for the purposes of marking, washing or weighing it;
(e) while its accommodation is being cleaned; or
(f) while it is awaiting loading for transportation,
provided that the period during which it is so kept is not longer than necessary for that purpose.
(4) Sub-paragraph (1) does not apply to a pig held in a stall or pen which the pig can enter or leave at will, provided that the stall or pen is entered from a stall or pen in which the pig is kept without contravention of that sub-paragraph.
80. Owners / keepers should seek appropriate welfare advice from a veterinary surgeon and technical advisor when new facilities are to be constructed or existing facilities are modified. Suitable sites should be selected, taking into consideration the risk of outside environmental factors such as noise, vibration, atmospheric pollution, heat, and flooding, as well as the need for disease control and biosecurity. The need to mitigate against potential changes in environmental conditions due to climate change should also be considered when selecting materials and developing building designs. New facilities should allow compliance with current welfare legislation. For example, designs must enable the provision of sufficient and suitable environmental enrichment for all pigs. Some specialised buildings use complex mechanical and electrical equipment; additional technical and management skills may be required for these to ensure that husbandry and welfare requirements are met, and so additional training may be necessary. It may be useful to consider the future installation of new technology (such as motion sensors or CCTV) for monitoring pig welfare when planning the design of new buildings. Additional guidance in relation to outdoor accommodation can be found at paragraphs 207 to 228.
Paragraphs 11 and 12 of schedule 1 of the Welfare of Farmed Animals (Scotland) Regulations 2010 state that:
11. Materials used for the construction of accommodation and, in particular, for the construction of pens, cages, stalls and equipment with which the animals may come into contact, must not be harmful to them and must be capable of being thoroughly cleaned and disinfected.
12. Accommodation and fittings for securing animals shall be constructed and maintained so that there are no sharp edges or protrusions likely to cause injury to them.
81. The internal surfaces of housing and pens should be made of materials that can be easily cleaned and disinfected regularly, that are safe to use for pigs and can be easily replaced when necessary.
Paragraph 10 of schedule 6 of the Welfare of Farmed Animals (Scotland) Regulations 2010 states that:
10.—(1) Housing, pens, equipment and utensils used for pigs must be properly cleaned and disinfected as necessary to prevent cross-infection and the build-up of disease-carrying organisms.
(2) Faeces, urine and uneaten or spilt food must be removed as often as necessary to minimise smell and avoid attracting flies or rodents.
82. All areas of the building, accommodation and equipment, with which the pigs come into contact, must be cleaned and disinfected as necessary to prevent cross-infection and the build-up of disease-carrying organisms. Ideally this would be between batches of pigs and the accommodation should be dry when new pigs move in. Suitable cleaning products should be used for cleaning and disinfection. (See Annex 3 under Disease Control and Biosecurity.) Ideally, rooms and pens should have a 3-7 day empty period and exposure to sunlight. Where possible, rooms should be filled and emptied on a batch-wise basis to facilitate this and to minimise disease transmission between groups of pigs.
83. All buildings, fields and paddocks need to be kept clear of debris that could injure the pigs.
Paragraphs 12 and 13 of schedule 6 of the Welfare of Farmed Animals (Scotland) Regulations 2010 state that:
12. Where pigs are kept in a building, floors must—
(a)be smooth but not slippery;
(b)be so designed, constructed and maintained as not to cause injury or suffering to pigs standing or lying on them;
(c)be suitable for the size and weight of the pigs; and
(d)where no litter is provided, form a rigid, even and stable surface.
13. On and after 1st January 2013, when concrete slatted floors are used for pigs kept in groups—
(a)the maximum width of the openings between the slats must be—
(i)11 mm for piglets;
(ii)14 mm for weaners;
(iii)18 mm for rearing pigs;
(iv)20 mm for gilts after service and sows; and
(b)the minimum width of the slats must be—
(i)50 mm for piglets and weaners; and
(ii)80 mm for rearing pigs, gilts after service and sows.
84. Good floor design and adequate maintenance is essential whatever the system. Damaged floors should be repaired or replaced promptly or the pen taken out of commission. Poor floor construction, incorrect slat width for the weight or size of pig, and surfaces that are worn or damaged, can cause injury to pigs’ feet and legs. There are tolerances specifically for flooring made out of pre-cast concrete – see Annex 3.
85. Well designed and maintained fully slatted floors have advantages for hygiene and control of enteric disease, but disadvantages in terms of comfort for lying and ability to provide suitable enrichment material. These factors should be carefully considered in designing new housing and ideally fully slatted systems should be avoided unless suitable adaptations can be made to satisfy these needs.
86. Where buildings (temporary or permanent) or outdoor pens are constructed over existing hard standing floor bases (for example, on disused roads, tracks and airfields not originally designed for livestock use), owners / keepers must ensure that the flooring is made suitable for keeping pigs and is not hazardous to pig health and welfare. Where necessary, such flooring may require additional treatments to make it suitable for livestock use. Specialist advice should be sought before use is made of such hard standings.
Paragraph 11 of schedule 6 of the Welfare of Farmed Animals (Scotland) Regulations 2010 states that:
11. Where bedding is provided, this must be clean, dry and not harmful to the pigs.
87. The lying area should always be kept dry and pen floors, including the dunging area, should be drained effectively. Where bedding is provided, this must be clean, dry and not detrimental to the health of the pigs and should be regularly topped up or changed.
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