Publication - Progress report

Guardbridge geothermal technology demonstrator project: feasibility report

Published: 23 Mar 2016
Energy and Climate Change Directorate
Part of:
Environment and climate change

Report of the study exploring the potential of a geothermal district heating system accessing hot sedimentary aquifer resources underlying Guardbridge, Fife.

Guardbridge geothermal technology demonstrator project: feasibility report
15. References

15. References

15.1 Published articles and reports

Armstrong M., Paterson I.B. and Browne M.A.E., 1985. Geology of the Perth and Dundee district. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.

Bates, C. R., Moore, C. G., Malthus, T., Mair, J. M. and Karpouzli, E. (2004). Broad scale mapping of habitats in the Firth of Tay and Eden Estuary, Scotland. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report No. 007 (ROAME F01AA401D).

Baptie, B. 2010. Seismogenesis and state of stress in the UK. Tectonophysics 482: 150-159.

Browne M.A.E., Robins N.S., Evans R.B., Monro S.K., and Robson P.G., 1987. The Upper Devonian and Carboniferous sandstones of the Midland Valley of Scotland. Investigation of the Geothermal Potential of the UK. British Geological Survey Geothermal Resources Program.

Browne M.A.E., Dean M.T., Hall I.H.S., McAdam A.D., Monro S.K. and Chishold J.I., 1999. A lithostratigraphical framework for the Carboniferous rocks of the Midland Valley of Scotland. British Geological Survey Research Report, RR/99/07.

Browne, M.A.E., Smith, R.A., and Aitken, A.M. (2002) Stratigraphical framework for the Devonian (Old Red Sandstone) rocks of Scotland south of a line from Fort Willam to Aberdeen. British Geological Survey Research Report, RR/01/04. 67 pp.

Cherubini, Y, Cacace, M. Scheck-Wenderoth, M, and Noack, V (2014) Influence of major fault zones on 3-D coupled fluid and heat transport for the Brandenburg region ( NE German Basin). Geoth. Energ. Sci., 2, 1-20.

Childs C., Manzocchi T., Walsh J.J., Bonson C.G., Nicol A. and Schopfer M.P.J., 2009. A geometric model of fault zone and fault rock thickness variation. Journal of Structural Geology, 31, pp. 118 - 127.

Diersch, H.-J.G.: FEFLOW finite element subsurface flow and transport simulation system, Reference Manual, User's Manual and White Papers Vol. I, II, III, IV, WASY - Institute for Water Resources Planning and Systems Research, Berlin (2005).

Foster S S D, Stirling W G N and Paterson I B 1976. Groundwater storage in Fife and Kinross - its potential as a regional resource. Rep. Inst. Geol. Sci., No 76/9, 21pp.

Gaus I, Ó Dochartaigh BÉ (2000) Conceptual modelling of data-scarce aquifers in Scotland: the sandstone aquifers of Fife and Dumfries Geological Society, London, Special Publications 182:157-168 doi:10.1144/gsl.sp.2000.182.01.15

Gillespie M.R., Crane E.J. and Barron H.F., 2013. Deep geothermal energy potential in Scotland. British Geological Survey Commissioned Report, CR/12/131.

Heffer, K. and Lean, J. (1993) Earth stress orientation a control on, and guide to, flooding directionality in a majority of reservoirs. Pp. 799822 in: Reservoir Characterization III (W. Linville, editor). PennWell Books, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA.

Heidbach, O., Tingay, M., Bath, A., Reinecker, J., Kurfess, D. & Muller, B. 2008. The World Stress Map database release 2008. DOI 10.1594/GFZ.WSM.Rel2008

Laubach, S.E., Olson, J.E. and Gale, J.F.W. (2004) Are open fractures necessarily aligned with maximum horizontal stress? Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 222, 191195.

Macdonald, A.M., Ball, D.F. and Ó Dochartaigh, B.É. (2004) A GIS of aquifer productivity in Scotland: explanatory notes. BGS Commissioned Report CR/04/047N.

Macdonald, A.M., Darling, W.G., Ball, D.F. and Oster H. (2003) Identifying trends in groundwater quality using residence time indicators: an example from the Dumfries basin, Scotland. Hydrogeology Journal 11: 504-517.

McCoss A.M, 1987. Geometry and Kinematics of Transpression and Transtension. A thesis submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy of the Faculty of Science, Queen's University of Belfast.

Ó Dochartaigh B.É.. 2004. The physical properties of the Upper Devonian/Lower Carboniferous aquifer in Fife. BGS Internal Report IR/04/003.

Ó Dochartaigh, B.É., Ball D.F., Browne M.A.E., Shand P., MacDonald A.M., Robins, N.S., and McNeill, G.W. (1999) The Upper Devonian Sandstone Aquifer of Fife British Geological Survey Report WD/99/39.

Ó Dochartaigh, B.É., Macdonald, A.M., Fitzsimons, V., and Ward, R. (2015). Scotland's aquifers and groundwater bodies. British Geological Survey Open Report, OR/15/028. 76pp.

Ó Dochartaigh, B.É., Smedley, P.L., Macdonald, A.M., and Darling, W.G. (2006) Baseline Scotland: the Lower Devonian aquifer of Strathmore. British Geological Survey Commissioned Report, CR/06/250N. 60pp.

NERC, 2015. BGS Lexicon of Named Rock Units. Available at: (Accessed 31/08/15).

Rogers, S.F. (2003) Critical stress-related permeability in fractured rocks. Pp. 716 in: Fracture and In-situ Stress Characterization of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs (M. Ameen, editor) Geological Society, London.

Rogers, S.F. and Evans, C.J. (2002) Stress-dependent flow in fractured Rocks at Sellafield, United Kingdom. Pp. 241250 in: Geological Applications of Well Logs (M. Lovell and N. Parkinson, editors). AAPG Methods in Exploration No. 13. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA.

Sathat, S; Reeves, H.J., Cuss, R.J. and Harrington. J.F. (2012), The role of stress history on the flow of fluids through Fractures, Mineralogical Magazine, December 2012, Vol. 76(8), pp. 3165-3177

Shell, P.J. 2002. Depositional and stratigraphic framework of the VIsean of Fife and the Central North Sea. A thesis submitted as part of the PhD in Geoscience degree, University of St Andrews .

Spears, B.M., Saunders, J.E., Davidson, I., and Paterson, D.M. (2008) Microalgal sediment biostabilisation along a salinity gradient in the Eden Estuary, Scotland: unravelling a paradox. Marine and Freshwater Research, 59, 313-321.

15.2 Guidance and regulatory documents

Regulatory Guidance: Geothermal Heat in Scotland

The Water Environment (Controlled Activities) (Scotland) Regulations 2011 (as amended)

Scottish National Planning Framework 3

Conservation (Natural Habitats, &c.) Regulations 1994, as amended - guidance

Natura sites and the Habitats Regulations - How to consider proposals affecting Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protection Areas in Scotland

DECC Report: Updated Energy and Emissions Projects 2015

Biomass Energy Centre