Publication - Research and analysis

Growing up in Scotland: the impact of children's early activities on cognitive development

Published: 18 Mar 2009
Directorate:
Children and Families Directorate
Part of:
Children and families, Education
ISBN:
9780755919680

This report uses data from the first three waves of the Growing Up in Scotland study (GUS) to explore children’s cognitive ability.

92 page PDF

1.8 MB

92 page PDF

1.8 MB

Contents
Growing up in Scotland: the impact of children's early activities on cognitive development
Appendix A Regression Tables

92 page PDF

1.8 MB

Appendix A Regression Tables

Regression analysis compares a reference category within each variable with the rest of the categories in that variable and produces an estimate of the size of the contribution that category makes to the overall variation in cognitive ability. These estimates are called coefficients.

Table A.1 presents the significance levels of the variables for each of the stages in the naming vocabulary analysis. Table A.2 shows the coefficients for the stage three analysis and Table A.3 shows the coefficients for stage four. Tables A.4-A.6 follow the same format for the picture similarities analysis.

Full results of the first and second stages are available on request from ScotCen.

Table A.1 Naming vocabulary multiple linear regression - significance levels for individual variables

Naming

Regression stages

Stage one

Stage two

Stage three

Stage four

Independent variables

Mother's highest qualification (standard grade or below)

.000

.000

.001

.925

Area deprivation (15% most deprived areas)

.340

Area deprivation - persistent (3 years 15% most deprived areas)

.003

.084

.069

Equivalised household income quintile (5th quintile - lowest income)

.001

Household income - persistent (3 years 5th quintile - lowest income)

.001

.000

.000

Family and employment type (all adults unemployed/working <16 hours)

.207

Family and employment type - persistent (3 years all adults unemployed/working <16 hours)

.254

Age of mother at child's birth (below 25)

.000

.004

.034

.093

Developmental concern (some concern at 22 months)

.000

.000

.000

.003

No. of children in family (4 or more)

.000

.000

.000

.000

Gender of child (boy)

.000

.000

.000

.000

Birth weight (low birth weight)

.003

.001

.005

.013

At 10 months:

Reading with parent (never)

.044

.084

Library visits (never been)

.646

At 22 months:

Daily activities (25% least active)

.000

.000

Educational games

.910

Number of annual visits/events (one/none)

.001

.020

Number of activities rated very important (one/none)

.711

Importance of educational games

.475

Satisfaction with activities (would like much wider range)

.822

R squared

15.6

15.7

19.5

18.2

Constant

35.7

36.5

32.5

31.2

Significance

.000

.000

.000

.000

Sample size

3560

3534

3484

1985

Note: reference categories are shown in brackets, significant values are shown in bold, blank cells indicate factors not in the model.

Table A.2 Naming vocabulary multiple linear regression - full results of stage three model of socio-demographic factors and activities/parental attitudes measures

Coefficient

P value

95% CI

Mother's highest qualification (standard grade or below)

Degree

1.523

0.022

0.225

2.820

Vocational below degree

-0.586

0.224

-1.540

0.367

Higher grade

-0.581

0.596

-2.758

1.596

Area deprivation - persistent (3 years 15% most deprived areas)

Never in 15% most deprived area

0.163

0.843

-1.478

1.804

1 year

-0.936

0.413

-3.206

1.334

2 years

-1.851

0.073

-3.881

0.178

Household income - persistent (3 years 5th quintile - lowest income)

Never in bottom quintile

4.393

0.000

2.581

6.204

1 year

2.380

0.006

0.721

4.039

2 years

0.845

0.387

-1.091

2.781

Age of mother at child's birth (below 25)

25 to 34

1.437

0.010

0.351

2.523

35+

1.585

0.027

0.187

2.984

Developmental concern (some concern at 22 months)

No concerns

4.662

0.000

2.766

6.559

No. of children in family (1)

2

-1.954

0.000

-2.773

-1.136

3

-3.423

0.000

-4.543

-2.304

4

-4.639

0.000

-6.410

-2.867

Gender of child (boy)

Girl

3.731

0.000

2.978

4.484

Birth weight (low birth weight)

Not low

2.529

0.005

0.780

4.279

At 10 months:Reading with parent (never)

Every day

2.589

0.010

0.646

4.532

Once or twice a week

2.591

0.004

0.841

4.341

Once every 1 or 2 months or less

1.938

0.075

-0.202

4.079

Library visits (never been)

Has ever been to a library

0.219

0.646

-0.728

1.166

At 22 months:Daily activities (25% least active)

2nd most active

2.783

0.000

1.666

3.900

3rd most active

3.751

0.000

2.098

5.405

Most active 25%

5.521

0.000

3.587

7.456

Educational games

1-3 days

-0.134

0.796

-1.163

0.896

4-6 days

0.301

0.670

-1.102

1.703

7 days

0.288

0.678

-1.093

1.670

Number of annual visits/events (one/none)

2

1.318

0.086

-.190

2.827

3

1.570

0.057

-.045

3.185

4

2.755

0.002

1.090

4.420

5+

3.300

0.001

1.487

5.112

Number of activities rated very important (one/none)

2

-0.235

0.832

-2.441

1.972

3

0.439

0.714

-1.942

2.820

4-5

0.480

0.637

-1.541

2.500

Importance of educational games (Quite/neither/not important)

Very important

-0.518

0.475

-1.958

0.922

Satisfaction with activities (would like much wider range)

Very happy

-0.102

0.885

-1.499

1.296

Quite happy

0.325

0.612

-0.952

1.603

Would like slightly wider range

-0.161

0.800

-1.425

1.103

Note: reference categories are shown in brackets

Table A.3 Naming vocabulary multiple linear regression - full results of stage four model of socio-demographic factors and activities/parental attitudes measures (advantaged children removed)

Coefficient

P value

95% CI

Mother's highest qualification (standard grade or below)

Degree

(dropped)

Vocational below degree

-0.053

0.926

-1.202

1.095

Higher grade

-0.521

0.694

-3.153

2.112

Area deprivation - persistent (3 years 15% most deprived areas)

Never in 15% most deprived area

-0.161

0.844

-1.792

1.469

1 year

-0.804

0.506

-3.204

1.595

2 years

-2.347

0.030

-4.462

-0.232

Household income - persistent (3 years 5th quintile - lowest income)

Never in bottom quintile

4.778

0.000

2.784

6.773

1 year

3.184

0.001

1.340

5.029

2 years

1.492

0.155

-0.579

3.564

Age of mother at child's birth (below 25)

25 to 34

1.315

0.042

0.046

2.585

35+

1.227

0.109

-0.280

2.734

Developmental concern (some concern at 22 months)

No concerns

3.773

0.003

1.322

6.224

No. of children in family (1)

2

-1.364

0.030

-2.594

-0.134

3

-3.138

0.000

-4.821

-1.454

4

-4.319

0.000

-6.301

-2.337

Gender of child (boy)

Girl

3.775

0.000

2.805

4.744

Birth weight (low birth weight)

Not low

3.243

0.013

0.706

5.779

At 10 months:Reading with parent (never)

Every day

2.578

0.015

0.514

4.642

Once or twice a week

2.545

0.013

0.554

4.536

Once every 1 or 2 months or less

2.349

0.064

-0.144

4.842

At 22 months:Daily activities (25% least active)

2nd most active

3.553

0.000

1.977

5.129

3rd most active

5.064

0.000

3.519

6.610

Most active 25%

6.279

0.000

4.321

8.238

Number of annual visits/events (one/none)

2

1.627

0.055

-0.036

3.290

3

1.870

0.060

-0.080

3.820

4

3.143

0.002

1.168

5.118

5+

3.304

0.007

0.938

5.670

Note: reference categories are shown in brackets

Table A.4 Picture similarities multiple linear regression - significance levels for individual variables

Picture similarities

Regression stages

Stage one

Stage two

Stage three

Stage four

Independent variables

Mother's highest qualification (standard grade or below)

.085

.070

Area deprivation (15% most deprived areas)

.006

Area deprivation - persistent (3 years 15% most deprived areas)

.001

.001

.014

Equivalised household income quintile (5th quintile - lowest income)

.010

Household income - persistent (3 years 5th quintile - lowest income)

.013

.023

.201

Family and employment type (all adults unemployed/working <16 hours)

.000

Family and employment type - persistent (3 years all adults unemployed/working <16 hours)

.026

.024

.077

Age of mother at child's birth (below 25)

.029

.138

.277

.355

Developmental concern (some concern at 22 months)

.000

.000

.006

.037

No. of children in family (4 or more)

.000

.000

.002

.003

Gender of child (boy)

.000

.000

.000

.000

Birth weight (low birth weight)

.003

.001

.006

.007

At 10 months:

Reading with parent (less often than every day)

.356

.097

Library visits (never been)

.297

At 22 months:

Daily activities (25% least active)

.001

.000

Educational games

.734

Number of annual visits/events (one/none)

.006

.428

Number of activities rated very important (one/none)

.278

Importance of educational games

.191

Satisfaction with activities (would like much wider range)

.130

R squared

9.9

10.0

12.3

11.8

Constant

36.6

37.4

36.0

34.5

Significance

.000

.000

.000

.000

Sample size

3764

3736

3687

1990

Note: reference categories are shown in brackets, significant values are shown in bold, blank cells indicate factors not in the model.

Table A.5 Picture similarities multiple linear regression - full results of stage three model of socio-demographic factors and activities/parental attitudes measures

Coefficient

P value

95% CI

Area deprivation - persistent (3 years 15% most deprived areas)

Never in 15% most deprived area

2.084

0.010

0.527

3.642

1 year

-0.355

0.744

-2.512

1.803

2 years

-0.364

0.734

-2.493

1.766

Household income - persistent (3 years 5th quintile - lowest income)

Never in bottom quintile

1.772

0.045

0.044

3.499

1 year

0.505

0.596

-1.386

2.396

2 years

-0.227

0.829

-2.322

1.868

Family and employment type - persistent (3 years all adults unemployed/working <16 hours)

Never in hhold with no adult working >16 hrs

3.014

0.003

1.066

4.962

2 years

1.964

0.076

-0.209

4.137

1 year

1.252

0.318

-1.233

3.736

Age of mother at child's birth (below 25)

25 to 34

0.762

0.141

-0.258

1.781

35+

0.955

0.126

-.276

2.185

Developmental concern (some concern at 22 months)

No concerns

2.234

0.006

.6777543

3.791156

No. of children in family (1)

2

-0.632

0.157

-1.515

0.250

3

-2.104

0.000

-3.192

-1.016

4

-1.809

0.058

-3.682

0.064

Gender of child (boy)

Girl

1.527

0.000

0.763

2.290

Birth weight (low birth weight)

Not low

2.495

0.006

0.747

4.242

At 10 months:Reading with parent (never)

Every day

1.558

0.136

-0.505

3.621

Once or twice a week

1.030

0.327

-1.051

3.110

Once every 1 or 2 months or less

1.563

0.202

-0.861

3.987

Library visits (never been)

Has ever been to a library

-0.405

0.297

-1.174

0.364

At 22 months:Daily activities (25% least active)

2nd most active

1.590

0.011

0.381

2.797

3rd most active

2.585

0.000

1.264

3.906

Most active 25%

3.261

0.000

1.768

4.755

Educational games

1-3 days

-0.436

0.457

-1.603

0.730

4-6 days

0.044

0.944

-1.201

1.288

7 days

-0.496

0.418

-1.710

0.718

Number of annual visits/events (one/none)

2

-0.085

0.904

-1.495

1.324

3

0.519

0.486

-0.962

2.001

4

1.438

0.032

0.129

2.747

5+

1.690

0.014

0.349

3.031

Number of activities rated very important (one/none)

2

1.489

0.088

-0.227

3.204

3

0.501

0.521

-1.049

2.050

4-5

0.586

0.457

-.980

2.152

Importance of educational games (Quite/neither/not important)

Very important

-0.714

0.191

-1.791

0.364

Satisfaction with activities (would like much wider range)

Very happy

-0.553

0.454

-2.019

0.913

Quite happy

-1.370

0.036

-2.647

-0.093

Would like slightly wider range

-0.652

0.239

-1.746

0.443

Note: reference categories are shown in brackets

Table A.6 Picture similarities multiple linear regression - full results of stage four model of socio-demographic factors and activities/parental attitudes measures (advantaged children removed)

Coefficient

P value

95% CI

Area deprivation - persistent (3 years 15% most deprived areas)

Never in 15% most deprived area

1.259

0.134

-0.400

2.917

1 year

-0.712

0.543

-3.036

1.612

2 years

-1.104

0.326

-3.334

1.126

Household income - persistent (3 years 5th quintile - lowest income)

Never in bottom quintile

-1.747

0.058

-0.062

3.556

1 year

0.982

0.305

-0.914

2.878

2 years

0.458

0.675

-1.714

2.629

Family/employment type - persistent

Never in hold with no adult working >16 hrs

2.467

0.020

0.399

4.534

2 years

1.417

0.227

-0.903

3.738

1 year

0.372

0.774

-2.204

2.948

Age of mother at child's birth (below 25)

25 to 34

0.862

0.166

-.366

2.090

35+

1.012

0.225

-.638

2.661

Developmental concern (some concern at 22 months)

No concerns

1.978

0.037

0.123

3.832

No. of children in family (1)

2

-0.708

0.201

-1.802

0.386

3

-2.774

0.000

-4.186

-1.362

4

-1.860

0.082

-3.962

0.242

Gender of child (boy)

Girl

1.661

0.000

0.771

2.551

Birth weight (low birth weight)

Not low

3.336

0.007

0.940

5.732

At 10 months: Reading with parent (never)

Every day

2.393

0.025

0.306

4.480

Once or twice a week

1.374

0.180

-0.652

3.401

Once every 1 or 2 months or less

2.105

0.107

-0.471

4.680

At 22 months:Daily activities (25% least active)

2nd most active

2.200

0.004

0.730

3.671

3rd most active

2.921

0.000

1.442

4.401

Most active 25%

3.368

0.000

1.828

4.909

Number of annual visits/events (one/none)

2

-0.024

0.978

-1.735

1.687

3

0.386

0.671

-1.420

2.192

4

1.047

0.269

-0.830

2.924

5+

1.324

0.163

-0.551

3.200

Note: reference categories are shown in brackets