Publication - Research and analysis

Growing up in Scotland: children's social, emotional and behavioural characteristics at entry to primary school

Published: 29 Apr 2010

This report investigates the extent and nature of social, emotional and behavioural difficulties among Scottish school children around the age they enter primary one, and shows which children are most likely to have these difficulties.

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60 page PDF

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Contents
Growing up in Scotland: children's social, emotional and behavioural characteristics at entry to primary school
APPENDIX 1 - REGRESSION TABLES

60 page PDF

720.1 kB

APPENDIX 1 - REGRESSION TABLES

Note on interpreting odds ratios

The regression results are presented as odds ratios for each independent variable, all of which have a significance value and 95% confidence intervals attached. Odds ratios estimate the effect of each individual independent variable on the outcome variable, adjusted for all other independent variables in the regression model. Logistic regression compares the odds of a reference category (shown in the tables in brackets) with that of the other categories. An odds ratio of greater than one indicates that the group in question is more likely to demonstrate this characteristic than is the chosen reference category, an odds ratio of less than one means they are less likely. For example, in the second column of Table A.1, which contains the results of the regression model seeking to identify factors related to the sample child having a conduct problems score in the borderline or abnormal range at school entry, the category of temporarily or always fair, bad or very bad health returns an odds ratio of 2.09. This indicates that the odds of children whose health was temporarily or always poor having a conduct problems score in the borderline or abnormal range at school entry are 2.09 times greater than they are for children whose health is always good or very good (the reference category). Categories which have a value of greater than 0.05 are not considered to be significant.

Table A1.1 Associations key demographic, socio-economic, parenting and development characteristics and a borderline or abnormal score in each scale at primary school entry

Conduct problems

Emotional symptoms

Hyper-activity

Peer problems

Total difficulties

Sex of child
(ref: male)

Female

0.90

1.23

0.66**

0.92

0.88

Mother's ethnicity
(ref: white)

Non-white

0.52

1.33

0.77

4.31***

1.05

Age of mother at birth of cohort child
(ref: under 25)

25 - 29

1.02

1.40

0.95

1.08

0.79

30 - 34

0.82

0.87

0.56**

0.78

0.68

35 or older

0.76

0.79

0.59**

0.81

0.85

Number of children in household at age 2 (ref: 1)

Two

1.34

0.76

0.82

0.74

0.96

Three or more

1.11

0.45**

0.70

0.85

0.64

Family type transitions from age 2 to 5 (ref: stable couple)

Couple who separate

1.22

2.11

0.82

1.10

1.07

Stable lone parent

1.86**

1.24

1.23

1.33

1.48

Lone parent who repartnered

2.23***

0.98

1.51

1.29

1.86

Equivalised annual household income (ref: < £11,875)

2nd Quintile (>=£11,875<£19,444)

0.60**

0.89

0.53**

0.90

0.79

3rd Quintile (>=£19,444< £25,625)

0.62**

0.55*

0.51**

0.65

0.43**

4th Quintile (>=£25,625< £37,500)

0.56**

0.64

0.47**

0.62

0.51*

Top Quintile (>=£37,500)

0.51**

0.37**

0.52**

0.66

0.34**

Child's age when started school
(ref: age 5yrs 0mths to 5yrs 5mths)

Age 4yrs 6mths to 4yrs 11mths

1.03

1.06

1.14

1.07

1.10

Age 5yrs 6mths to 6yrs 0mths

1.07

0.97

1.10

1.13

0.91

Child's general health at age 5
(ref: always good/very good)

Temporarily or always fair, bad or very bad

2.09***

2.38***

2.50***

1.42

2.89***

Delay in motor developmental at age 2 (ref: none)

1 milestone

0.91

1.32

1.32

0.88

0.95

2 milestone

1.27

1.11*

1.11

0.85

0.94

3 or more milestones

1.33

1.54**

1.54

1.21

1.88

(Information missing)

1.05

1.33

1.33

1.15

1.41

Child's speech difficult for others to understand at age 2
(ref: No)

Yes

1.26

1.00

1.40*

1.58**

1.98***

Use of harsh discipline at age 3
(ref: None)

Shouting only

2.37**

1.23

1.42

0.77

1.01

Smacking only

1.80***

1.11

1.62**

1.16

1.61

Shouting and smacking

3.59***

1.47

1.90**

1.49

2.18**

Frequency of parent-child interaction

More often

0.91***

0.96

0.95*

1.68

0.95

Frequency child taken to visit other people with children at age 2
(ref: fortnightly or more)

Less often

1.44*

1.26

1.50*

1.68***

1.83**

Notes: Asterisks represent statistical significance: *** = p<.001, ** = p<0.01, *=p<0.05, ~=borderline (just over 0.05)

Table A1.2 Associations between pre-school SDQ score, key demographic, socio-economic, parenting and development characteristics and borderline and abnormal score in each scale at primary school entry

Conduct problems

Emotional symptoms

Hyper-activity

Peer problems

Total difficulties

Behaviour score classification at
pre-school - 46 mths
(ref: Normal)

Conduct problems - Borderline

3.76***

-

-

-

-

Conduct problems - Abnormal

10.02***

-

-

-

-

Emotional symptoms - Borderline

-

5.62***

-

-

-

Emotional symptoms - Abnormal

-

9.93***

-

-

-

Hyperactivity/inattention - Borderline

-

-

4.37***

-

-

Hyperactivity/inattention Abnormal

-

-

9.15***

-

-

Peer problems - Borderline

-

-

-

2.61***

-

Peer problems - Abnormal

-

-

-

9.51***

-

Total difficulties - Borderline

-

-

-

-

7.88***

Total difficulties - Abnormal

-

-

-

-

17.23***

Sex of child
(ref: male)

Female

0.91

1.17

0.69*

0.93

0.83

Mother's ethnicity
(ref: white)
Non-white

0.38*

1.42

0.63

3.91***

0.86

Age of mother at birth of cohort child (ref: under 25)

25 - 29

1.18

1.50

1.11

1.15

1.04

30 - 34

1.01

0.92

0.74

0.90

1.00

35 or older

0.95

0.89

0.79

0.91

1.23

Number of children in household at age 2 (ref: 1)

Two

1.24

0.70~

0.78

0.77

0.89

Three or more

1.01

0.40**

0.65

0.88

0.61

Family type transitions from age 2 to 5 (ref: stable couple)

Couple who separate

1.38

1.83

0.79

1.25

1.04

Stable lone parent

2.09***

1.14

1.35

1.45

1.33

Lone parent who repartnered

2.26**

0.96

1.55

1.17

1.75

Equivalised annual household income (ref: < £11,875)

2nd Quintile (>=£11,875<£19,444)

0.56*

0.84

0.57

1.04

0.90

3rd Quintile (>=£19,444< £25,625)

0.70

0.53*

0.61

0.67

0.43*

4th Quintile (>=£25,625< £37,500)

0.60*

0.64

0.56

0.68

0.60

Top Quintile (>=£37,500)

0.54**

0.38*

0.57

0.68

0.39*

Child's age when started school
(ref: 5)

Age 4yrs 6mths to 4yrs 11mths

1.09

1.07

1.20

0.97

1.14

Age 5yrs 6mths to 6yrs 0mths

1.09

1.04

1.12

1.12

1.13

Child's general health at age 5
(ref: always good/very good)

Temporarily fair, bad or very bad

1.75**

1.84**

2.35***

1.17

2.14**

Delay in motor developmental at age 2 (ref: none)

1 milestone

0.79

1.57

1.34

0.96

1.00

2 milestone

1.00

2.26

1.11

0.95

0.82

3 or more milestones

1.29

3.78**

1.46

1.15

1.86

(Information missing)

1.01

2.29

1.28

1.18

1.35

Child's speech difficult for others to understand at age 2
(ref: No)

Yes

1.07

0.90

1.27~

1.46*

1.74**

Use of harsh discipline at age 3
(ref: None)

Shouting only

2.24

1.14

1.25

0.54

0.88

Smacking only

1.70

1.22

1.37

1.06

1.55

Shouting and smacking

2.56

1.53

1.55

1.42

1.92

Frequency of parent-child interaction

More often

0.92***

0.94~

0.95*

0.98

0.95

Frequency child taken to visit other people with children at age 2
(ref: fortnightly or more)

Less often

1.30

1.17

1.38~

1.55**

1.65*

Notes: Asterisks represent statistical significance: *** = p<.001, ** = p<0.01, *=p<0.05, ~=borderline (just over 0.05)