Publication - Research and analysis

Freedom of Information International Review: scope of bodies included

Published: 22 Jan 2020

A review of the scope of bodies included in freedom of information legislation in eleven international jurisdictions.

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Contents
Freedom of Information International Review: scope of bodies included
Footnotes

82 page PDF

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Footnotes

1. Jim Wallace MSP, Minister for Justice, Freedom of Information (Scotland) Bill: Stage 3 debate, SP OR 24 April 2002, cols 8111-8112

2. Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002, s.4 and 5

3. Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002 (Designation of Persons as Scottish Public Authorities) Order 2013

4. Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2001 (Designation of Persons as Scottish Public Authorities) Order 2016

5. SP M PAPLS 22 March 2018

6. Nicola Sturgeon MSP, First Minister of Scotland, Keynote Speech at Caird Hall, Dundee, Friday 7th November 2014

7. Scottish Government, (2018) 'Delivering for Today, Investing for Tomorrow: The Government's Programme for Scotland 2018-19', Available at https://www.gov.scot/publications/delivering-today-investing-tomorrow-governments-programme-scotland-2018-19/pages/4/ (Accessed 25/01/19), p93

8. Eg, Scotland, Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002, s.4 and 5; Ireland, Freedom of Information Act 2014

9. Eg, Mexico, Ley General De Transparencia Y Accesso A La Información Pública 2015, (General Act of Transparency and Access to Public Information 2015), Article 81

10. Brazil, Estonia, India, Kenya, Mexico, The Netherlands, Nigeria and South Africa (see annex)

11. Access to Information Act (31 of 2016), s.2

12. Herbling, D. (04/06/17). 'Kenyan firms slow in enforcing Access to Information Act', Business Daily Africa, Available at https://www.businessdailyafrica.com/economy/Kenyan-firms-slow-in-enforcing-Access-to-Information-Act/3946234-3955564-126nyqy/index.html (Accessed 16/01/19)

13. Offentighets-och sekretesslag (2009:400), (Public Access to Information and Secrecy Act) 3 §

14. Public Access to Information and Secrecy Act 2009, 3 §

15. Netherlands, Wet openbaarheid van bestuur (Public Access Act) 1991, Explanatory Memorandum

16. Scottish Government, (2010), 'Consultation on Extending the Coverage of the Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002' Available at https://www2.gov.scot/Resource/Doc/319057/0101913.pdf (Accessed 23/01/2019); and Scottish Government (2015) 'Consultation of Further Extension of Coverage of the Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002 to More Organisations' Available at https://www2.gov.scot/Resource/0047/00479060.pdf (Accessed 23/01/2019),

17. Eg Mexico, General Act of Transparency and Access to Public Information 2015, Art 81

18. Eg, South Africa and Nigeria

19. Ireland, Freedom of Information Act 2014, s.6

20. Ireland, Freedom of Information Act 2014, s.7 and Schedule 1, Part 1 and Part 2

21. Ireland, Freedom of Information Act 2014, Schedule 1, Part 1

22. Ireland, Freedom of Information Act 2014, Schedule 1, Part 2

23. Ireland, Freedom of Information Act 1997, Schedule 1

24. See for example, Liddle, C & McMenemy, D (2014) 'An evaluation of the United Kingdom and Scottish freedom of information regimes: comparative law and real-world practice' Communications Law 19(3), pp77-85; Worthy, B (2017) The Politics of Freedom of Information, Manchester: Manchester University Press, Chapter 9; Peled, R & Rabin, Y (2010). 'The Constitutional Right to Information' Columbia Human Rights Law Review 42:357, p397

25. General Act of Transparency and Access to Public Information 2015, Art 81

26. General Act of Transparency and Access to Public Information 2015, Art 82

27. Scottish Information Commissioner (2015). 'Commissioner's Special Report: FOI 10 Years On – are the right organisations covered? Available at http://www.itspublicknowledge.info/home/SICReports/OtherReports/SpecialReportsandotherpublications.aspx (Accessed 25/01/19)

28. Government, Administrative, Parliamentary and Judicial Bodies

29. The Right to Information Act, 2005, Clause 2(h)

30. The Right to Information Act, 2005, Clause 2(h)(d)(i)

31. The Right to Information Act, 2005, Clause 2(h)(d)(i)

32. The Right to Information Act, 2005, Clause 2(h)(b) and (c)

33. The Right to Information Act, 2005, Clause 2(h)(d)(ii)

34. Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002, s.5(2)(a)

35. Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002, s.5(2)(b)

36. Scottish Government, (2010), 'Consultation on Extending the Coverage of the Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002' Available at https://www2.gov.scot/Resource/Doc/319057/0101913.pdf (Accessed 23/01/2019); and Scottish Government (2015) 'Consultation of Further Extension of Coverage of the Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002 to More Organisations' Available at https://www2.gov.scot/Resource/0047/00479060.pdf (Accessed 23/01/2019),

37. Scottish Government, (2010), 'Consultation on Extending the Coverage of the Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002' Available at https://www2.gov.scot/Resource/Doc/319057/0101913.pdf (Accessed 23/01/2019); and Scottish Government (2015) 'Consultation of Further Extension of Coverage of the Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002 to More Organisations' Available at https://www2.gov.scot/Resource/0047/00479060.pdf (Accessed 23/01/2019),

38. In some jurisdictions, for example Estonia, Kenya, the Netherlands and Sweden state-owned enterprises are not explicitly mentioned in the legislation. However, state-owned enterprises fit within another definition or have been confirmed elsewhere as subject to the Act. Please see the annex for more details.

39. For example Scotland and New Zealand, see annex for more details

40. Brazil, India, Ireland, Mexico, Nigeria and Sweden – See annex for more details

41. Ireland, New Zealand and Sweden – See annex for more details

42. Official Information Act 1986, s.2; State-Owned Enterprises Act 1982, s.2

43. Public Access to Information and Secrecy Act 2009, Annex

44. Estonia, Ireland, South Africa and Sweden – See Annex for more details

45. Eg Mexico, Sweden – See Annex for more details

46. Scotland, Brazil, Estonia, the Netherlands and New Zealand - See Annex for more details

47. Avaliku teave seadus 2000 (RT I 2000, 92, 597) (Public Information Act 2000), s.5(2)

48. Scotland, Ireland, Mexico and Sweden – See Annex for more details

49. Eg Scotland and Ireland – See Annex for more details

50. General Act of Transparency and Access to Public Information 2015, Art 82

51. General Act of Transparency and Access to Public Information 2015, Art 81

52. Official Information Act 1986, s.2(2)

53. The Netherlands, South Africa and Sweden, see Annex for more details

54. Official Information Act, s.2(5)

55. Right to Information Act. 2005, Clause 2(h)(d)(i)

56. Comptroller and Auditor General's (Duties, Powers and Conditions of Service) Act 1971, s.14

57. See Annex

58. The Hindu Urban Cooperative Bank Limited and Others v. The State Information Commission and Others (Pun & Har HC) 1190/2011, para 87

59. Dattaprasad Co-operative Housing Society Ltd v. Karnataka State Chief Information Commissioner [2009] 5 RCR (Civil) 833 (Karc HC)

60. General Act of Transparency and Access to Public Information 2015, Article 23

61. Public Access Act 1991, S.1a(1)(b)

62. Freedom of Information Act 2011, s.2(7) and s.31

63. Public Access to Information and Secrecy Act 2009, Annex

64. Public Access to Information and Secrecy Act 2009, Annex

65. Scotland and Sweden, See Annex

66. See Annex

67. Thalappalam Ser. Coop. Bank Ltd and others v. State of Kerala and others, Civil Appeal No.9017 of 2013

68. Thalappalam Ser. Coop. Bank Ltd and others v. State of Kerala and others, Civil Appeal No.9017 of 2013, para 15

69. Thalappalam Ser. Coop. Bank Ltd and others v. State of Kerala and others, Civil Appeal No.9017 of 2013, para 15

70. General Act of Transparency and Access to Public Information 2015, Art 23

71. Political parties under RTI: Election Commission contradicts CIC directive' The Hindu (27/05/18), Available at https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/political-parties-under-rti-election-commission-contradicts-cic-directive/article24006404.ece (Accessed 23/01/19)

72. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, s.32(1)

73. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, s.19(3)

74. My Vote Counts NPC v President of the Republic of South Africa and Others (13372/2016) [2017] ZAWCHC 105

75. Public Information Act 2000, s.5(3)(1)

76. Public Information Act 2000, s.5(3)(1)

77. Access to Information Act (31 of 2016), s.2 'Private body': (a)

78. Right2info. (13/09/13) 'Private Bodies and Public Corporations' Available at https://www.right2info.org/scope-of-bodies-covered-by-access-to-information/private-bodies-and-public-corporations (Accessed 23/01/19)

79. See Roberts, A. (2010). 'A Great and Revolutionary Law? The First Four Years of India's Right to Information Act', Public Information Review November/December, p932

80. Mittalsteel South Africa Ltd (Formerly Iscor Ltd) v Hlatshwayo 2007 (1) SA 66 (SCA)

81. Scottish Information Commissioner (2015). 'Commissioner's Special Report: FOI 10 Years On – are the right organisations covered? Available at http://www.itspublicknowledge.info/home/SICReports/OtherReports/SpecialReportsandotherpublications.aspx (Accessed 25/01/19)

82. Constitution of Kenya, 2010, Article 35(1)

83. Constitution of Kenya, 2010, Article 33

84. Constitution of Kenya, 2010, Article 34

85. Nairobi Law Monthly Company Limited v. Kenya Electricity Generating Company (KENGEN) & 6 others, Petition No.278 of 2011, High Court of Nairobi, para 67

86. Nairobi Law Monthly Company Limited v. Kenya Electricity Generating Company (KENGEN) & 6 others, Petition No.278 of 2011, High Court of Nairobi, para 67

87. Cape Metropolitan Council v Metro Inspection Services (Western Cape) CC and Others, 2001(3) SA 1013 (SCA), para 28

88. Peekhaus, W. (2014). 'South Africa's Promotion of Access to Information Act: An Analysis of Relevant Jurisprudence' Journal of Information Policy 4, p580

89. My Vote Counts NPC v President of the Republic of South Africa and Others (13372/2016) [2017] ZAWCHC 105

90. Claase v Information Officer of South African Airways (Pty) Ltd. [2006] SCA 163

91. Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002, s.3(1)(a)(i)

92. Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002, s.3(1)(a)(ii)

93. Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002, s.3(1)(b)

94. Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002, s.5(2)(a)

95. Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002, s.5(2)(b)

96. Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002 (Designation of Persons as Scottish Public Authorities) Order 2013, Schedule

97. Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002 (Designation of Persons as Scottish Public Authorities) Order 2016, Schedule

98. Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002, s.6(1)(a)

99. Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002, s.6(1)(b)

100. Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002 (Designation of Persons as Scottish Public Authorities) Order 2016, Schedule

101. Scottish Government, (2010), 'Consultation on Extending the Coverage of the Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002' Available at https://www2.gov.scot/Resource/Doc/319057/0101913.pdf (Accessed 23/01/2019)

102. Scottish Government (2015) 'Consultation of Further Extension of Coverage of the Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002 to More Organisations' Available at https://www2.gov.scot/Resource/0047/00479060.pdf (Accessed 23/01/2019),

103. Scottish Government (2015) 'Consultation of Further Extension of Coverage of the Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002 to More Organisations' Available at https://www2.gov.scot/Resource/0047/00479060.pdf (Accessed 23/01/2019), p4

104. Scottish Information Commissioner (2015) 'FOI 10 years on: Are the right organisations covered?' Special Report

105. Scottish Government (2015) 'Consultation of Further Extension of Coverage of the Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002 to More Organisations' Available at https://www2.gov.scot/Resource/0047/00479060.pdf (Accessed 23/01/2019), p4

106. Scottish Government (2015) 'Consultation of Further Extension of Coverage of the Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002 to More Organisations' Available at https://www2.gov.scot/Resource/0047/00479060.pdf (Accessed 23/01/2019), p4

107. Scottish Government (2015) 'Consultation of Further Extension of Coverage of the Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002 to More Organisations' Available at https://www2.gov.scot/Resource/0047/00479060.pdf (Accessed 23/01/2019), p4

108. Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, 1988

109. Lei de Acesso à Informação Pública n° 12.527/2011 (Access to Public Information Law)

110. Access to Public Information Law 2011, Article 1 (I)

111. Access to Public Information Law 2011, Article 1 (II)

112. Access to Public Information Law 2011, Article 2

113. Access to Public Information Law 2011, Article 2 (I)

114. Access to Public Information Law 2011, Article 9

115. Available at http://www.acessoainformacao.gov.br/lai-para-sic/sic-apoio-orientacoes/lista-de-sics (Accessed 23/01/19)

116. Decree Law, N° 900/1967, Art 5(III)

117. Bercovici, G. (2015). 'Mixed-Capital Companies And The Brazilian Constitution of 1988' Constituição, Economia e Desenvolvimento: Revista da Academia Brasileira de Direito Constitucional Curtiba, 7(12) Jan-Jun, Available at http://www.abdconst.com.br/revista13/mixedGilberto.pdf (Accessed 23/01/19) p74

118. Both websites have 'Access to Information' portals that proactively publish information and allows individuals to make requests. See http://eletrobras.com/pt/Paginas/Home.aspx; and http://www.petrobras.com.br/en/

119. There is no Access to Information portal on the Embratel website, see https://www.embratel.com.br/

120. Avaliku teave seadus 2000 (RT I 2000, 92, 597) (Public Information Act 2000)

121. Public Information Act 2000, s.5(3)(2)

122. Public Information Act 2000, s.5(1)2)

123. Public Information Act 2000, s.5(1)3)(2)

124. Public Information Act 2000, s.5(3)1)

125. Public Information Act 2000, s.5(3)2)

126. Public Information Act 2000, s.5(2)

127. Public Information Act 2000, s.5(1)2)

128. Public Information Act 2000, s.5(2)

129. Public Information Act 2000, s.5(3)2)

130. Public Information Act 2000, s.5(1)2)

131. Public Information Act 2000, s.5(2)

132. Estonian Public Broadcasting Act (RT I 2007, 10, 46)

133. Vutt, A. (1996). ' Legal Persons in Estonian Law', Juridica International No.1, Available at https://cic.gov.in/sites/default/files/Rtinodalofficer_0.pdf (Accessed 23/01/19)

134. Bennet Coleman & Co. v Union of India, AIR 1973 SC 783, see also S.P Gupta v. President of India AIR
1982 SC 149

135. Right to Information Act 2005, s.2(h(a)

136. Right to Information Act 2005, s.2(h)(b)

137. Right to Information Act 2005, s.2(h)(c)

138. Right to Information Act 2005. S.2(h)(d)(i) and (ii)

139. Right to Information Act 2005, s5

140. Central Information Commission ‘List of Right to Information Nodal Officers 2015/16’ Available at
https://cic.gov.in/sites/default/files/Rtinodalofficer_0.pdf (Accessed 23/01/19)

141. Delhi Integrated Multi Model Transit System Ltd v/s Rakesh Aggarwal W.P.(C) 2380-81/2010, para 41

142. Tamil Nadu Newsprint & Papers Ltd v/s State Information Commission, W.P. No.13416/2008

143. Indubala Agarwal v/s National Commodity & Derivatives Exchange Ltd, CIC/LS/C/2009/000575

144. Electronic and Computer Software Export Promotion Council v/s Central Information Commission & Navneet Kaur, High Court of New Delhi & LPA 1801/2006

145. National Stock Exchange of India Limited v. Central Information Commission, WP (C). 4748/2007

146. Comptroller and Auditor General's (Duties, Powers and Conditions of Service) Act 1971, s.14

147. Hindu Urban Cooperative Bank Ltd v. State Information Commission (2011) ILR 2 P&H 64

148. Diamond Jubilee Higher Secondary School v. Union of India [2007] (Mad HC) 36901/2006

149. Indian Olympic Association v Veeresh Malik & Others, (New Delhi HC) WP (c) 876/2007, para 59

150. The Hindu Urban Cooperative Bank Limited and Others v. The State Information Commission and Others (Pun & Har HC) 1190/2011

151. The Hindu Urban Cooperative Bank Limited and Others v. The State Information Commission and Others (Pun & Har HC) 1190/2011, para 87

152. The Hindu Urban Cooperative Bank Limited and Others v. The State Information Commission and Others (Pun & Har HC) 1190/2011, para 87

153. Dattaprasad Co-operative Housing Society Ltd v. Karnataka State Chief Information Commissioner [2009] 5 RCR (Civil) 833 (Karc HC)

154. Thalappalam Ser. Coop. Bank Ltd and others v. State of Kerala and others, (Ker HC) 9017/2013

155. Mr. Anil Bariwal v/s Parliament of India (CIC order) No CIC/SM/C/ 001386,

156. Political parties under RTI: Election Commission contradicts CIC directive' The Hindu (27/05/18), Available at https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/political-parties-under-rti-election-commission-contradicts-cic-directive/article24006404.ece (Accessed 23/01/19)

157. Political parties under RTI: Election Commission contradicts CIC directive' The Hindu (27/05/18), Available at https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/political-parties-under-rti-election-commission-contradicts-cic-directive/article24006404.ece (Accessed 23/01/19)

158. See Roberts, A. (2010). 'A Great and Revolutionary Law? The First Four Years of India's Right to Information Act', Public Information Review November/December, p932; and Right2info. (13/09/13) 'Private Bodies and Public Corporations' Available at https://www.right2info.org/scope-of-bodies-covered-by-access-to-information/private-bodies-and-public-corporations (Accessed 23/01/19)

159. Freedom of Information Act 1997

160. Freedom of Information (Amendment) Act 2003

161. Dowling, R. (2014). 'Irish FOI Proposals Still 'Timid'' freedominfo.org, Available at http://www.freedominfo.org/2014/07/irish-foi-proposals-stilltimid/ (Accessed 24/01/19)

162. Freedom of Information Act 2014, Schedule 1, Part 1(r)

163. Freedom of Information Act 2014, Schedule 1, Part 2

164. Constitution of Kenya, 2010

165. Access to Information Act (Act 13 of 2016) 2016

166. Access to Information Act 2016, s.4(1)(a)

167. Access to Information Act 2016, s.4(1)(b)

168. Access to Information Act 2016, s8

169. Access to Information Act 2016, s.7

170. Access to Information Act 2016, s28(7)

171. Katiba Institute (2018) 'Handbook on the Access to Information Act, 2016), Available at http://www.katibainstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/Katiba-booklet-31.01.2018-1.pdf (Accessed 24/01/19), p9

172. Katiba Institute (2018) 'Handbook on the Access to Information Act, 2016), Available at http://www.katibainstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/Katiba-booklet-31.01.2018-1.pdf (Accessed 24/01/19), p9

173. Nairobi Law Monthly Company Limited v. Kenya Electricity Generating Company (KENGEN) & 6 others, Petition No.278 of 2011, High Court of Nairobi, para 56

174. Nairobi Law Monthly Company Limited v. Kenya Electricity Generating Company (KENGEN) & 6 others, Petition No.278 of 2011, High Court of Nairobi, para 56

175. Nairobi Law Monthly Company Limited v. Kenya Electricity Generating Company (KENGEN) & 6 others, Petition No.278 of 2011, High Court of Nairobi, para 52

176. Nairobi Law Monthly Company Limited v. Kenya Electricity Generating Company (KENGEN) & 6 others, Petition No.278 of 2011, High Court of Nairobi, para 67

177. Ley Federal de Transparencia y Acceso a la Información Pública Gubernamental 2002

178. General Act of Transparency and Access to Public Information 2015, Art 82

179. General Act of Transparency and Access to Public Information 2015, Art 81

180. Available at http://www.inai.org.mx/ (Accessed 24/01/19)

181. General Act of Transparency and Access to Public Information 2015, Article 82

182. General Act of Transparency and Access to Public Information 2015, Article 81

183. The Constitution of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2008, Article 110

184. Wet openbaarheid van bestuur (Public Access Act) 1991

185. Groenlinks introduced a Bill to Parliament in 2012 as did Groenlinks and D66 in 2018, See http://www.freedominfo.org/2012/06/dutch-green-party-proposes-revised-foi-law/;

186. Public Access Act 1991, s.1a(1)(a)

187. Public Access Act 1991, s.1a(1)(b)

188. Public Access Act 1991, s.1a(1)(b)

189. Public Access Act 1991, s.1a(1)(b)

190. Public Access Act 1991, s.1a(1)(c)

191. Public Access Act 1991, s.1a(1)(d)

192. Public Access Act 1991, explanatory memorandum, Discussed by Right2info. (13/09/13) 'Private Bodies and Public Corporations: Netherlands' Available at https://www.right2info.org/archived-content/scope-of-bodies-covered-by-access-to-information/private-bodies-and-public-corporations (Accessed 24/01/19)

193. Right2info. (13/09/13) 'Private Bodies and Public Corporations: Netherlands' Available at https://www.right2info.org/archived-content/scope-of-bodies-covered-by-access-to-information/private-bodies-and-public-corporations (Accessed 24/01/19)

194. Right2info. (13/09/13) 'Private Bodies and Public Corporations: Netherlands' Available at https://www.right2info.org/archived-content/scope-of-bodies-covered-by-access-to-information/private-bodies-and-public-corporations (Accessed 24/01/19)

195. Right2info. (13/09/13) 'Private Bodies and Public Corporations: Netherlands' Available at https://www.right2info.org/archived-content/scope-of-bodies-covered-by-access-to-information/private-bodies-and-public-corporations (Accessed 24/01/19)

196. Right2info. (13/09/13) 'Private Bodies and Public Corporations: Netherlands' Available at https://www.right2info.org/archived-content/scope-of-bodies-covered-by-access-to-information/private-bodies-and-public-corporations (Accessed 24/01/19)

197. Right2info. (13/09/13) 'Private Bodies and Public Corporations: Netherlands' Available at https://www.right2info.org/archived-content/scope-of-bodies-covered-by-access-to-information/private-bodies-and-public-corporations (Accessed 24/01/19)

198. Right2info. (13/09/13) 'Private Bodies and Public Corporations: Netherlands' Available at https://www.right2info.org/archived-content/scope-of-bodies-covered-by-access-to-information/private-bodies-and-public-corporations (Accessed 24/01/19)

199. Right2info. (13/09/13) 'Private Bodies and Public Corporations' Available at https://www.right2info.org/scope-of-bodies-covered-by-access-to-information/private-bodies-and-public-corporations (Accessed 23/01/19)

200. Right2info. (13/09/13) 'Private Bodies and Public Corporations' Available at https://www.right2info.org/scope-of-bodies-covered-by-access-to-information/private-bodies-and-public-corporations (Accessed 23/01/19)

201. Right2info. (13/09/13) 'Private Bodies and Public Corporations' Available at https://www.right2info.org/scope-of-bodies-covered-by-access-to-information/private-bodies-and-public-corporations (Accessed 23/01/19)

202. Law Commission of New Zealand (2012) 'The Public's Right to Know: Review of the Official Information Legislation', Available at https://www.lawcom.govt.nz/sites/default/files/projectAvailableFormats/NZLC%20R125.pdf (Accessed 24/01/19), p333

203. Official Information Act 1982, s.2(1): Organisation (a)

204. Official Information Act 1982, s.2(1): Organisation (b)

205. Official Information Act 1982, s.2(1): State enterprise (a)

206. Official Information Act 1982, s.2(1): State enterprise (b)

207. Official Information Act 1982, s.2(1A)

208. Official Information Act 1982, s.2(2)

209. Official Information Act 1982, s.2(2)(a)

210. Official Information Act 1982, s.2(2)(b)

211. Official Information Act 1982, s.2(2)(c) and (d)

212. Official Information Act 1982, s.2(5)

213. Official Information Act 1982, s.2(5)

214. Law Commission of New Zealand (2012) 'The Public's Right to Know: Review of the Official Information Legislation', Available at https://www.lawcom.govt.nz/sites/default/files/projectAvailableFormats/NZLC%20R125.pdf (Accessed 24/01/19), p334

215. State Owned Enterprises Act 1986, s.2: State Enterprise

216. Official Information Act 1982, Schedule 1 & State Owned Enterprises Act 1986, Schedule 1

217. Law Commission of New Zealand (2012) 'The Public's Right to Know: Review of the Official Information Legislation', Available at https://www.lawcom.govt.nz/sites/default/files/projectAvailableFormats/NZLC%20R125.pdf (Accessed 24/01/19), p336

218. Official Information Act 1982 s.2(2)(a)

219. Broadcasting Act 1989

220. Health Research Council Act 1990

221. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999

222. Freedominfo.org, (03/06/11), 'Nigerian President Signs Freedom of Information Bill', Available at http://www.freedominfo.org/2011/06/nigerian-president-signs-freedom-of-information-bill/ (Accessed 24/01/19)

223. See for example, Freedominfo.org, (12/11/14) 'Nigerian Judge Says FOI Law Not Applicable to States', Available at http://www.freedominfo.org/2014/11/nigerian-judge-says-foi-law-applicable-states/ (Accessed 24/01/19); Freedominfo.org, (27/06/14), 'Nigerian Courts Upholding FOIA Applications in States', Available at http://www.freedominfo.org/2014/06/nigerian-courts-upholding-foia-application-states/ (Accessed 24/01/19); Freedominfo.org, (17/02/14), 'Application of Nigerian FOI Law to States Contested', Available at http://www.freedominfo.org/2014/02/application-nigerian-foi-law-states-contested/ (Accessed 17/02/14)

224. Alo v Speaker, Ondo State House of Assembly & Another (2018) LPELR-45143(CA)

225. Freedom of Information Act 2011, s.2

226. Freedom of Information Act 2011, section 31

227. Ugwu Chibuike, H. (2018), 'Exploring The Freedom of Information Act 2011, as a Tool for Holding Government and Public Institutions Accountable', Legalnaija Blawg, Available at https://www.legalnaija.com/2018/11/exploring-freedom-of-information-act.html (Accessed 24/01/19)

228. Boniface Okezie v. Central Bank of Nigeria CA/L/693/2010

229. Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, s.32(2)

230. Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, s.32(1)(a)

231. Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, s.32(1)(b)

232. Promotion of Access to Information Act, (Act 2 of 2000), s.1: 'Private body', (a)

233. Promotion of Access to Information Act, (Act 2 of 2000), s.1: 'Private body', (b)

234. Promotion of Access to Information Act, (Act 2 of 2000), s.1: 'Private body', (c)

235. Promotion of Access to Information Act, (Act 2 of 2000), s.1: 'Public body', (a)

236. Promotion of Access to Information Act, (Act 2 of 2000), s.1: 'Public body',(b)(i)

237. Promotion of Access to Information Act, (Act 2 of 2000), s.1: 'Public body', (b)(ii)

238. Promotion of Access to Information Act, (Act 2 of 2000), s.8)(1)(a)

239. Promotion of Access to Information Act, (Act 2 of 2000), s.8)(1)(b)

240. Right2info. (13/09/13) 'Private Bodies and Public Corporations: South Africa' Available at https://www.right2info.org/archived-content/scope-of-bodies-covered-by-access-to-information/private-bodies-and-public-corporations (Accessed 24/01/19)

241. Mittalsteel South Africa Ltd (Formerly Iscor Ltd) v Hlatshwayo 2007 (1) SA 66 (SCA)

242. Mittalsteel South Africa Ltd (Formerly Iscor Ltd) v Hlatshwayo 2007 (1) SA 66 (SCA), para 22

243. 2011 (5) SA 163 (GSJ)

244. 2011 (5) SA 163 (GSJ), para 241

245. Mittalsteel South Africa Ltd (Formerly Iscor Ltd) v Hlatshwayo 2007 (1) SA 66 (SCA), paras, 23-24

246. (13372/2016) [2017] ZAWCHC 105

247. Law, M (14/12/17). 'What the historic party funding Bill means for SA politics' The Mail and Guardian, Available at https://mg.co.za/article/2017-12-14-what-the-historic-party-funding-bill-means-for-sa-politics (Accessed 24/01/19)

248. 2001(3) SA 1013 (SCA)

249. Cape Metropolitan Council v Metro Inspections Services (Western Cape) CC and Others, 2001(3) SA 1013 (SCA), para 28

250. Peekhaus, W. (2014). 'South Africa's Promotion of Access to Information Act: An Analysis of Relevant Jurisprudence' Journal of Information Policy 4, p580

251. 2005 (3) SA (SCA), para 13

252. Clutch (Fty) Ltd v Davis, 2005 (3) SA (SCA), para 13

253. My Vote Counts NPC v President of the Republic of South Africa and Others, (13372/2016) [2017] ZAWCHC 105

254. Konglige Majestäts Nådige Förordning, Angående Skrif-och Tryck-friheten 1776 (His Majesty's Gracious Ordinance Relating to Freedom of Writing and of the Press) [Freedom of the Press Act]

255. Tryckfrihetsförordning (1949:105) (Freedom of the Press Act 1949)

256. Offentighets-och sekretesslag (2009:400), (Public Access to Information and Secrecy Act 2009)

257. Swedish Ministry of Justice (2009) 'Public Access to Information and Secrecy Act: Information concerning public access to information and secrecy legislation, etc' Available at https://www.regeringen.se/49bb7e/contentassets/2c767a1ae4e8469fbfd0fc044998ab78/public-access-to-information-and-secrecy-act (Accessed 24/01/19), p11

258. Public Access to Information and Secrecy Act 2009, 2 §

259. Public Access to Information and Secrecy Act 2009, 3 § (1)

260. Public Access to Information and Secrecy Act 2009, 3 § (2)

261. Public Access to Information and Secrecy Act 2009, 3 § (3)

262. Public Access to Information and Secrecy Act 2009, 3 § (1)

263. Public Access to Information and Secrecy Act 2009, Annex

264. Public Access to Information and Secrecy Act 2009, Annex

265. Public Access to Information and Secrecy Act 2009, Annex

266. Public Access to Information and Secrecy Act 2009, 3 § (1)

267. Public Access to Information and Secrecy Act 2009, 3 § (2)

268. Public Access to Information and Secrecy Act 2009, 3 § (3)

269. Public Access to Information and Secrecy Act 2009, Annex


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