1. Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia
2. Bulgaria and Romania
4. Ian Anderson (former Executive Manager) Scottish Association of Meat Wholesalers 12 th October 2017. Email communication.
5. Agricultural and horticultural and seasonal labour recruitment specialist. https://hopslaboursolutions.com/
6. Agricultural and horticultural and seasonal labour recruitment specialist https://concordia.org.uk
8. Note: Data are only up to September 30 2012.
9. The Gangmasters Licensing Authority ( GLA) was a non-departmental public body established in 2006 that regulated Gangmaster recruitment practices and conduct. However, the Gangmasters and Labour Abuse Authority ( GLAA) completely absorbed the role and remit of the GLA in May 2017. In addition to the name change, this granted GLAA significantly more scope to tackle exploitation and sanction unlawful activities. http://www.gla.gov.uk/
10. These issues were also discussed at a recent meeting of the Cross Party Group in the Scottish Parliament on Rural Policy, where preliminary results from this project were presented. A briefing summarising the key points of discussion at this meeting can be found online here: https://www.sruc.ac.uk/info/120294/cross_party_group_on_rural_policy/1873/meeting_2_the_rural_workforce
11. JAC holding data was aggregated to business level where appropriate, and where businesses appeared to be amalgams of two or more businesses for Common Agricultural Policy administrative purposes (Business Reference Numbers).
12. They were asked the number on two occasions meaning there is an element of cross-checking.
13. A web search of the business provided details of their labour profile.
14. Only farms reporting use of labour providers (n = 39).
15. 4 labour providers with no Scottish labour provision also completed the survey but were removed from the analysis.
16. Annual work units ( AWU) is a measure devised by Eurostat which converts time actually worked into a full-time work equivalent, and they correspond to the work performed by one person on an agricultural holding on a full-time basis.
19. 0 Temporary Work (Short Stay Activity), Temporary Graduate, Training and Research, Business (Long Stay Independent Executive), Skilled Recognised Graduate, New Zealand Citizenship Family Relationship, Student Guardian
20. East Timor, Fiji Nauru, Kiribati, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu
21. Sedex is a non-profit membership organisation manage their performance around labour rights, health & safety, the environment and business ethics. https://www.sedexglobal.com/