Expert Scientific Panel on Unconventional Oil and Gas report

A report published on behalf of the Expert Scientific Panel on Unconventional Oil and Gas, which reviews the available scientific evidence.


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AEA (2012a). Support to the Identification of Potential Risks for the Environment and Human Health arising from Hydrocarbons Operations involving Hydraulic Fracturing in Europe. Report for European Commission DG Environment. AEA/R/ED57281.

AEA (2012b). Climate Impact of Potential Shale Gas Production in the EU. Report for European Commission DG CLIMA. AEA/R/ED57412.

Air Quality Expert Group (2012). Report from the Air Quality Expert Group to the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs; Scottish Government; Welsh Government; and Department of the Environment in Northern Ireland, on Fine Particulate Matter ( PM2.5) in the United Kingdom.

Air Quality Consultants (2012). PM 2.5 in Scotland: A report for SEPA

Allen, D.T., Torres, V.M., Thomas J., et al (2013). Measurements of Methane Emissions at Natural Gas Production Sites in the United States, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America ( PNAS). 110 (44), 17768 - 17773.

American Chemistry Council. (2014). U.S. Chemical Investment Linked to Shale Gas Reaches $100 Billion. Available at:

Andrews, I J. (2013). The Carboniferous Bowland Shale gas study: geology and resource estimation. British Geological Survey for Department of Energy and Climate Change, London, UK.

Bacon, M J. (1995). Development and Techniques used on the Airth No.1 well in Scotland. Conference Documentation 'Planning for Profit: Coalbed Methane in the UK and Europe' Conference, Selfridge Hotel, London, 30-31 March 1995. IBC Technical Services.

Bailey, N J, Burwood, R and Harriman, G E. (1990). Application of pyrolysate carbon isotope and biomarker technology to organofacies definition and oil correlation problems in the North Sea basins. Organic Geochemistry, 16, 1157-1172.

Barker, A and Jones, C (2013) A critique of the performance of EIA within the offshore oil and gas sector. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 43, 31-39 DOI: 10.1016/j.eiar.2013.05.001

Barron, H F. (2014). Potential unconventional oil and gas resources in Scotland. British Geological Survey Commissioned Report, CR/14/015.

BGS (2008). Mineral resource map of Glasgow.

BGS (2014). Depositing records and digital data. (checked 27/03/14).

BBC News. (2014). Russia signs 30-year gas deal with China. Available at:

Bide, T, Smith, R A, Hyslop, E K, Smith, N J P , Coleman, T and McMillan, A A. (2008). Mineral Resource map for Clackmannanshire, Fife and Falkirk. OR/08/12.

Bloomberg New Energy Finance. (2013). The Economic Impact on UK Energy Policy of Shale Gas and Oil. Available at:

Britain Thinks (2012). Public attitudes to Natural Gas from Shale in Blackpool, Fylde and West Lancashire. Attitudes%20to%20Natural%20Gas%20from%20Shale%20in%20Blackpool,%20Fylde%20and%20West%20Lancashire.pdf

Browne, M. A. E., Dean, M. T., Hall, I H S, McAdam, A D, Monro, S K and Chisholm, J I. 1999. A lithostratigraphical framework for the Carboniferous rocks of the Midland Valley of Scotland. British Geological Survey Research Report. RR/99/07.

Bunch, A.G., Perry, C.S., Abraham, L. , Wilkoff D.S., Tachovsky J.A., Hixon J.G., Urban J.D., Harris MA., and Haws L.C. (2014) Evaluation of Impact of Shale Gas Operations in the Barnett Shale Region on Volatile Organic Compounds in Air and Potential Human Health Risks. Science of the Total Environment 468-469, 832-842.

Cameron, I B and McAdam, A D. (1978). Oil-shales of the Lothians, Scotland:present resources and former workings. Report of the Institute of Geological Sciences, No. 78.

Carruthers, E.G. Caldwell, W. Bailey, E.M. and Conacher. H.R.J., 1927, The Oil-Shales Of The Lothians. Third edition. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain (Scotland). Geological Survey, Edinburgh. 274pp.

Cathles III LM., Brown L., Taam M. and Hunter A. (2012). A commentary on "The greenhouse-gas footprint of natural gas in shale formations" by R.W. Howarth, R. Santoro and Anthony Ingraffea Climatic Change. 113, 525-535.

Caulton, DR., Shepsona, PB , Santoroc, RL., Sparks, JP., Howarth, RW., Ingraffea, AR., Cambaliza, MOL. , Sweeney, C., Karion, A., Davis, KJ., Stirm, BH., Montzka, SA. and Miller, BR. (2014). Toward a better understanding and quantification of methane emissions from shale gas development PNAS doi: 10.1073/pnas.1316546111

Charpentier, R R and Cook, T A. (2011). USGS Methodology for Assessing Continuous Petroleum Resources. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1167

Cobbing, J., Ó Dochartaigh, B.É. (2007). Hydrofracturing water boreholes in hard rock aquifers in Scotland. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 40, 181-186.

Colborn, T., Kwiatkowski, C. Shultz, K. and Bachran, M. (2011). Natural Gas Operations from a Public Health Perspective. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment. 17:5, 1039 - 1056. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2011.605662

Cook, P, Beck, V, Brereton, D, Clark, R, Fisher, B, Kentish, S, Toomey, J and Williams, J. (2013). Engineering energy: unconventional gas production. Report for the Australian Council of Learned Academies. Available at:

Creedy, D P. (1991). An introduction to geological aspects of methane occurrence and control in British deep coal mines. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, 24, 209-220. doi: 10.1144/GSL.QJEG.1991.024.02.04

Cuadrilla Resources. (2014) What we do. [online] (checked 31/03/14)

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Davies R. and Foulger G. (2012). Response To DECC Consultation On Preese Hall Shale Gas Fracturing: Review & Recommendations For Induced Seismic Mitigation

Davies R.J., Foulger,G, Bindley,A, and Styles, P. (2013). Induced Seismicity and Hydraulic Fracturing for the Recovery of Hydrocarbons, Review article, Marine and Petroleum Geology, v. 45, Pages 171-185.

Davies, R.J., Almon, S., Ward, R.S., Jackson, R.B., Adams, C., Worrall, Herringsha, Gluyas, J.G. and Whitehead, M.A. (2014). Oil and gas wells and their integrity: Implications for shale and unconventional resource exploitation, Marine and Petroleum Geology.

DECC. (2010). The Unconventional Hydrocarbon Resources of Britain's Onshore Basins - Coalbed Methane ( CBM). HM Government, Department of Energy and Climate Change ( DECC), London. 40pp.

DECC. (2010a). The unconventional hydrocarbon resources of Britain's onshore basins - shale gas.

DECC. (2010b). The hydrocarbon prospectivity of Britain's onshore basins.

DECC. (2013). Regulatory Roadmap: Onshore oil and gas exploration in the UK regulation and best practice.

DECC. (2014). Consultation on the Environmental Report for further onshore oil and gas licensing. [online] (checked 27/03/14)

DECC and Renewable UK. (2012). Onshore wind direct wider economic impacts. 100 pp.

DECC. (2012). DECC Public Attitudes Tracker survey - Wave 9. 10 pp.

DECC. (2013). Strategic Environmental Assessment for Further Onshore Oil and Gas Licensing - Environmental Report by AMEC. Available at:

DECC. (2014). Underground Drilling Access - Consultation on Proposal for Underground Access

for the Extraction of Gas, Oil or Geothermal Energy. Available at:

DEFRA. (2011). Guidelines for Environmental Risk Assessment and Management, Green Leaves III. 81pp.

DEFRA. (2007). The Air Quality Strategy for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. [online] (checked 27/03/14).

Dominiczak, P. (2014). David Cameron: Britain has a 'duty' to frack. The Telegraph, 26 March 2014. Available at:

Dreyer, I. and Stang, G. (2013). The shale gas 'revolution': Challenges and implications for the EU. European Union Institute for Security Studies. Available at:

DTI. (2001). UK Capability: Coalbed Methane Extraction and Utilisation. HM Government, Department of Trade and Industry, London. 20pp.

Economic and Social Research Council (2013)

Emeleus, H, and Bell, B R. (2005). British Regional Geology: the Palaeogene volcanic districts of Scotland (Fourth edition). (Keyworth, Nottingham: British Geological Survey.)

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Esteves, A.M., Franks, D. and Vanclay, F. (2012). The state of the art in social impact assessment, Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, 30(1), 35-44.

European Commission. (2013). Review of the Environmental Impact Assessment ( EIA) Directive

European Commission. (2014). Commission Staff Working Document. Impact Assessment Accompanying the Document Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. Exploration and Production of Hydrocarbons (such as Shale Gas) using High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing in the EU.

European Commission. (2014). Commission Recommendation of 22 January 2014 on Minimum Principles for the Exploration and Production of Hydrocarbons (such as Shale Gas) using High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing.

European Commission. (2012). Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport. Unconventional Gas: Potential Energy Market Impacts in the European Union.

European Commission. (2013). DG Environment. Analysis and presentation of the results of the public consultation "Unconventional fossil fuels ( e.g. shale gas) in Europe.

Faith, J. (2013). Could fracking change the face of buy-to-let? Mortgage Solutions online blog:

Forster, D., Jonathan, P. (2012). Climate impact of potential shale gas production in the EU - Final Report (Final Report - Review No. Issue 2). AEA TEchnology Inc. for the European Commission

Friends of the Earth Scotland (2004) Love Thy Neighbour? The Potential for Good Neighbour Agreements in Scotland. 60pp.

Golding, S.D., Uysal, I.T., Boreham, C.J., Kirste, D., Baublys, K.A., and Esterle, J.S. (2011). Adsorption and mineral trapping dominate CO2 storage in coal systems. Energy Procedia, 4: 3131-3138.

Gray, I M., and Edwards-Jones, G. (1999). A Review of the Quality of Environmental Impact Assessments in the Scottish Forestry Sector. Forestry, 72, 1 : 1 - 10

Green, C.A., Styles, P. and Baptie, B.J. (2012), Preese Hall shale gas fracturing for induced seismic mitigation, DECC Report pp. 26


Hallet, D, Durant, G P. and Farrow, G E. (1985). Oil exploration and production in Scotland. Scottish Journal of Geology, 21, 4, 547-570. doi: 10.1144/sjg21040547

Halliburton. (2009). Coalbed Methane Development - a Vital Part of the Total Energy Mix. Halliburton, Houston. 23pp.

Happer C., Philo G. and Froggatt A. (2012). Climate change and energy security: Assessing the impact of information and its delivery on attitudes and behaviour. UKERC/ RR/ HQ/2012/002

Harris and van Batenburg (1999), A comparison of freshwater- and seawater-based borate-crosslinked fracturing fluids, Society of Petroleum Engineers International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry: Houston, Texas. Available at:

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Hesselbo, S P, Oates, M J and Jenkyns, H C. (1998). The lower Lias Group of the Hebrides Basin. Scottish Journal of Geology, 34, 23-60. doi: 10.1144/sjg34010023

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Howarth R.W, Santoro, R., Ingraffea, A. (2011). Methane and the Greenhouse-Gas Footprint of Natural Gas from Shale Formations. Climatic Change. 106, 679-690.

Howarth R.W, Santoro, R., Ingraffea, A. (2012). Venting and Leaking of Methane from Shale Gas Development: Response to Cathles et al. Climatic Change. 113, 537-549.

Hudson, J D and Trewin, N H. (2002). Jurassic. 323-350 in The Geology of Scotland. Trewin, N H (editor). (London: The Geological Society.) ISBN 1-86239-105-X.

Husain, T. M., Yeong, L. C., Saxena, A., Cengiz, U., Ketineni, S., Khanzhode, A. and Muhamad, H. (2011). Economic Comparison of Multi‐Lateral Drilling over Horizontal Drilling for Marcellus Shale Field Development. Available at:

ICM. (2013) Opinion Poll: Britain Split on Fracking. Available at

Illsley, B. M. (2002). Good Neighbour Agreements: the first step to environmental justice? Local Environment, 7(1): 69-79.

Insley, J. (2012). Worry for homeowners who face the threat of fracking. The Guardian, 23 June 2012. Available at:

International Energy Agency. (2012). World Energy Outlook 2012. Available at:

International Gas Union. (2013). Wholesale Gas Price Survey - 2013 Edition - A global review of price formation mechanisms 2005-2012. Available at:

Jackson R.B. et al. (2013). Increased stray gas abundance in a subset of drinking water wells near Marcellus shale gas extraction. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 110, 11250-11255

Jackson, RB, Vengosh, A, Darrah, TH, Warner, NR, Down, A, Poreda, RJ, Osborn, SG, Zha, K, Karr, JD. (2013). Increased stray gas abundance in a subset of drinking water wells Marcellus shale gas extraction. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 110, 11250-11255.

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Jaspal, R., Turner, A. and Nerlich, B. (in press). Fracking on YouTube: Exploring Risks, Benefits and Human Values. Environmental Values.( Available at

Jaspal, R. and Nerlich, B. (2014). Fracking in the UK press: Threat dynamics in an unfolding debate. Public Understanding of Science. vol. 23 no. 3 348-363 DOI: 10.1177/0963662513498835

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Mackay, D. and Stone, T. (2013). Potential greenhouse gas emissions associated with shale gas production and use. Department of Energy & Climate Change ( DECC).

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