Evaluation of Sixteen Women's Community Justice Services in Scotland

This document presents the findings of an evaluation of sixteen women’s community justice services in Scotland. The evaluation was conducted by the Institute for Research and Innovation in Social Services (IRISS) during 2014-15.

Annex D: Definitions of 14 Outcome Measures

Table 14: Definition of positive and negative states in 14 outcome measures


Negative or poor


Views on offending

a. She consistently expresses views that offending is acceptable, e.g. offending is a justifiable means to an end; victims are responsible; expresses negative views of the law, police, courts etc.

b. She expresses inconsistent views on whether offending is acceptable or not

c. She consistently expresses views that offending is NOT acceptable

Attitude to desistance

a. She doesn't believe she can desist from crime (stop offending) and/or doesn't know how to desist from crime

b. She does believe she can desist from crime and/or knows how to desist from crime

Willingness to work on problems

a. She is not ready or willing to work on problems and she denies the need to change

b. She is ready to work on problems but will not accept support to do so

c. She is ready to work on problems and accepts support to help her change

d. She recognises she has problems and is actively working on them

Problem-solving skills

a. She is not solving everyday problems (such as benefits, relationship conflicts etc.)

b. She is solving everyday problems but only with support from others

c. She can solve problems in daily life and deal effectively with issues as they arise

Engagement with services

a. She is not engaging with services (to address needs) at all

b. She says she is keen to engage but has not yet

c. She is engaging with services but needs some encouragement to do so

d. She is engaging willingly with services without the need for encouragement


a. She has no accommodation (homeless)

b. Her current accommodation is unstable or unsafe

c. Her current accommodation is relatively safe/stable

d. She has stable/safe accommodation


a. She has serious money problems and/or no apparent means of support

b. She has regular money problems e.g. frequent issues with benefits claims/bills, money-lenders etc.

c. She has no major difficulties but needs advice or advocacy on some money issues

d. She has a pattern of effective independent management of money

Physical health

a. She has major health problems, and is not registered with any health professional

b. She has some health problems. Uses A&E frequently in order to receive medical attention

c. She is registered with a GP but rarely makes/ attends appointments. Does not always comply with treatment/ medication

d. She has the specialist help and medication she needs. She has access to a team nurse

e. She has no outstanding health problems. She has own GP and Dentist

Emotional/ mental health

a. She is frequently scared/anxious. Often engages in self-harming/has suicidal thoughts at times

b. She is often distressed. Feels unhappy most of the time. Sometimes engages in self-harming behaviour

c. She attends GP/CPN/ support worker and feels able to talk about how she feels

d. She feels happy some of the time and has people to talk to when she needs it

e. She feels good about herself and is generally happy with life

Sexual health

a. She engages in high-risk behaviour. No contact with health services. She sees no need to address sexual health matters. At risk of abuse

b. She engages in high-risk behaviour. Aware of the risks but does not wish to engage with health services to consider this further

c. She sometimes engages in high risk behaviour, is aware of the risks and is engaged with services to minimise the risk

d. She practices safe sex and is aware of risks. No involvement in sex industry

e. She has no sexual health issues identified. Not at risk of abuse

Substance misuse

a. She has serious alcohol/drug use linked to offending and interferes with daily functioning, e.g. wellbeing, family-life/ education, employment and/or recreation

b. She has alcohol/ drug use linked to offending which can sometimes interfere with daily functioning

c. She uses alcohol or drugs but is stabilised through medication or treatment

d. She uses recreational drug use only - not linked to offending

e. She has no current issues

Family /social relationships

a. She has no family support or poor family relationships that impact on behaviour/ emotional state (including family that support offending behaviour) Rejects influence of prosocial family support

b. She has some evidence of problems with some family members; or sporadically accepts/rejects influence of prosocial family

c. Overall she has fairly stable relationships with family members

d. She has active support to desist from family and good family relationships

Leisure activities

a. She doesn't do anything positive in their spare time, says she is bored and/or associates with people who are linked to offending and does not have any interests that could be built on

b. She has an interest that could be built on but she doesn't do anything positive in her spare time, says she is bored and/or associates with people who are linked to offending

c. She does fill her time with positive activities but could benefit from more rewarding activity

d. She makes constructive use of her time and finds this really rewarding

Work, volunteering or training

a. She is not working, volunteering or in training and does not want to be. She resists efforts to help her find work etc.

b. She is not working, volunteering, or in training but is making an effort/ and or accepting help to find work etc.

c. She is working, volunteering or in training but would like help to find something more rewarding

d. She is working or in training and she find this rewarding


Email: Tamsyn Wilson

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