An Evaluation of the Commonwealth Games 2014 Legacy for Scotland Report 1: Questions, Methods and Baseline

This report sets out the broad approach to the Glasgow 2014 legacy evaluation,the research questions it will address, and the range of methods that will be deployed between now and 2019. It also sets out the priorities for the next 18 months and a forward timetable for publication of reports.The report also has a series of Annexes on the 4 national themes (flourishing, active, connected and sustainable).



2. Glasgow 2014 Legacy Board. Progress report on legacy framework

3. sportscotland, NHS Health Scotland, Scottish Enterprise, Creative Scotland, Education Scotland, VisitScotland, EventScotland, Young Scot, Youth Sports Trust, Forestry Commission, CoSLA and local authorities outside Glasgow

4. Owe, E. Research Findings Legacy Lessons from Past Large-scale Sporting Events: Review of the Evidence

5. (IDOX, ProQuest Collections and EBSCOhost databases

6. Mayne, J. (2008) Contribution Analysis: An approach to exploring cause and effect, ILAC methodological brief, available at

7. Clark G et al (2010) Local Development Benefits from Staging Global Events: Achieving the Local Development Legacy from 2012, OECD

8. Clark G et al (2010) Local Development Benefits from Staging Global Events: Achieving the Local Development Legacy from 2012, OECD.



11. The ORieL study led by Professor Steve Cummins at Queen Mary, University of London.

12. Go Well Advisory group includes Scottish Government, Clyde Gateway, Glasgow City Council, sportscotland, NHS Health Scotland, Education Scotland, Professor Nanette Mutrie, Professor Steve Cummins and the GoWell Team

13. The Knowledge Hub is the Local Government Association's professional social network which helps people in local and central government connect and share online in a secure environment.

14. State of the Economy. Chief Economist, July 2012

15. Kasimait, E.,2003. Economic aspects and the Summer Olympics: a review of related research. International Journal of Tourism Research, 5, pp. 433-444.

16. McCartney, et al., 2010a. The health and socioeconomic impacts of major multi-sport events: systematic review (1978-2008), BMJ, 340:c2369

17. Burgan, B. and Mules, T., 1992. Economic impact of sporting events. Annals of Tourism Research, 19, pp.700-710.

18. Spilling, O. R., 1996. Mega-event as strategy for regional development: the case of the 1994 Lillehammer Winter Olympics. Entrepreneurship andRegional Development, 8 (4) pp. 321-343.

19. Gratton, C., Shibli, S., and Coleman., R. 2005. Sport and Economic Regeneration in Cities. Urban Studies42, pp. 985 -999.

20. Smith, A. and Fox, T., 2007. From 'event-led' to 'event themed' regeneration: the 2002 Commonwealth games Legacy Programme. Urban Studies, 44 (5/6) pp. 1125-1143.

21. Nichols, G. and Ralston, R., 2012. Lessons from the volunteering legacy of the 2002 Commonwealth games. Urban Studies, 49 (1) pp. 169-184.

22. Personal Best Evaluation

23. Fourie, J. and Santana-Gallego, M., 2011. The impact of mega-sport events on tourist arrivals. Tourism Management, 32 (6), pp. 1364 -1370.

24. Commonwealth Games were not included in their analysis.

25. Spilling, O. R., 1996. Mega-event as strategy for regional development: the case of the 1994 Lillehammer Winter Olympics. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 8 (4) pp. 321-343.

26. Lochhead, H., 2005. A new vision for Sydney Olympic Park. Urban Design International, 10 (3/4) pp. 215-222.;

27. Audit Scotland (2012) Progress report on planning for the delivery of the XXth Commonwealth Games 2014

28. Glasgow City Council, Report by Director of Development and Regeneration Services and Council 2014 Team, August 2012




32. There are differences between the ABS approximate measure of GVA and the other GVA measures published for Scotland. It is important to emphasise that ABS approximate GVA does not cover the whole economy and that it does not include all the National Accounting adjustments that reconcile the ABS data with other data sources.

33. Self-employed people not registered for VAT/PAYE, along with HM Forces and government supported trainees, are excluded.

34. Note that the 2011 BRES employment estimates, in the table, are not strictly comparable with the data for 2010 and 2009. This is due to instances of double counting of directors of limited companies in the 2009 and 2010 results - directors of limited companies may have been included, by those completing the BRES questionnaire, in both the employees' and the working owners' categories. This anomaly does not exist for the 2011 results due to a change in the treatment of working owners in the 2011 BRES questionnaire. The Office for National Statistics (ONS) will be publishing, at the regional and sub-regional level, an adjusted version of the 2010 results later in 2012, which will be comparable with the 2011 estimates. The 2010 adjusted estimates, that will be comparable to the 2011 estimates, will be lower than the 2010 estimates currently published. So where there is an increase between the 2010 data and the 2011 data, in the table, we can be sure that this is indeed an increase - but we will not know the magnitude of the increase until the 2010 adjusted BRES data are published later in 2012.

35. Source: VisitScotland

36. Source: International Passenger Survey, VisitBritain website

37. Source: VisitScotland

38. Source: International Passenger Survey, Visit Britain website

39. Lee et al The Lancet, Volume 380, Issue 9838, Pages 219 - 229, 21 July 2012

40. McCartney, et al., 2010b. A health impact assessment of the 2014 Commonwealth Games in Glasgow. Public Health, 124(8-2), pp. 444-451.


42. Lyle (2009) Sporting success, role models and participation: a policy related review, sportscotland

43. Using slightly different definition - see Chapter 6 of 2008 SHeS annual report for details.


45. J Thompson Coon et al "Does participating in physical activity in outdoor natural environments have a greater effect on physical and mental wellbeing than physical activity indoors? A systematic review" J Epidemiol Community Health 2011;65:A38 doi:10.1136/jech.2011.143586.85,

46. R Mitchell "Is physical activity in natural environments better for mental health than physical activity in other environments?",

47. From Scotland performs

48. See for more information

49. Insight Economics. 2006. Triple Bottom Line Assessment of the XVIII Commonwealth Games. Insight Economics Pty Ltd.

50. Weed et al., 2009. A Systematic Review of the Evidence Base for Developing a Physical Activity and Health Legacy from the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. London: Department of Health.

51. Waitt, G., 2003. Social Impacts of the Sydney Olympics. Annals of Tourism Research, 30(1), pp. 194-215; Ohmann, S., Jones, I. and Wikes, K., 2006. The Perceived Social Impacts of the 2006 Football World Cup on Munich Residents. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 11(2) pp. 129-152.

52. See

53. Scottish Government, Education Scotland, the Glasgow 2014 Organising Committee, Glasgow City Council and the British Council Scotland

54. To maintain consistency, the NBI core 20 panel countries in 2008, 2009 and 2010 were: Western Europe/North America: U.S., Canada, UK, Germany, France, Italy, Sweden; Central and Eastern Europe: Russia, Poland, Turkey; Asia-Pacific: Japan, China, India, South Korea, Australia; Latin America: Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Middle East/Africa: Egypt, South Africa

55. It is important to keep in mind that the rank order is dependent on which target nations are included and these tend to vary somewhat from one year to the next. For the purpose of comparison over time, the overall score, which can range from 0 to 100, is therefore more informative.


57. November 2012, May 2013, November 2013, March 2014

58. TNS CAPI Omnibus employs a random location methodology, 1,000 adults across Scotland are interviewed in their own homes.[Add other Omnibus Information if used Mori etc.]

59. See for a full list of cultural activites and events or places.

60. DC Research (2012) Economic contribution study: An approach to the economic assessment of arts and creative industries in Scotland

61. Rogerson R et al, 2011, Sustainable Communities: Skills and learning for place making , Hertfordshire University Press.

62. The data on the east end of Glasgow presented here relate to the 6 communities in the east end which are part of the GoWell programme. See Annex 6, map 4, for a detailed view of the geography.


Email: Imelda Giarchi

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