Environmental Assessment (Scotland) Act 2005 Aquaculture and Fisheries Bill Consultation Document Environmental Report February 2012

This Environmental Report sets out the results of the assessment of the possible environmental effects of provisions in the Aquaculture and Fisheries Bill.


1. Code of Good Practice Management Group (2006) The Code of Good Practice for Scottish Finfish Aquaculture [online] Available at:

2. Historic Scotland (2009) Investigating Early Carved Stones, [online] Available at:

3. based on GES Descriptors 1 and 4, from Annex I of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive

4. This section is based on information provided on Marine Scotland's website on "Salmon Biology and Life Cycle" Available at: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/marine/marine-environment/species/fish/freshwater/salmon and on information on Atlantic salmon from SNH's website: salmon: http://www.snh.gov.uk/about-scotlands-nature/species/fish/freshwater-fish/salmon/

5. JNCC (2010) Vertebrate Species: Fish - Atlantic Salmon, [online] Available at:

6. This section is based on information provided on Marine Scotland's website on "Sea Trout" Available at:

7. Directive 92/43/EEC on the Conservation of Natural Habitats and of Wild Flora and Fauna

8. Annex II of the Habitats Directive identifies animal and plant species of community interest whose conservation requires the designation of Special Areas of Conservation.

9. Annex V of the Habitats Directive identifies animal and plant species of community interest whose taking in the wild and exploitation may be subject to management measures.

10. This section is based on information taken from NASCO (2006) EU- UK (Scotland): Report of Implementation Plan for Meeting Objectives of NASCO Resolutions and Agreements and Marine Scotland (2010) Topic Sheet No. 69 v2 - Sea Trout Fishery statistics - 2010 Season, Pitlochry, [online] Available at:

11. NASCO Rivers Database Report UK- Scotland (2011)

12. Crawley, D. (2010) Report of the Scottish Mixed Stock Salmon Fisheries Working Group. Report by the Steering Group of the Freshwater Fisheries Forum.

13. NASCO (2006) op cit, pp 8-14.

14. Crawley, D. (2010) op cit

15. WWF (2009) Working Group Report on Sea Lice - A sub-group of the Working Group on Salmon Disease, Salmon Aquaculture Dialogue, 30 April 2009 [online] Available at:

16. Aas O, Klemetsen A, Einum S (2010) Atlantic Salmon Ecology, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.

17. WWF (2009) op cit

18. Penston MJ and Davies IM (2009) An assessment of salmon farms and wild salmonids as sources of Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer) copepods in the water column in Loch Torridon, Scotland. Journal of Fish Diseases 32, 75-88.

19. Revie CW, Gettinby G, Treasurer JW, Rae GH and Clark N (2002) Temporal, environmental and management factors influencing the epidemiological patterns of sea-lice ( Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infestations on farmed Atlantic Salmon ( Salmo salar L.) in Scotland. Pest Management Science 58, 576-584.

20. Penston MJ, Millar CP, Zuur A and Davies IM (2008) Spatial and temporal distribution of Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer) larvae in a sea loch containing Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L., farms on the north-west coast of Scotland. J. Fish Dis. 31, 361-371.

21. Revie C, Dill L, Finstad B, and Todd CD (2009) Salmon Aquaculture Dialogue Working Group Report on Sea-lice, Commissioned by the Salmon Aquaculture Dialogue, [online] Available at:

22. Lees F, Gettinby G and Revie CW (2008) Changes in epidemiological patterns of sea-lice infestation on farmed Atlantic Salmon ( Salmo salar L) in Scotland between 1996 and 2006, Journal of Fish Diseases 31, 251‐262.

23. Murray AG, Amundrud TL, Penston MJ, Pert CC and Middlemas SJ (2011) Abundance and Distribution of Larval Sea Lice in Scottish Coastal Waters, In: Jones SRM and Beamish RJ (eds) Salmon Lice: An Integrated Approach to Understanding Parasite Abundance and Distribution, Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, pp 117-152.

24. Costello MJ (2009) How sea lice from salmon farms may cause wild salmonid declines in Europe and North America and be a threat to fishes elsewhere, Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences, 2009, 276, 3385-3394,

25. WWF (2009) op cit pp 11-12.

26. Butler JRA (2002). Wild salmonids and sea louse infestations on the west coast of Scotland: sources of infection and implications for management of marine salmon farms, Pest Management Science, 58, 595-608.

27. Prevent Escape Project Group (2009) Prevent Escape, [online] Available at:

28. Fleming IA, Hindar K, Mjølnerød IB Jonsson B, Balstad T, Lamberg A. (2000) Lifetime success and interactions of farm salmon invading a native population, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 2000;267:1517-1523. [online] Available at:

29. Ferguson A, Fleming IA, Hindar K, Skaala Ø, McGinnity P, Cross T and Prodöhl P (2007) Farm escapes. In Atlantic Salmon: Genetics, Conservation and Management (Verspoor E, Stradmeyer L and Nielsen J eds), Chapter 12: pp 357-398, Blackwell, Oxford, [online] Available at:

30. Scottish Government (2011) Final Report of the Joint Government/Industry Working Group on Infectious Salmon Anaemia (ISA) in Scotland [online] Available at:

31. Marine Scotland Science (2011) Scottish Fish Farm Production Survey - 2010 report, [online] Available at:

32. Scottish Salmon Producers Organisation (2011) Regional Reports [online] Available at:

33. Scottish Salmon Producers Organisation (2011) Code of Good Practice [online] Available at:

34. Healthier Fish Working Group (2010) Healthier Fish Working Group Recommendations 10 Aug [online] Available at:

35. Scottish Government (2008) Fish Farming Businesses (Record Keeping) (Scotland) Order 2008

36. SEPA (2011) Marine Aquaculture [online] Available at:

37. Humane Slaughter Association (2006) Fish Welfare During Transport Forum, 25 October 2006 Thistle Hotel, Inverness [online] Available at:

38. Fraser DI, Munro PD and Smail DA (2006) Fisheries Research Services Internal Report No 13/06: Disinfection Guide Version IV - Practical Steps To Prevent The Introduction And Minimise Transmission Of Diseases Of Fish, Produced By Fisheries Research Services, Marine Laboratory, Aberdeen, January 2006 [online] Available at:

39. Joint Government/Industry Working Group On ISA (2000) A Code Of Practice To Avoid And Minimise The Impact Of Infectious Salmon Anaemia (Isa), [Online] Available At:

40. Murray AG, Smith RJ, and Stagg RM. (2002) Shipping and the Spread of Infectious Salmon Anemia in Scottish Aquaculture. Emerg Infect Dis. [serial on the Internet]. 2002 Jan [online]. Available at:

41. Atlantic Canada Fish Farmers Association (2011) Evaluation of Well Boat Technology for the Treatment of Sea Lice, [online] Available at: 0101.nccdn.net/.../Final_Report_Mar_19_11_-_Evaluation_of_Well_Boat_Technology_for_the_Treatmen.pdf

42. Nofima (2009) Live salmon in well-boats - a thing of the past? [online] Available at:

43. SEPA (2007) Attachment X - Guidance Note On The Ensiling Of Fish And Fish Offal, Version 2.1, 19 September 2007 [online] Available at:

44. Scottish Government (2010) Fish Processors, [online] Available at:

45. Pollution Prevention and Control (Scotland) Regulations 2000

46. Environment News Service (2011) Sea Lice From Salmon Farms Infect Fraser River Sockeye, [online] Available at:

47. Scottish Government (2007) Aquaculture and Fisheries (Scotland) Act 2007.

48. Scottish Salmon Producers Organisation (2011) Sea Lice, [online] Available at:

49. External Facilities of the Institute of Aquaculture at the University of Stirling (2011) Sea Lice, [online] Available at:

50. ICES (2010) Report of the ICES Advisory Committee - 2010, ICES Advice, 2010, Book 10, 94 pp, [online] Available at:

51. Scottish Government (2011) Confirmed Reported Escapes from Fish Farms in Scotland, [online] Available at:

52. Scottish Aquaculture Research Forum (2010) Assessment Of Protocols And Development Of Best Practice Contingency Guidance To Improve Stock Containment At Cage And Land-Based Sites Volume 1: Report - SARF054 [online] Available at:

53. Hansen LP (2006) Migration and survival of farmed Atlantic Salmon ( Salmo salar L.) released from two Norwegian fish farms, ICES Journal of Marine Science 63, 1211-1217.

54. Carr JW and Whoriskey FG (2006) The escape of juvenile farmed Atlantic Salmon from hatcheries into freshwater streams in New Brunswick, Canada, ICES Journal of Marine Science 63, 1263-1268.

55. Fleming IA, Jonsson B, Gross MR, Lamberg A (1996) An experimental study of the reproductive behaviour and success of farmed and wild salmon ( Salmo salar). J Appl Ecol 33:893-905. [online] Available at:

56. Bourret V, O'Reilly PT, Carr JW, Berg PR and Bernatchez L (2011) Temporal change in genetic integrity suggests loss of local adaptation in a wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) population following introgression by farmed escapes, Heredity, 106: 500-510, [online] Available at:

57. Besnier F, Glover KA, Skaala O (2011) Investigating genetic change in wild populations: modelling gene flow from farm escapees, Aquaculture Environment Interactions, Vol. 2: 75-86, 2011, doi: 10.3354/aei00032 [online] Available at:

58. NASCO Rivers Database Report UK- Scotland (2011) op cit

59. NASCO (2008) EU- UK (Scotland): Focus Area Report On Management Of Salmon Fisheries, [online] Available at:

60. Scottish Government (2010) Report of the Scottish Mixed Stock Salmon Fisheries Working Group: Priority for Action 2.5 from: A Strategic Framework for Scottish Freshwater Fisheries, [online] Available at:

61. The Scottish Government (2011) Annual Scottish Salmon and Sea Trout Fishery Statistics, [online] Available at:

62. Marine Scotland (2010) Topic Sheet No. 41 v1 - Scotland's Freshwater Fish Populations: Stocking, Genetics and Broodstock Management, [online] Available at:

63. Aquaculture and Fisheries (Scotland) Act 2007

64. NASCO (2010) IP(10)15, Aquaculture, Introductions and Transfers and Transgenics Focus Area Report - UK (Scotland), January 2010, [online] Available at:

65. Webb, J, Youngson, A and E Verspoor. June 2009. Restoration Guidance for West Coast Salmon and Sea Trout Fisheries. Tripartite Working Group. p.17

66. based on GES Descriptors 1 and 4, from Annex I of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive

67. http://www.sepa.org.uk/water/river_basin_planning.aspx


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