1. For more information on significance and association testing, please see article by Sullivan and Fein (2012).
2. The five rules/restrictions were: rules about what the child can do; technical restrictions on what children can see, rules about how much time the child could spend online, rules about when the child can use the internet, and other rules or restrictions.
3. For more information on crime groupings, see the Recorded Crime in Scotland 2018-19 bulletin
4. For more information see Growing up in Scotland study website.
5. Lower level refers to Lower Level Standard Grades and Vocational qualifications.
6. Intermediate qualifications here are: Upper Level Standard Grades / Intermediate Vocational qualifications or Higher grades/Upper level vocational qualifications.
7. See Goodman (1997) for more information about this classification.
8. These questions were adapted from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (Australian Department of Social Services, 2018). See link for more information: https://growingupinaustralia.gov.au/about-study
9. Children in the first cohort of the study, BC1, were born in 2004-5. A second birth cohort, BC2, involving children born in 2010-11, were followed until 2015-16. See growingupinscotland.org.uk for more information on the design and the methodology of the study.