Publication - Consultation paper

Energy Efficient Scotland: the future of low carbon heat for off gas buildings - call for evidence

Published: 26 Mar 2019

We are seeking evidence on technologies and actions necessary to support the decarbonisation of the heat supply of buildings that currently do not use mains gas as their primary heating fuel.

52 page PDF

1.1 MB

52 page PDF

1.1 MB

Contents
Energy Efficient Scotland: the future of low carbon heat for off gas buildings - call for evidence
Annex 1

52 page PDF

1.1 MB

Annex 1

Summary of Questions

1 What evidence can you provide of low carbon heat technologies being taken up without government support?

2 What other barriers may impede the uptake of low carbon heat in buildings not currently using mains gas?

3 What could we do to remove these barriers and support the uptake of low carbon heat? Can you give examples of successful low carbon heat implementation?

4 How can complementary systems, such as solar PV and heat pump systems be deployed to overcome such barriers?

5 What do you consider to be the principal building-specific constraints on low carbon heat?

6 What can be done to overcome these constraints?

7 What evidence can you provide on the limitations of low carbon heat technologies (e.g. heat pumps) in buildings with poor energy efficiency?

8 What low carbon heat solutions are appropriate for hard-to-treat properties where there are limited opportunities to improve energy efficiency of the building fabric?

9 Please specify whether your evidence relates to domestic or non-domestic systems.

Regarding ground source, air source and water source heat pumps, what evidence can you provide on:
a) the cost of the technology, including installation, maintenance and running costs and alignment with costs related in the RHI data in tables 2 and 3

b) customer satisfaction with the system

c) lifecycle and overall efficiency of the technology

10 What factors might inhibit uptake of heat pumps?

11 What do you propose as solutions to overcome any barriers to uptake?

12 What innovations could reduce the operational cost of heat pumps, i.e. higher performing heat pumps, new refrigerants, 'time-of-use' tariffs coupled with thermal storage, 'heat-as-a-service' business models, etc

13 Please specify whether your evidence relates to domestic or non-domestic systems.

Regarding hybrid heat pumps, what evidence can you provide on:
a) the cost of the technology, including installation, maintenance and running costs
b) customer satisfaction with the system
c) lifecycle and overall efficiency of the technology

d) the ability of hybrid heat pumps to reduce peak demand for electricity whilst also reducing carbon emissions

14 What factors might inhibit uptake of hybrid heat pumps?

15 What do you propose as solutions to overcome any barriers to uptake?

16 Can you share any evidence on the types of buildings where hybrid heat pumps may best be deployed?

17 Please specify whether your evidence relates to domestic or non-domestic systems.

Regarding electric storage heating, what evidence can you provide on:
a) the cost of the technology, including installation, maintenance and running costs
b) customer satisfaction with the system
c) lifecycle and overall efficiency of the technology

18 What factors might inhibit uptake of electric storage heating?

19 What do you propose as solutions to overcome any barriers to uptake?

20 Can you provide any evidence of electric heating technologies not already described that should be considered as potential future heating solution?

21 Can you comment on the comparative installation, operating and maintenance costs of these technologies in relation to other electric heating sources? As well as their lifetime and efficiency?

22 Can you provide evidence on the performance of integrated systems such as heat pumps used in conjunction with battery storage and solar PV?

23 How could locally integrated systems, such as those mentioned above, help to overcome electrical grid constraints and what market mechanisms could be used to promote on site generation and use for low carbon heat?

24 Please specify whether your evidence relates to domestic or non-domestic systems.

Regarding Bioenergy technologies, what evidence can you provide on:
a) the cost of the technology, including installation, maintenance, fuel and other running costs, and the extent to which costs of biomass boilers are in line with those in tables 2 and 3 above
b) customer satisfaction with the system
c) lifecycle and overall efficiency of the technology

d) type of feedstock used, and whether this is grown in Scotland or imported

25 What factors might inhibit uptake of bioenergy technology?

26 What do you propose as solutions to overcome any barriers to uptake?

27 What evidence can you provide to show whether there is a strong potential for growth of the biogas supply?

28 Can you provide evidence on the relative cost of using Scottish produced bioenergy feedstocks compared with conventional fossil fuels?

29 Can you provide any evidence on the potential to supply bioliquid fuels sustainably at reasonable cost? With reference to specific fuels such as bio-LPG and different types of bio-diesel.

30 Please specify whether your evidence relates to domestic or non-domestic systems;

Regarding heat networks, what evidence can you provide on:
a) the cost of the technology, including installation, maintenance, fuel and other running costs
b) customer satisfaction with the system

c) lifecycle and overall efficiency of the technology

31 What factors might inhibit uptake of the installation of heat networks?

32 What could be done to further encourage the development of heat networks?

33 Where and in which circumstances are heat networks the most appropriate low carbon solution in areas not using mains gas?

34 What examples can be provided to show how readily heat networks can be moved to renewables – especially in those buildings with a high peak heat load

35 What is your view on the continued extension of gas networks before low carbon alternatives to natural gas (e.g. hydrogen) are proven?

36 How should wider decarbonisation demands, including for industrial processes, be factored in when considering gas grid extension?

37 What evidence can you provide on the economic and technical viability of the existing gas grid if it was maintained and operated with low gas flows?

38 What evidence can you provide on the further developments needed for future market readiness and deployment of the low carbon technologies covered above?

39 What evidence can you provide to show potential economies of scale and unit cost reductions that could be achieved through increases in annual levels of deployment of the low carbon heat technologies covered in this call for evidence?

40 What evidence can you provide of instances where installing a modern low carbon heating systems has also lifted households out of fuel poverty?

41 How should we phase in the policy framework in order to better support the decarbonisation of heat supply to off gas buildings? Please reflect on whether or not a similar approach to that proposed for energy efficiency remains the best option.

42 How could Local Heat & Energy Efficiency Strategies (LHEES) help to prioritise early phasing of uptake of low carbon heat in areas not currently using mains gas?

43 How should the deployment of low carbon heat be funded? i.e. what relative contribution should come from central public funding, energy consumer's bills and private recipient funding?

44 What is needed to encourage private investment in low carbon heat?

45 Of the current sources of finance which are currently available for low carbon heat, which are working well and which are not? Are there successful examples of attracting private sector finance to support low carbon heat deployment that should be explored?

46 How should off gas buildings be assessed for their suitability for low carbon heat technologies?

47 To what extent should the assessment of suitability for low carbon heat relate to the proposed Energy Efficient Scotland assessment?

48 What wider information and advice should be supplied to inform consumers seeking to install low carbon heat supply in buildings that are off gas?

49 What evidence can you provide on the role that regulation could play in helping to support uptake of low carbon heat in existing buildings (domestic and non-domestic)? What form should this regulation take?

50 To what extent could any regulation to support uptake of low carbon heat in existing buildings link to the already-proposed Energy Efficient Scotland energy performance standards? How could a link be made?

51 How should the Scottish Government respond to the CCC's advice and the UK Government announcement in the Spring Statement that new buildings constructed now should "accommodate low carbon heating from the start"?

52 Have you encountered any specific examples of barriers to the installation of low carbon heating systems in new buildings?

53 Can you provide evidence on the comparative cost of installing low carbon heat solutions in new buildings rather than high carbon systems?

54 Can you provide evidence on the comparative cost of installing low carbon heat solutions in new buildings compared to retrofitting to install low carbon heat at a later date?

55 Are there particular actions that you would identify for consideration as part of any action to 'future proof' new buildings for low carbon heat retrofit?

56 In light of the reservation of consumer protection powers, how else could the Scottish Government ensure consumer protection on a robust basis? For example, through commercial agreements.

57 What actions should we undertake to ensure the Scottish supply chain has the skills and capacity to capitalise on the future increase in demand for the installation of low carbon heat?


Contact

Email: lowcarbonfuture@gov.scot