1. Elizabeth Dowler, “Food and Poverty in Britain: Rights and Responsibilities”, in: E Dowler & C Jones Finer (eds) “The Welfare of Food: rights and responsibilities in a changing world”, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, pp 140-159 (2003).
2. https://www.trusselltrust.org/news-and-blog/latest-stats/ (The Trussell Trust statistics are a measure of volume and are not necessarily unique users).
3. A study carried out by the Poverty Alliance identified 167 groups in Scotland offering some form of food aid. Only 48% of the study’s survey respondents (80) were Trussell Trust providers. “Making the Connections: A study of emergency food aid in Scotland”, The Poverty Alliance, 2015 http://foodaidscotland.org/userfiles/files/food_aid_study_2015.pdf.
4. UK studies have highlighted that people often refuse referral to a foodbank. (F. Douglas, O. Ejebu, A. Garcia, F. MacKenzie, S. Whybrow, L. McKenzie, A. Ludbrook, and E. Dowler (2015) “The nature and extent of food poverty/Insecurity in Scotland”, Health Scotland).
5. Canadian research suggests only 20-30% of food insecure Canadians use foodbanks. “Food banks, welfare, and food insecurity in Canada”, Tarasuk V, Dachner N, Loopstra R, 2014, British Food Journal, Vol. 116 Iss 9 pp. 1405 - 1417, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-02-2014-0077.
6. F. Douglas, O. Ejebu, A. Garcia, F. MacKenzie, S. Whybrow, L. McKenzie, A. Ludbrook, and E. Dowler (2015) “The nature and extent of food poverty/Insecurity in Scotland”, Health Scotland.
7. Scottish Government, “Severe Poverty in Scotland”, Scottish Government, 2015.
8. Carlo Cafiero, Mark Nord, Sara Viviani, Mauro Eduardo Del Grossi, Terri Ballard, Anne Kepple, Meghan Miller, Chiamaka Nwosu (2016). “Voices of the Hungry: Methods for estimating comparable prevalence rates of food insecurity experienced by adults throughout the world”, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations Rome.
9. F. Douglas et al (2015). “The nature and extent of food poverty/Insecurity in Scotland”.
10. Cummins S, Smith DM, Aitken Z, Dawson J, Marshall D, Sparks L, et al. (2010) Neighbourhood deprivation and the price and availability of fruit and vegetables in Scotland. “Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics”. 23(5):494-501.
11. J. Perry, T. Sefton, M. Williams, and M. Haddad (2014), “Emergency Use Only: Understanding and Reducing the Use of Food Banks in the UK”, Oxfam.
12. Cooper, N., Purcell S. and Jackson (2014) “Below the Breadline: the relentless rise of food poverty in Britain”. Church Action on Poverty, Oxfam and Trussell Trust.
13. Child Poverty Action Group in Scotland (2015) “Hard Choices: Reducing the need for food banks in Scotland”,Child Poverty Action Group.
15. According to the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany, the right to an “Existenzminimum” ‘guarantees the whole subsistence minimum by a uniform fundamental rights guarantee which encompasses both the physical existence of the individual, that is food, clothing, household goods, housing, heating, hygiene and health . . . , and ensuring the possibility to maintain inter-human relationships and a minimum of participation in social, cultural and political life’. (Hartz IV, para 135). https://www.escr-net.org/caselaw/2012/judgment-federal-constitutional-court-proceeding-1-bvl-1010.
16. A robust monitoring system could include: an annual nationwide measure of food insecurity in Scotland, such as the “Canadian Household Food Security Survey or the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations Food Insecurity Experience Scale”, with the data published annually; a bi-annual nationally representative sample of independent foodbank usage with the data published; monitoring of referrals to emergency food aid providers, mapping this data to uptake of the Scottish Welfare Fund to ensure best practice pathways are identified and shared with this information published quarterly; and monitoring the number of emergency food aid providers and their location, with this information published annually.
17. Carlo Cafiero, Mark Nord, Sara Viviani, Mauro Eduardo Del Grossi, Terri Ballard, Anne Kepple, Meghan Miller, Chiamaka Nwosu (2016). “Voices of the Hungry: Methods for estimating comparable prevalence rates of food insecurity experienced by adults throughout the world”, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations Rome.
19. Scottish Government (2015) ‘Poverty and Income Inequality in Scotland: 2013/14’, national statistics: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2015/06/7453
21. ‘What do we know about in-work poverty, a summary of the evidence’, Scottish Government (January 2015): http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2015/01/3233/0
22. Scottish Government: http://www.gov.scot/About/Performance/scotPerforms/indicator/livingwage
23. Based on figures from the Labour Force Survey and an ONS survey of business it estimates there are now 1.5 million zero-hour contracts impacting on 744,000 individuals. ONS (2015) ‘Employee contracts that do not guarantee a minimum number of hours: 2015 Update’: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171776_415332.pdf.
24. 216,500 Scottish workers are estimated to be underemployed. Scottish Government: http://www.gov.scot/About/Performance/scotPerforms/indicator/underemployment
25. ONS data for the UK suggests of the 1.1 million increase in total employment between 2008-2014, 732,000 were self-employed and 339,000 were employees. Median incomes for the self-employed fell 22% to £207 per week during this period. ONS (2014) ‘Self employed workers in the UK - 2014’: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171776_374941.pdf. In Scotland, 287,000 people are self-employed - 191,000 men and 96,000 women. Scottish Government, Labour Market Brief (April 2016): http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Labour-Market/AnalyticalPapers/LM-Brief-Apr
26. https://www.jrf.org.uk/report/minimum-income-standard-uk-2015 see Fig 1 in Summary
32. By communicators we mean local people with direct experience of poverty who have received a basic level of training to enable them to help peers navigate and access services.
36. See http://www.cpag.org.uk/sites/default/files/CPAG-Scotland-Programme-Scot-Gov-2016-21.pdf and Keung, A. and Bradshaw, J. (2016) “Analysis of the impact of increases to child benefit and child tax credits on child poverty rates in the UK and Scotland”, March 2016 Blog http://www.york.ac.uk/inst/spru/pubs/pdf/CB&CTCtopups.pdf
38. See e.g. J. Perry, T. Sefton, M. Williams, and M. Haddad (2014), “Emergency Use Only: Understanding and Reducing the Use of Food Banks in the UK”, Oxfam. http://www.cpag.org.uk/sites/default/files/Foodbank%20Report_web.pdf, p7
39. Child Poverty Action Group in Scotland (2015) “Hard Choices: Reducing the need for food banks in Scotland” .
43. See e.g. (2014) “Learning lessons: young people’s views on poverty and education in Scotland”,Save the Children/Children’s Commissioner for Children and Young People Scotland; “Costs of the School Day”(2015) Child Poverty Action Group; “School Trips” http://www.faithincommunityscotland.org/poverty-truth-commission/videos/.
44. See e.g. NHS Health Scotland (2015) “Process evaluation of the implementation of Universal Free School Meals - Research with parents”.
45. See e.g. http://www.cpag.org.uk/sites/default/files/CPAG_Food_Bank_Report.pdf, p19.
47. “Making the Connections: A study of emergency food aid in Scotland”, M.A. MacLeod (2015).
50. For a recent review see F. Douglas et al (2015), “The nature and extent of food poverty/Insecurity in Scotland”.
51. Scottish Government. The Scottish Health Survey 2011: Volume 1 - Adults. 2012; Available at: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2012/09/7854/3.
52. “National Service Framework for Diabetes”, Department of Health (2002), also cited in “Press, Nutrition and food poverty”, National Heart Forum (2004)
Email: Graeme MacLennan