Publication - Research and analysis

Coronavirus (COVID-19): understanding inequalities in wellbeing during the pandemic - report

This report presents findings from qualitative research, carried out in February 2021, that aimed to investigate why the wellbeing of five subgroups in the Scottish population was disproportionately impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.

69 page PDF

639.0 kB

69 page PDF

639.0 kB

Contents
Coronavirus (COVID-19): understanding inequalities in wellbeing during the pandemic - report
4. Appendices

69 page PDF

639.0 kB

4. Appendices

4.1 Recruitment Questionnaire

Respondent name:

Email address:

Phone number:

Recruiter name:

A5 Methodology:

  • Group
  • Depth

A6 Group number

  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
  • 6
  • 7
  • 8

A7 Depth number

  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
  • 6
  • 7
  • 8

Date and time of depth (type in):

___________________________________________________________________

Q1 Age:

  • Check quotas, go to Q2 18 – 20 years
  • Check quotas, go to Q2 21 - 24 years
  • Check quotas, go to Q2 25 – 34 years
  • Check quotas, go to Q2 35 – 44 years
  • Check quotas, go to Q2 45 - 50 years
  • Check quotas, go to Q2 51 - 64 years
  • Check quotas, go to Q2 65 - 70 years

Q2 Gender:

  • Check quotas, go to Q3 Male
  • Check quotas, go to Q3 Female

Q3 Which of the following groups does the chief income earner in the household belong to? · If retired and have an occupational pension, please select according to your previous occupation, If furloughed then please select "usual" occupation.

  • Check quota Semi or unskilled manual worker
  • Check quota Skilled manual worker
  • Check quota Supervisory or clerical / Junior managerial / Professional / administrator
  • Check quota Intermediate managerial / Professional / Administrative
  • Check quota Higher managerial/ Professional/Administrative
  • Check quota Student
  • Check quota Retired and living on state pension only
  • Check quota Unemployed (for over 6 months) or not working due to long term sickness
  • Check quota Unemployed (less than 6 months)
  • Check quota Homemaker
  • Check quota Other

Q4 Do you or does any of your close family or friends work in any of the following industries?

  • CLOSE Advertising
  • CLOSE Marketing
  • CLOSE Public Relations
  • CLOSE Market Research

Go to Q5 None of the above

Q5 On a scale of 1 to 10, how difficult a time have you had since the start of Covid-19 pandemic? This can be for any reason.

  • CLOSE 1 = not at all difficult
  • CLOSE 2
  • CLOSE 3
  • CLOSE 4
  • Go to Q6 5
  • Go to Q6 6
  • Go to Q6 7
  • Go to Q6 8
  • Go to Q6 9
  • Go to Q6 10 = extremely difficult

Q6 I am going to read out a few statements and would like you to tell me how much you argree / disagree with each.

  Strongly agree Slightly agree Neither / nor Slightly disagree Strongly disagree
I have generally been less happy than usual during Covid-19 pandemic (i.e. since March 2020)          
I have been more anxious than usual during Covid-19 pandemic.          
I have adopting some negative coping mechanisms duing Covid-19 pandemic (e.g. smoking more, drinking more, sleeping more, taking less exercise, being easier to anger, eating less well etc)          

All respondents must agree with all of the above.

Q7 How concerned have you been / are you about your job being at risk due to Covid-19?

  • Check quota - Q8 Very concerned
  • Check quota - Q8 Quite concerned
  • Check quota - Q8 Not very concerned
  • Check quota - Q8 Not at all concerned
  • Check quota - Q8 N/A - not working

Q8 Which of the following best descibes your family situtation?

  • Check quotas, Go to Q9 Pre kids
  • Check quotas, Go to Q9 Have children under 11 years at home
  • Check quotas, Go to Q9 Have children over 11 years at home
  • Check quotas, Go to Q9 Children have grown up and left home
  • Check quotas, Go to Q9 Never had children

Q9 Do you consider yourself to have a disability?

  • Check quota - Go to Q9a Yes
  • Check quota - Go to Q10 No Prefer not to say

Q9a Please state the type of disability which applies to you. Please select all that apply.

  • Visual
  • Hearing
  • Learning disability
  • Mobility/Other physical impairment
  • Mental health condition
  • Long term illness
  • Social, emotional, behavioural difficulties e.g. autism
  • Other
  • Prefer not to say

Q10 Which of the following best describes your ethnicity?

  • Check quotas - Q11 White (British, Irish, Gypsy or Irish traveller or Other White)
  • Check quotas - Q11 Mixed/Multiple ethnic group
  • Check quotas - Q11 Asian/Asian British
  • Check quotas - Q11 Black/African/Caribbean/Black British
  • Check quotas - Q11 Other ethnic group
  • Check quotas - Q11 Prefer not to say

Q11 Which council area do you live in?

  • Aberdeen City East
  • Renfrewshire
  • Orkney Islands
  • Aberdeenshire
  • Falkirk
  • Perth and Kinross
  • Angus
  • Fife
  • Renfrewshire
  • Argyll and Bute
  • Glasgow
  • Scottish Borders
  • City of Edinburgh
  • Highland
  • Shetland Islands
  • Clackmannanshire
  • Inverclyde
  • South Ayrshire
  • Dumfries and Galloway
  • Midlothian
  • South Lanarkshire
  • Dundee City
  • Moray
  • Stirling
  • East Ayrshire
  • Na h-Eileanan Siar
  • West Dunbartonshire
  • West Lothian
  • East Dunbartonshire
  • North Ayrshire
  • East Lothian
  • North Lanarkshire

Q12 Please type in the area where the respondent lives (Lower SIMD respondents only: groups 4&8, Depths 1,4,6,7,8)

Thanks for completing - please press submit.

4.2 Research Topic Guide

Scottish Government

Qualitative Research to Understand the Impacts of Covid-19 on Wellbeing for Key Groups in Scotland

Topic Guide Final (V2) 150221

Moderator Notes:

  • Based on the areas of investigation….this project needs to generate recommendations for where potential problems or further inequality could be prevented
  • At all times, it is important to stay mindful of similarities between sub groups in the sample AND differences in perspectives and particularly on ideas for future recommendations between the key inequalities sub groups of importance to this project- women, young people, disabled
    people, those whose jobs are at risk/have been made unemployed during C19, and those living in communities in the lowest quintile of the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation

Introduction

  • By moderator - highlight independence / impartiality
  • Explanation of research
    • No right or wrong answers
    • Everyone's views are important
  • Introduction to the subject and format of the discussion
    • Around 90 mins chat (groups); about 60 mins in depths
    • Open discussion about life and the challenges that have been experienced during the COVID era and concerns about the future- to help inform planning for the future
    • Honesty is key….we promise you that everything you say will remain confidential
    • Reassurance over confidentiality, GDPR and MRS Code of Conduct. Our promise to you:
      • We will not disclose any of your details
      • We will anonymise all of our reports
      • We will only use the information you provide for the purpose of this research
  • Explanation of recording
    • audio / video…. ask for permission to pass to client
  • Individual introductions
    • First name, who is in your household, what you do for a living if anything….what is your current working situation?

Past- Historic Experience of Life During the COVID era

  • What has life been like for you over the time we have been living with COVID?
    • Explore at spontaneous level
    • How would you describe life last year to a friend you hadn't seen for a long time?
      • Probe- positive experiences from last year?
      • Probe- the most challenging parts of life last year?
  • Probe in relation to key areas of life
    • SHOWCARD 1- Personal wellbeing and mental health; Personal isolation; Your physical health; Family togetherness; Concerns about the health of vulnerable people close to you; Your ability to provide care for those who are closest to you- either friends or family; Concerns about your children's progress- education and general development; Your sense of being part of your community and the wider society you live in; Your sense of contributing to society; Your ability to study- as a student or as part of lifelong learning; Work and employment matters; Financial matters- personal, family and or household; Concerns about the economy in more a general sense; Other areas of life impacted by COVID
      • Which areas of your life have been impacted on by COVID….
        • Ask respondents to rank key impact areas for themselves- from most impacted- at a negative level….to the least impacted….to only positively impacted?
      • As you see it looking at society in general (around your community), which of these areas have been the hardest hit during COVID?
    • To confirm, have any of these areas been positively affected by COVID?
      • How was that?
  • What have you done to help you get through these difficult times?
    • Spontaneous?
    • Probe- what have you done that you would say has had a positive impact on your life….that has been good for your health- both physically and mentally? (e.g. relaxing more, hobbies and interests, supporting others, getting closer to those you care about, exercise, eating better, stopping smoking, etc.)
    • Probe- what have you done that you would say has had, on balance, a more negative impact on your life….that has been bad for your health- both physically and mentally? (e.g. drinking more, smoking more, less exercise, eating more/ more unhealthily, sleeping more and irregularly, etc.)
  • Where have you received support over the last year….for any part of your life- relating to any area you have been needing help….such as money issue, health issues, keeping mentally strong, work related issues, etc?
    • Have you been helped in any way by anything from the Scottish or UK governments? Spontaneous and then SHOWCARD 2 (initiatives list from the SG)
      • Showcard 2- Furlough (Job Retention Scheme), Shielding support, Food/shopping support, National Assistance Helpline, Clear your head campaign, Parent Club campaign, Self-isolation Support Grant, Self-Employment Income Support Scheme, Coronavirus Business Interruption Support Scheme, Bounce Back Loans Scheme
    • Have you been helped in any way by any other organisation or group of people- either public sector, private company…. or a voluntary or community organisation?
      • For you- what help that you have received has made the biggest difference in each area you have been affected by COVID? See Showcard 1 Again
      • For you- what help that you have received has not made any difference in key areas you have been affected by COVID? See Showcard 1 Again
  • Thinking back over the last year, what support would you have liked to have been made available to help you in any way that you have been impacted by COVID?
    • Probe- anything that would have reduced the impact or just helped you get through better?

Present- In relation to respondents' current experiences of COVID-19, during this latest lockdown:

  • How are you now…. compared to last year- better or worse?
  • Having been through a year of COVID- what lessons have you learned that you are going to take forward?
    • What are you doing differently during this lockdown compared to last year?
  • What support, to help you in any way, would you ideally like to be made available to you now?
    • How would this support be given and by whom?

Future- In relation to the future - both as COVID-19 continues and in the post COVID-19 recovery era:

  • What are you most nervous about or concerned about looking forward….to the rest of COVID and to the COVID recovery period?
    • See showcard 1 again
  • What lessons would you like the Scottish Government and our society in general to take from the COVID-19 era?
  • What areas of support do you think would help recovery from the COVID-19 era at a personal level?
  • What areas of support do you think would help recovery from the COVID-19 era from the societal perspective?
    • Spontaneous thoughts
    • showcard 3 Attitudes to prompted areas of support for future interventions
      • Probe- what ideas do you have in any of these areas….ideas to make the lives of people like you better?

Summary

  • If there was one thing you would like me to take back to the Scottish Government- in relation to what you need now or feel you or our society needs in the future….as we come out of COVID 19…. what would it be?

Thank and Close

Showcard 1

  • Personal wellbeing and mental health
  • Personal isolation
  • Your physical health
  • Family togetherness
  • Concerns about the health of vulnerable people close to you
  • Your ability to provide care for those who are closest to you- either friends or family
  • Concerns about your children's progress- education and general development
  • Your sense of being part of your community and the wider society you live in
  • Your sense of contributing to society
  • Your ability to study- as a student or as part of lifelong learning
  • Work and employment matters
  • Financial matters- personal, family and or household
  • Concerns about the economy in more a general sense
  • Other areas of life impacted by COVID

Showcard 2

  • Furlough (Job Retention Scheme)
  • Shielding support
  • Food/shopping support
  • National Assistance Helpline
  • Clear your head campaign
  • -Parent Club support campaign and website
  • Self-isolation Support Grant
  • Self-Employment Income Support Scheme
  • Coronavirus Business Interruption Support Scheme
  • Bounce Back Loans Scheme
  • Support from schools, colleges, universities

Showcard 3

  • Our homes
    • Ensuring we are secure in our homes
    • Ensuring that our homes are what we need- safe, warm and comfortable
  • Finances- help with money matters
    • Making sure basic needs are guaranteed- including so that we all have access to nutritious and affordable foods
  • Work- getting into and being able stay in work
    • Ensuring everyone who wants to can get into work. Including….
      • Through child care and support for carers
      • Through work places being flexible
  • Education
    • Education and training for adult
    • Support for children- getting back into school based education
    • Support for college and university student
      • Getting back to college and university study
      • Getting into work after their education experience during COVID
  • Health and care
    • Mental health support
    • Living with the risk of future pandemics
    • Support relating to care for vulnerable or isolated people
  • Community and inclusions
    • Supporting each other
    • Dealing with digital exclusion- making sure everyone has the hardware, skills and broadband necessary to use the internet as they want
    • Giving important sectors in our society a voice so that needs can be understood e.g.
      • Disabled community
      • Ethnic minority groups

4.3 Sample Plan

8 Zoom Group Discussions

39 respondents participated in the group discussions in total

All respondents identified as having had a difficult or challenging time during COVID-19 at three levels:

  • All stated that they had generally been less happy during the COVID-19 era than they were before March 2020
  • All respondents stated that they had more consistently experienced increased anxiety during the COVID-19 era than they had before March 2020
  • And, or, respondents stated that they were more likely to employ negative coping strategies during the COVID-19 period (such as sleeping 'too much'; smoking more; drinking more alcohol; eating less well; being more angry; and/or taking less exercise)

Women 20-50 years old BC1C2D With children at home

Women 50-75 years old BC1C2D Without children at home

Young People - aged 18-34yo BC1 Mix males and females

Young People - aged 18-34yo C2D Mix males and females

Employment has been/ and is at risk 20-50 years old BC1 Mix males and females- skew to males

Employment has been/ and is at risk C2D Mix males and females- skew to males

Living in a SIMD lowest quintile area All C2DE 20-50 years old Mix males and females

Living in a SIMD lowest quintile area All C2DE 50-70 years old Mix males and females

Disabled People: across the group discussions 10 respondents were recruited with disabilities- 2 with sensory disabilities (deafness), 3 with long term illnesses, 3 with mental health conditions and 2 with physical disabilities that affected mobility.

8 Zoom One to One Depth Interviews

All respondents identified as having had a difficult or challenging time during COVID-19 at three levels:

  • All stated that they had generally been less happy during the COVID-19 era than they were before March 2020
  • All respondents stated that they had more consistently experienced increased anxiety during the COVID-19 era than they had before March 2020
  • And, or, respondents stated that they were more likely to employ negative coping strategies during the COVID-19 period (such as sleeping 'too much'; smoking more; drinking more alcohol; eating less well; being more angry; and/or taking less exercise)

Women 20-50 years old DE With children at home AND- living in SIMD lowest quintile

Women 50-70 years old BC1C2D Without children at home AND- living with a physical disability

Young People - aged 18-34yo C2D Male AND- living in SIMD lowest quintile AND- employment has been and is at risk/ become unemployed during C19

Employment has been/ and is at risk Male 20-50 years old BC1 With children at home AND- at the YOUNGER END OF THE SCALE

Employment has been/ and is at risk Male 20-50 years old C2D AND- living in SIMD lowest quintile AND- living with a physical disability, mental health disability or sensory disability

Living in a SIMD lowest quintile area All C2DE 20-50 years old Male AND- employment has been and is at risk/ become unemployed during C19

Living in a SIMD lowest quintile area All C2DE 50-70 years old Female AND- living with a physical disability

Supplementary Recruitment Criteria across the whole sample to ensure broad inclusion:

  • 6 respondents were recruited across the whole sample to represent people in one of the Black and Minority Ethnicity groups
  • The sample was recruited from across Scotland - including both those living in urban and rural communities

Contact

Email: covid-19.behaviours@gov.scot