3. Size of the non-UK EU workforce
This chapter provides estimates for the size of the non- UK EU workforce. It draws on the survey data, along with population figures from Scottish Social Services Council ( SSSC) for 2016.
Overall size of the non- UK EU workforce
The estimate of the percentage of people employed within adult social care and childcare that are non- UK EU nationals is 5.6%. Overall, there are around 176,000 people working within adult social care and childcare, so the prevalence estimate of 5.6% equates to 9,830 workers. 
All estimates based on survey responses are subject to sampling error. Confidence intervals indicate the likely level of precision. The lower confidence interval ( LCI) of the main estimate is 4.5% and upper confidence interval ( UCI) is 6.6%. This equates to between 7,950 and 11,700 workers.
A small proportion (0.2%) of staff were from the Republic of Ireland. Appendix A provides a breakdown of the estimates of the number of workers from the Republic of Ireland.
The prevalence of non- UK EU staff within adult social care and childcare differed by sub-sector, ranging from 0.3% for childminding services to 16.5% (+/- 11.3%) for nurse agencies, with the remaining sub-sectors between 3.8% and 6.8%.  ( Table 3.1) Among all adult social care sub-sectors (Adult Day Care, Care Homes for Adults, Housing Support/Care at Home and Nurse Agencies) the percentage of non- UK EU staff was 5.5% (+/-1.3%). Among all sub-sectors relating to childcare (Childminding and Day Care of Children) the percentage was 5.9% (+/-1.7%).
In terms of absolute numbers of staff, the sectors with the most non- UK EU staff were Care Home for Adults (3,150), Housing support/Care at Home (2,850), and Day Care of Children (2,290). The sectors with the fewest were Childminding (20) and Adult Day Care (300).
Table 3.1: Estimates of proportion of non- UK EU staff by sub-sector 
|Adult Day Care||Care Home for Adults||Childminding||Day Care of Children|| Housing support/
Care at home
|Nurse Agency||Total||All adult social care||All child-care|
|Average staff per service||15.8||46.7||1.0||9.0||33.8||104.5||13.6||36.7||4.2|
|Total services (unweighted)||117||305||315||360||449||26||1,572||897||675|
|Total staff (unweighted)||2,304||12,511||335||4,278||17,853||2,718||39,999||35,386||4,613|
|Average staff per service||19.7||41.0||1.1||11.9||39.8||104.5||25.4||39.4||6.8|
|% of staff from non- UK EU||3.8%||5.9%||0.3%||6.8%||4.1%||16.5%||5.6%||5.5%||5.9%|
|Total staff from non- UK EU||300||3,150||20||2,290||2,850||1,230||9,830||7,520||2,310|
Table 3.2 presents the estimates by employer type. In both percentage and absolute terms, non- UK EU workers were more prevalent in private sector services (6.4% +/- 1.6%; 5,410 staff), than in voluntary sector services (5.4% +/- 1.8%; 2,730) and public sector services (3.7% +/- 2.1%; 1,510). (Here, as throughout the report, differences between sub-groups have been commented upon only where these are statistically significant; that is, where we can be 95% certain that they have not occurred by chance)
Table 3.2: Estimates of proportion of non- UK EU staff by employer type 
|Average staff per service||16.9||10.6||20.1||13.6|
|Total services (unweighted)||278||822||472||1,572|
|Total staff (unweighted)||7,325||19,900||12,774||39,999|
|Average staff per service||22.6||11.6||23.6||15.4|
|% of staff from non- UK EU||3.7%||6.4%||5.4%||5.6%|
|Total staff from non- UK EU||1,510||5,410||2,730||9,830|
Types of Staff
Non- UK EU staff were more prevalent among NMC registered nurses, auxiliary staff and care staff/practitioners than managers and other staff.  Around 7.3% of NMC registered nurses (+/- 1.2%), 5.9% of care staff/practitioners (+/- 1.1%) and 5.7% of auxiliary staff (+/- 1.1%) were from non- UK EU countries. The corresponding percentage for managers was lower at 3.7% (+/-0.9%). This equates to 8,010 Care Staff, 1,110 Auxiliary Staff, 470 NMC registered nurses and 300 Managers ( Table 3.3).
Table 3.3: Estimates of proportion of non- UK EU staff by staff categories 
|Auxiliary||NMC Registered nurses ||Care staff/ practitioners (excl. nurses)||Managers||Others undefined||Total|
|Total staff (unweighted)||4,444||1,809||30,261||2,411||1,074||39,999|
|% of staff from non- UK EU||5.7%||7.3%||5.9%||3.7%||1.6%||5.6%|
|Total staff from non- UK EU||1,110||470||8,010||300||100||9,830|
In terms of NUTS2 regions, non- UK EU staff account for the highest proportion of care staff in the North East (9.1% +/-4.3%) and the East (7.8% +/- 2%), compared to in Highlands and Islands (3.8% +/-2.7%) and the South West (3.5% +/-1.3%). This corresponds to approximately 5,030 workers in the East, 2,720 in the South West, 1,560 in the North East and 670 in the Highlands and Islands ( Table 3.4).
Table 3.4: Estimates of proportion of non- UK EU staff by region 
|North East||East||South West||Highlands and Islands||Total|
|Average staff per service||13.6||12.0||16.0||11.5||13.6|
|Total services (unweighted)||151||628||628||165||1,572|
|Total staff (unweighted)||3,643||13,813||19,192||3,351||39,999|
|Average staff per service||13.0||13.4||18.7||13.0||15.4|
|% of staff from non- UK EU||9.1%||7.8%||3.5%||3.8%||5.6%|
|Total staff from non- UK EU||1,560||5,030||2,720||670||9,830|
Urban rural threefold classification was calculated using postcode data. This was missing in 346 cases. The proportion of non- UK EU staff in the categories of social services sampled is 4.9% (+/- 4.9%) in remote rural Scotland, 5.6% (+/- 3.5%) in accessible rural Scotland, and 5.7% (+/- 1.4%) in the rest of Scotland. This is equivalent to 8,910 workers in the rest of Scotland, 780 in accessible rural areas and 320 in remote rural areas ( Table 3.5).
Table 3.5: Estimates of proportion of non- UK EU staff by urban rural threefold classification 
|Rest of Scotland||Accessible Rural||Remote Rural||Missing data||Total|
|Average staff per service||14.7||9.1||7.9||0.0||13.6|
|Total services (unweighted)||1,010||147||69||346||1,572|
|Total staff (unweighted)||34,001||3,866||871||1,261||39,999|
|Average staff per service||29.3||21.0||10.5||1.8||15.4|
|% of staff from non- UK EU||5.7%||5.6%||4.9%||NA||5.6%|
|Total staff from non- UK EU||8,910||780||320||NA||9,820|