Consultation on potential controls or prohibition of electronic training aids

Consultation analysis on electronic training aids for pets, dogs and cats.

Annex 3

Published references cited in consultation responses

The references below have been cited by respondents within their further comments. The substantial majority were cited by respondents broadly opposed to the use of electronic training aids (at Question 1 and elsewhere). The formal evidence sources cited as supporting the case for electronic training aids were the DEFRA commissioned reports Cooper et al, 2013.

If a partial reference was provided (for example a surname and date only) the research team have sought to provide a full reference. A degree of judgment may have had to be used in deciding the document or evidence source to which respondent(s) were referring. If this was the case, references have been marked with an asterisk (*).

Please note that, in addition to published references of the type listed below, a number of respondents referred to a range of other, primarily web-based, materials. These included information and videos on animal trainer websites, other material posted on video sharing websites or written material provided by various organisations, including campaign groups.

Anderson, D.E. and Tosheff, J.G. (1973) Cardiac output and total peripheral resistance changes during preavoidance periods in the dog. J. Appl. Physiol. 34: 650-654.

Arhant, C., Bubna-Littitz, H., Bartels, A., Futschik, A. and Troxler, J. (2010) Behaviour of smaller and larger dogs: effects of training methods, inconsistency of owner behaviour and level of engagement in activities with the dog. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 123: 131-142.

Axelrod, S. and Apsche, J. (1983) The Effects of Punishment on Human Behaviour, Academic Press.

Beerda, B., Schilder, M.B.H., van Hooff, J.A.R.A.M., de Vries, H.W., Mol, J.A. (1998) Behavioural, saliva cortisol and heart rate responses to different types of stimuli in dogs. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 58: 365-381.

Blackwell, E.J., Bolster, C., Richards, G.J., Loftus, B. and Casey, R.A. (2012) The use of electronic collars for training domestic dogs: estimated prevalence, reasons and risk factors for use, and owner perceived success as compared to other training methods. BMC Vet. Res. 8: 93-101.

Blackwell, E.J. and Casey, R.A. (2006) The use of shock collars and their impact on the welfare of dogs: A review of the current literature. West Sussex, U.K: RSPCA, Horsham. Report to the RSPCA.

Blackwell, E.J., Twells, C., Seawright, A. and Casey, R.A. (2008) The relationship between training methods and the occurrence of behavior problems, as reported by owners, in a population of domestic dogs. J. Vet. Behav. 3: 207-217.

Bodnariu, A. (2005) The effects of stress on cognitive abilities in kennelled dogs. MSc Thesis : The University of Edinburgh, Royal School of Veterinary Studies, Division of Animal Health & Welfare, Easter Bush Veterinary Centre, Easter Bush, Roslin EH25 9RG.

*Bolshakov V., Kandel E., Benes F., Carlezon W., & Tsevtkov E. (2002) Fear conditioning occludes LTPinduced presynaptic enhancement of synaptic transmission in the cortical pathway to the lateral amygdala. Neuron, 34: 289-300.

Bradshaw J.W.S., Blackwell E.J.and Casey R.A. (2009) Dominance in domestic dogs - useful construct or bad habit? J. Vet. Behav. 4: 135-144.

Brambell Committee Report (1965). Report of the Technical Committee to Enquire into the Welfare of Animals kept under intensive Livestock Husbandry Systems, The Brambell Report, December 1965. London: HMSO. ISBN 0 10 850286 4

British Small Animal Veterinary Association (2012) Position Statement on Aversive Training Methods (Electronic and Other Aversive Collars). Position Statement No. 31.

Burch, M. and Bailey, J. (1999) How Dogs Learn. New York, NY: Wiley Publishing Inc.

Casey, R. A., Loftus, B., Bolster, C., Richards, G. J., and Blackwell, E. J. (2014) Human directed aggression in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris): Occurrence in different contexts and risk factors. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 152: 52-63.

Church, R.M., LoLordo, V., Overmier, J.B., Solomon, R.L. and Turner, L.H. (1966) Cardiac responses to shock in curarized dogs: Effects of shock intensity and duration, warning signal, and prior experience with shock. J. Comp. Physiol. Psych. 62 (1).

Companion Animal Welfare Council (2012) The Use of Electric Pulse Training Aids ( EPTAs) in Companion Animals.

Cooper, J.J., Cracknell, N., Hardiman, J., Wright, H. and Mills, D. (2014) The Welfare Consequences and Efficacy of Training Pet Dogs with Remote Electronic Training Collars in Comparison to Reward Based Training. PLOS ONE 9(9): e102722.

Cooper, J., Wright, H., Mills, D., Casey, R., Blackwell, E., van Driel, K. and Lines J. (2013) Studies to assess the effect of pet training aids, specifically remote static pulse systems, on the welfare of domestic dogs. Defra Research Project AW1402: Final Report.

Cooper, J., Cracknell, N., Hardiman, J. and Mills,D. (2013) Studies to assess the effect of pet training aids, specifically remote static pulse systems, on the welfare of domestic dogs; field study of dogs in training. Defra Research Project AW1402a: Final Report.

Deldalle, S. and Gaunet, F. (2014) Effects of 2 training methods on stress-related behaviors of the dog (Canis familiaris) and on the dog-owner relationship. J. Vet. Behav. 9: 58-65.

Dess, N.K., Linwick, D., Patterson, J., Overmier, J.B. and Levine, S. (1983) Immediate and proactive effects of controllability and predictability on plasma cortisol responses to shocks in dogs. Behav Neurosci. 97(6): 1005-1016.

Feddersen-Petersen, D.and Teutsch, G.M. (1999) Grundlagen einer tierschutzgerechten Ausbildung von Hunden. Verband für das Deutsche Hundewesen ( VDH), 1st ed., Dortmund, Germany.

Gaebelein, C.J., Galosy, R.A., Botticelli. L., Howard, J.L. and Obrist, P.A. (1977) Blood pressure and cardiac changes during signalled and unsignalled avoidance in dogs. Physiol Behav. 19(1): 69-74.

Grauvogl, A. (1991) Elektroschocks bei Haustieren. Dtsch. Tieraerztebl. 2: 93

Haverbeke, A., Laporte, B., Depiereux, E., Giffroy, J.-M., Diederich, C. (2008) Training methods of military dog handlers and their effects on the team's performances. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 113: 63-69.

Herron, M., Shofer, F. and Reisner, I. (2009) Survey of the use and outcome of confrontational and non-confrontational training methods in client-owned dogs showing undesired behaviors. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 117: 47-54.

Hiby, E.F., Rooney, N.J. and Bradshaw J.W.S. (2004) Dog training methods: their use, effectiveness and interaction with behaviour and welfare. Anim. Welfare 13: 63-69.

Jacques, J and Myers, A. (2007) Electronic training devices: a review of current literature. Anim. Behav. Consult.: Theor. Pract., 3, 22-39

Lieberman, D. (2000) Learning - Behavior and Cognition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thompson Learning.

Lindsay, S. (2001) Handbook of Applied Dog Behaviour and Training: Volume 2: Etiology and Assessment of Behavior Problems. Iowa State University Press, USA.

Lindsay, S. (2005) Handbook of Applied Dog Behaviour and Training: Volume 3: Procedures and Protocols. Blackwell Publishing, Iowa, USA.

Lines, J. A. and van Driel, K. and Cooper, J. J. (2013) The characteristics of electronic training collars for dogs. Vet. Rec. 172 (11).

Maier, S. and Seligman, M. (1976) Learned helplessness: Theory and evidence. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 105: 3-46.

Mariti, C., Gazzano, A., Lansdown Moore, J., Baragli, P., Chelli, L. and Sighieri, C. (1982) Perception of dogs' stress by their owners. J. Vet. Behav. 7: 213-219.

Mendl, M. (1999) Performing under pressure: stress and cognitive function. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 65: 221-244.

Mertens, P.A. (2002) Canine aggression. In: Horwitz, D., Mills, D., Heath, S. (Eds.), BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Behavioural Medicine. BSAVA, Gloucester, pp. 195-215.

Mills, D.S. (2002) Learning, training and behaviour modification techniques. In: Horwitz, D., Mills, D., Heath, S. (Eds.), BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Behavioural Medicine. BSAVA, Gloucester, pp. 37-48.

Ogata,N., Kikusui, K., Takeuchi, and Mori Y. (2006) Objective measurement of fear-associated learning in dogs. J. Vet. Behav.1: 55-61.

Overall, K. (2007) Considerations for shock and 'training' collars: Concerns from and for the working dog community. J. Vet. Behav. 2: 103-107.

Overall, K. (2013) Manual of Clinical Behavioral Medicine for Dogs and Cats. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Inc.

Polsky RH (1994) Electronic shock collars - are they worth the risks? J. Am. Anim. Hosp. Assoc. 30: 463-468.

Rachman, S. and Arntz, A. (1991) The overprediction and underprediction of pain. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 11(4): 339-3.

Reisner, I.R. (2003) Differential diagnosis and management of human-directed aggression in dogs. Vet. Clin. Small Anim. 33: 303-320.

Rooney, N.J. Cowan, S. (2011) Training methods and owner-dog interactions: Links with dog behaviour and learning ability . Appl Anim Behav Sci. 132(3-4): 169-177.

Rudolph, J.K. and Myers, L.J. (2004) Is the bark worse than the bite?. Vet Forum. 2004, 26-43.

Sang, C.N., Max, M.B., and Gracely, R.H. (2003) Stability and reliability of detection thresholds for human A-Beta and A-delta sensory afferents determined by cutaneous electrical stimulation. J. Pain.Symptom Manag. 25: 64-73.

*Sankey, C., Häsler, B. and Hiby, E. (2012) Change in public perception of roaming dogs in Colombo City Collars not Cruelty. In 1st DPM conference. Colombo. Available at: PDFs Pres/HibyE.pdf

Schalke, E., Stichnoth, J. and Jones-Baade, R. (2005) Stress symptoms caused by the use of electric training collars on dogs (Canis familiaris) in everyday life situations. Current Issues and Research in Veterinary Behavioural Medicine: Papers presented at the 5th International Veterinary Behaviour meeting.

Schalke, E., Stichnoth, J., Ott, S., Jones-Baade, R. (2007) Clinical signs caused by the use of electric training collars on dogs in everyday life situations. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 105: 369-380.

Schilder, M.B.H. and van der Borg, J.A.M. (2004) Training dogs with help of the shock collar: short and long term behavioural effects . Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 85: 319-334.

Schilder, M.B.H. (2005) Miscommunications in interactions between humans and their canine and feline pets. In F.H. de Jonge and R. van der Bos (Eds): The human-animal relationship; Forever and a day. Animals in Philosophy and Science. pp 98-109.

Sidman, M. (1989) Coercion and its fallout. Boston, Mass. Authors Cooperative.

Steiss, J.E., Schaffer, C., Ahmad, H.A. and Voith, V.L. (2007) Evaluation of plasma cortisol levels and behavior in dogs wearing bark control collars. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 106: 96-106.

Ulrich, R. (1966) Pain as a Cause of Aggression. Am. Zool. 6(4): 643-662.

Ulrich. R.,Wolfe, M, and Dulaney, S. (1969) Punishment of shock-induced aggression. J. Exp. Anal Behav. 12(6): 1009-1015.

*Vincent I.C and Mitchell A.R. (1996) Relationship between blood pressure and stress prone temperament in dogs. Physiol Behav. 60, 135-138.

Walker, R., Fisher, J. and Neville, P. (1997) The treatment of phobias in the dog. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 52: 275-289.

Wells D.L. (2001) The effectiveness of a citronella spray collar in reducing certain forms of barking in dogs. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 73: 299-309.

Yin, S., Fernandez, E.J., Pagan, S., Richardson, S.L. and Snyder, G. (2008) Efficacy of a remote-controlled, positive-reinforcement, dog-training system for modifying problem behaviors exhibited when people arrive at the door. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.w113: 123-138.


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