8. Calculations are by ASH. They applied the proportions of e-cigarette use by smoking status in the 2014 YouGov survey to the most recent available ONS mid-year GB population estimates (2012).
14. From the Scottish Adolescent Lifestyle and Substance Use Survey
15. Although they vary in reliability, a few UK surveys provide an indication of likely levels of youth use and experimentation: Hughes, K. et al. (2014) E‐cigarette access among young people in Cheshire and Merseyside; ASH Scotland (2014) Young people and e-cigarettes in Scotland. Report on a survey of young people; ASH Wales (2014) Young People and the Use of E-cigarettes in Wales
16. Trading Standards Institute (2014) Youth Access to E-cigarettes and Associated Products. Report for Public Health England
22. de Andrade, M. et al, G (2013a). The Marketing of E-cigarettes. A report for Cancer Research UK. (http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/prod_consump/groups/cr_common/@nre/@pol/documents/generalcontent/cr_115991.pdf ) Other analyses undertaken in the USA include: Grana, R.A. and Ling, P.M (2014) "Smoking Revolution". A Content Analysis of Electronic (Cigarette Retail Websites, American Journal of Preventive Medicine 46(4): 395-403. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24650842); Gateway to Addiction? A survey of popular electronic manufacturers and targeted marketing to youth (2014) (Report for several US Senators) (http://democrats.energycommerce.house.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Report-E-Cigarettes-Youth-Marketing-Gateway-To-Addiction-2014-4-14.pdf); Legacy (2014) Vaporized. E-cigarettes, Advertising and Youth. (http://legacyforhealth.org/content/download/4542/63436/version/1/file/LEG-Vaporized-E-cig_Report-May2014.pdf)
34. See for example UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Comment no. 4: adolescent health, 1 July 2003, UN Doc. CRC/GC/2003/4, para 10.
36. Leonardi-Bee J, Jere ML, Britton J. Exposure to parental and sibling smoking and the risk of smoking uptake in childhood and adolsecence: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
38. Submission from the Respiratory Group at the University of Aberdeen to the consultation on the Proposed Smoking (Children in Vehicles) (Scotland) Bill - http://jimhume.org/en/document/consultation-responses#document
50. Sureda, X., Fernández, E., López, MJ. And Nebot, M. (2013) Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Open and Semi-Open Settings: A Systematic Review.
Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 121 Issue 7, p. 766-773.
53. Thomson, G., Wilson, N. and Edwards, R. (2009) 'At the frontier of tobacco control: A brief review of public attitudes towards smoke-free outdoor places' (abstract), Nicotine & Tobacco Research, Vol. 11, No.6, pp.584-90
61. ASH (2014) The use of electronic cigarettes in Great Britain http://www.ash.org.uk/information/facts-and-stats/fact-sheets
62. population of 11 - 17 year olds = approximately 405,600. National Records of Scotland mid-year population estimates 2013
63. National Records of Scotland mid-year population estimate, 2013, = 1.035 million under 18yrs.
66. ASH (2014) The use of electronic cigarettes in Great Britainhttp://www.ash.org.uk/information/facts-and-stats/fact-sheets
67. 'The smoking toolkit study': a national study of smoking and smoking cessation in England.
68. ASH (2014) Briefing on Electronic Cigarettes. May 2014.
69. ASH (2014) The use of electronic cigarettes in Great Britain http://www.ash.org.uk/information/facts-and-stats/fact-sheets
70. The Grocer" magazine. (ASH 2013)
72. The Grocer" magazine. (ASH 2013)
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