Publication - Strategy/plan

Climate Ready Scotland: climate change adaptation programme 2019-2024

Published: 23 Sep 2019
Directorate:
Energy and Climate Change Directorate
Part of:
Environment and climate change
ISBN:
9781839601217

A five year programme to prepare Scotland for the challenges we will face as our climate continues to change.

229 page PDF

22.4 MB

229 page PDF

22.4 MB

Contents
Climate Ready Scotland: climate change adaptation programme 2019-2024
Outcome 7: Our international networks are adaptable to climate change

229 page PDF

22.4 MB

Outcome 7: Our international networks are adaptable to climate change

Image 7.1. Self-sufficient schools feeding programme: Livingstonia, Malawi
Image 7.1. Self-sufficient schools feeding programme: Livingstonia, Malawi

Introduction

Scotland’s international networks are the interactions between Scotland and the rest of the world, and include food supply networks, international trade, governance, knowledge exchange, and development.

Image 7.2. The Global Challenges of Climate Change (© The CCC)
Image 7.2. The Global Challenges of Climate Change (© The CCC)

There are two strands to Scotland’s International Framework:

  • to create an environment within Scotland that supports a better understanding of international opportunities and a greater appetite and ability to seize them; and
  • to influence the world around us on the issues that matter most in helping Scotland flourish.

In addition, we place great importance on Scotland being a good global citizen. This means playing our part in tackling global challenges including poverty, injustice and inequality.

The International Development Fund (IDF) is at the forefront of our efforts, with annual funding of £10 million. The main aim is to support and empower our partner countries: Malawi, Rwanda, Zambia, and Pakistan. We have three funding streams under the IDF: development assistance (aid) projects; capacity strengthening initiatives; and commercial investment initiatives. Specifically relating to climate change, we currently provide additional annual funding to the Climate Justice Fund.

Scotland supports the Paris Agreement, which puts a strong emphasis on adaptation and resilience. Adaptation requires international cooperation and those who experience the greatest impact may need support to adapt. Climate change will impact how Scotland interacts and engages with the international community, and Scottish Ministers continue to actively participate in international climate change conferences, including championing climate justice.  In line with the aims of the Scottish Government's International Framework, we will share our experiences, values and expertise in areas such as justice, education, and climate change with a view to seeing the human rights of people across the world fully realised. Exchange of learning and knowledge will support countries to adapt, with positive indirect benefits for international governance and global political stability. We also want to learn from our international partners, ensuring that Scotland has the best possible evidence informing our adaptation action.  

Scotland’s economic networks will also need to adapt. Trade patterns may change as the production of goods shifts with changing climate. Global transport infrastructure may be disrupted as sea levels rise and the risk of storms increases. There may also be opportunities for Scottish businesses to sell adaptation products and expertise internationally and make use of new trade routes to sell their goods.

Scotland’s international food networks will also need to adapt. The resilience of Scotland’s food system will depend on effective management of natural resources both here and overseas and on understanding and managing the response of international markets to climate risks. Food safety may also be affected as the risk of contamination increases in extreme weather events, such as flooding. 

Where We Are Now

In June 2017 Scotland hosted the European Climate Change Adaptation Conference in Glasgow. Adaptation Scotland worked with partners to showcase Scotland’s adaptation work to an international audience of adaptation experts. Scotland’s approach to adaptation planning and action is highly regarded internationally and the Adaptation Scotland programme has close links with international partners including the British-Irish Council. 

The following diagram outlines the structure of the International Chapter. The policies for this Outcome are set out under three Sub-Outcomes. The first focuses on climate change adaptation and imported food quality and safety, the second on Scotland’s role in international adaptation governance and the third focuses on the adaptive capacity of Scotland’s international trade. 

Outcome 7: Our international networks are adaptable to climate change – policies and research

Sub-Outcome 7.1: Scotland’s international food supply networks are resilient to the effects of climate change.

As Scotland’s climate changes, its international food supply networks may change. This includes disruption of transport routes and infrastructure as a result of increases in extreme weather and sea level rise. Trade patterns and international food production may be affected as extreme weather and water scarcity reduce the quantity and type of crops grown in different countries. 

7.1.1 Food Safety and Quality

Scotland may also face new challenges associated with food safety and quality. Climate change could impact on imported food quality and safety in a variety of ways. Increased risk of flooding could increase the risk of environmental contamination. There may be additional risks from increased pesticide use in response to new pests and diseases; and transmission of diseases and toxicity through food. There may also be an increased risk of substitution of food in the supply chain if supplies are limited as a result of extreme weather.

Food Standards Scotland (FSS) is the public sector food body for Scotland and is responsible for the implementation and monitoring of food safety legislation. The Chemicals Regulation Division, part of the UK Government’s Healthy and Safety Executive, is responsible for ensuring the safe use of pesticides to protect the health of people and the environment. This includes monitoring levels of pesticide residue in both domestically produced and imported food.

Food Risk Assessments

Food Standards Scotland (FSS) has developed the relevant risk assessment for a major contamination incident for the first iteration of the classified Scottish Risk Assessment (SRA). The purpose of the SRA is to help the resilience community in Scotland to understand the disruptive challenges that we may face, and to use this to anticipate, assess, protect, mitigate, prepare, respond and recover.

Timeline: 

Ongoing

Owners: 

Food Standards Scotland

Structured Horizon Scanning Procedures

Food Standards Scotland (FSS) has developed a structured horizon scanning procedure. Regular review of data, and intelligence sources is undertaken to identify, new, emerging and increasing risks in relation to food safety, food standards and food crime, including those associated with climate change. FSS works closely with the Food Standards Agency to ensure a joint approach to horizon scanning and emerging risks identification. 

Timeline: 

Ongoing

Owners: 

Food Standards Scotland

Food Substitution

Food Standards Scotland (FSS) manages a programme of research and surveillance activities aimed at identifying food products which may be vulnerable to substitution and fraud. Commodities are targeted through horizon scanning and intelligence collated by FSS’s Scottish Food Crime and Incidents Unit, and may include, but will not be limited to, foods that may be impacted due to climate change effects.

Timeline:

Ongoing

Owners: 

Food Standards Scotland

7.1.2 Food Security

As the climate changes, trade patterns and international food production may be affected. In some parts of the world, increasing heat, water scarcity and extreme weather may reduce the quantity and type of crops grown, as well as the productivity of the workforce. This may result in food price volatility or a reduction in the range of foods available. Scotland’s domestic food production may benefit from climate change due to warmer temperatures and longer growing seasons. Taking advantage of this may increase the resilience of Scotland’s food supply.

EU Exit Preparation

As part of the Scottish Government’s preparation for EU exit, project work is underway to understand how leaving the EU without a deal may impact on the price, availability and source of food. This work will increase resilience in the event of disruption to food supplies to Scotland, and can be applied to instances of disruption due to extreme weather.

Timeline:

Ongoing

Owners:

Scottish Government

International Collaboration for Expanding Potato Production and Mitigating Climate Change Impacts

The link between drought tolerance in potato and virus pathogen spread in plants has been elucidated, allowing strategies for improved drought tolerance and reduced viral spread to be developed. The work is being extended via co-funding from the Global Challenge Research Fund (UKRI GCRF). In collaboration with partners in Kenya and Malawi, potato types carrying traits for heat tolerance, rapid maturity and virus resistance are being trialled, underpinning efforts to expand potato production in hot environments and mitigate potential impacts of climate change. All of these link to maintaining yield, reducing inputs, and increasing food security for climate change mitigation.

Research

Food Forever

The diversity present in our crops and livestock, and the wild plants and animals that are their relatives, is key to addressing current and future food and climate related challenges. In Scotland, scientists in the SEFARI collective are working on a range of economically important species to understand their potential for adaptation and make better use of available genetic resources. To raise awareness and support this effort nationally and internationally, the Food Forever exhibition, developed in Scotland, will tour globally over the next five years. 

Research

Sub-Outcome 7.2: Scotland is active in international governance, helping to manage the potential international instability caused by climate change.

The Scottish Government wants to be an active partner in international governance helping to influence the world around us on the issues that matter most. We want to be a good global citizen, making a distinctive contribution to addressing global challenges, sharing our knowledge, skills and technical expertise for global good. Scotland supports the Paris Agreement, which puts a strong emphasis on adaptation and resilience. All countries are expected to undertake adaptation planning and action, and communicate those actions to the global community. We continue to work with our international partners to champion a climate justice approach overseas. The policies below will set out how we will communicate and share our knowledge of climate change adaptation with the global community. 

Image 7.3. #ShowYourStripes – Temperature change globally from 1850-2018 (Ed Hawkins)
Image 7.3. #ShowYourStripes – Temperature change globally from 1850-2018 (Ed Hawkins)

RegionsAdapt

RegionsAdapt is an international initiative, created alongside the 2015 Paris Climate Conference (COP21) as a framework for regional governments’ action, collaboration and reporting on climate change adaptation. Initiated by Rio de Janeiro and Catalonia, RegionsAdapt now has almost 70 signatory regional governments including Scotland, Basque Country, California, Lombardy, Quebec, South Australia and Wales. RegionsAdapt represents a combined population of more than 295 million inhabitants from 26 countries on 5 continents. It facilitates the development of joint solutions to climate change adaptation, and promotes cooperation, knowledge sharing and sharing of best practice. 

Timeline:

Ongoing

Owners:

Scottish Government

British-Irish Council (BIC)

The British-Irish Council was created under the Good Friday Agreement. It was established to further promote positive, practical relationships among the people of the islands, and to provide a forum for consultation and co-operation. Membership of the Council comprises representatives of the Irish and British governments and of the devolved administrations in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, together with representatives of the Isle of Man, Guernsey and Jersey.

It provides a forum for its members to discuss, consult and use best endeavours to reach agreement on co-operation on matters of mutual interest within the competence of its Member Administrations. The Environment work sector is led by the UK Government and has proved a constructive and unique forum for facilitating evidence exchange and practical collaboration since the Council was first established. During 2018, climate adaptation was a focus for discussion alongside addressing the threat of invasive non-native species (INNS) and the issues of food waste and recycling.

Timeline:

Ongoing

Owners: 

Governments of the UK, Ireland, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Wales, and representatives from Isle of Man, Guernsey and Jersey

Traction Learning Exchange Project

The Scottish Government is supporting the Traction project for international knowledge exchange on national adaptation efforts. This links peers and counterparts in Malawi and among the Least Developed Countries group at the UNFCCC. It works to understand their approaches and establish new opportunities to promote international collaboration, enhancing adaptive capacity.

Timeline:

2017-2020

Owners:

Funded by Scottish Government and delivered by Sniffer and International Institute for Environment and Development

Hydro Nation: International Knowledge Sharing

The Scottish Government believes that as a Hydro Nation we should share our academic excellence and expertise in water governance and water management technology.

We established Hydro Nation International Research (HNIR) to improve alignment and consistency between the various strands of activity, building on Scotland’s Centre for Expertise in Waters (CREW) model.

HNIR activity includes management of international collaborative research projects, delivering networks across the academic sector, assisting the Scottish Government’s contribution to the Sustainable Development Goals by deploying Scottish public sector expertise to support key international partners such as the Government of Malawi , and helping to develop the role and profile of the UNESCO Centre for Water Law, Policy and Science at Dundee University. 

Timeline:

Ongoing

Owners:

Scottish Government, The James Hutton Institute/CREW 

Building with Nature

Across the North Sea Region, climate change is likely to increase flood and coastal erosion risk from storm surges in coastal and estuarine areas, and flooding of rivers and inland lochs and lakes caused by increased heavy rainfall. We are working with partners across the North Sea Region, as part of an EU Interreg project, to build the evidence base for nature based solutions, to help justify investment, optimise their effectiveness and encourage mainstreaming of approaches across the region. 

The overall objective of the Building with Nature project is to make coasts, estuaries and catchments of the North Sea Region more adaptable and resilient to the effects of climate change. Demonstration sites for climate change adaptation have been set up at seven coastal and six catchment scale sites across the North Sea Region including the Eddleston Catchment in Scotland. These gather evidence for solutions that use natural processes to deliver flood risk and coastal erosion management whilst enhancing ecosystem services.

Timeline:

Project complete in June 2020

Owners:

Scottish Government, Tweed Forum, SEPA

Climate Justice Fund

The Scottish Government is determined to take action on climate change through the lens of climate justice, recognising that those most vulnerable to climate change are often those who have contributed least to the problem, and have the least capacity to deal with its effects. The Climate Justice Fund was launched in 2012, and committed £21 million to projects designed to further Climate Justice between 2012 and 2021. In 2015, at COP21 in Paris, we committed to providing £3 million per year from 2016 to 2021, alongside £10 million spent by us in our International Development Fund. By supporting and empowering communities to tackle the impacts of climate change in their home countries, Scotland can help to promote climate change action and international stability, increasing capacity to adapt to the changing climate.

Timeline:

2012-2021 (Current programmes 2017-21)

Owners:

Scottish Government

The Climate Challenge Programme Malawi 

The Climate Challenge Programme Malawi is a 3-year, £3.2 million, strategic and integrated programme to help vulnerable communities in Malawi build resilience to the effects of climate change. The Programme is community-led, working with 120 rural village communities across the four districts of Machinga, Balaka, Zomba and Chikwawa in Southern Malawi. On-the-ground development officers are supporting a number of rural communities to identify the problems that have arisen as a result of climate change, and to help them design the solutions that work best for them, across the key areas of water, food and energy.

Timeline:

2017-2020

Owners:

Scottish Government, SCIAF (Scottish Catholic International Aid Fund)

Image 7.4. #ShowYourStripes – Temperature change in Malawi from 1901-2018 (Ed Hawkins)
Image 7.4. #ShowYourStripes – Temperature change in Malawi from 1901-2018 (Ed Hawkins)

The Climate Justice Innovation Fund

The Scottish Government launched the Climate Justice Innovation Fund in June 2017 to support projects developing innovative solutions to the problems caused by climate change, with a view to expanding and scaling up. Applicants can apply for smaller grants over a two to three-year period, and it is managed by the Corra Foundation. We awarded £600,000 to six projects in 2017, and a further £600,000 to six projects in 2018. 

Timeline:

2017-2021

Owners:

Scottish Government, Corra Foundation

2050 Young Malawian Climate Leaders

This project is designed to build a network of young people who will be active in advocating for action on climate change mirroring the approach of the 2050 Climate Group in Scotland. Activities have included workshops, knowledge sharing and cultural exchanges, focusing particularly on uplifting the views of young people in response to climate change. After a successful start, the project is going on to expand in its second year of activity in Malawi.

Timeline:

2018-2020

Owners:

Scottish Government, the 2050 Climate Group, Malawi Scotland Partnership

Support for Kasisi Agricultural Training Centre

The Climate Justice Fund and International Development Fund alongside SCIAF are supporting the Kasisi Agricultural Training Centre in Zambia which contributes to adaptation objectives through promoting sustainable organic agriculture.

Timeline:

2017-2020

Owners:

Scottish Government, SCIAF

Case Study 9: Self-sufficient school feeding programmes, Malawi

The Scottish Government’s Climate Justice Innovation Fund (CJIF) is one strand of the climate justice work that the Scottish Government carries out in Malawi. The Programme is designed to support small, innovative projects to test new strategies for approaching climate change issues.

One of these projects in Northern Malawi helps schools on the elevated Livingstonia plateau to grow their own food for the school feeding programme. Increases in rainfall and unpredictable weather patterns, partially resulting from climate change, have made access to these schools from nearby towns difficult, with access roads often damaged or washed away entirely. By growing food at the schools themselves, it’s possible for participants to adapt to this problem, whilst also providing the opportunity for schoolchildren to learn about agricultural techniques and the local ecology and climate.

Schools reported that by the second year of the project, they were able to feed the children entirely from food grown in school gardens and fields, and that teachers and parents worked co-operatively to maintain them. In addition to crops, schools are also growing tree seedlings to use in reforestation. This will increase local resilience against increased rainfall, as root systems can prevent soil from being washed away, which could otherwise lead to mudslides and flooding in valleys.

Image 7.5. Self-sufficient schools feeding programme: Livingstonia, Malawi
Image 7.5. Self-sufficient schools feeding programme: Livingstonia, Malawi

Horizon 2020 – Rivertrack Flooding Warning

Through the Horizon 2020 EU project, Scotland’s Rivertrack flood warning technology is being piloted in campsites across Catalonia. This will help campsite owners fulfil their obligations to have flood plans and alert owners and holiday makers to rising water levels.

Timeline:

Ongoing

Owners:

Scottish Government’s CivTech programme, SEPA, RiverTrack Ltd, private sector

Hydro Nation: International Services (HNIS)

The Hydro Nation International Services (HNIS) aims to develop and support opportunities to export our collective water knowledge around the globe including in areas where Scotland has a growing international reputation, such as water governance.

Timeline:

Ongoing

Owners:

Scottish Government

Sub-Outcome 7.3: Scotland has an internationally open and connected economy which is adaptable to the changing climate.

Climate change will impact on Scotland’s ability to import and export goods and services. Food and drink exports, including beverages (particularly whisky), fish, crustaceans and molluscs are significant for Scotland’s economy and are often important livelihoods for people living in rural and coastal communities. Maintaining our international connections, despite the disruption to trade that climate change may cause, will be vital to ensure Scotland’s economy remains open and connected.

EU Exit Planning

As part of the Scottish Government’s preparation for EU exit, work is underway to understand how leaving the EU without a deal may impact food and drink exporters in Scotland. This work aims to increase overall resilience in the event of disruption, learning which could be applied to disruption due to extreme weather.

Timeline:

Ongoing

Owners:

Scottish Government

Adaptation Behaviours

Adapting to climate change requires action from across all areas of society. The choices and decision we all make in Scotland have impacts on other parts of the world. Consumers may want to consider shopping more locally which may reduce the pressure on long distance supply chains. Businesses may want to consider new markets and supply chain routes that are opened up as the climate changes.

Individual Behaviours

1. Shop locally and seasonally. Increasing the amount of food that is grown and purchased locally and in season can help to increase the resilience of food supply networks, by making them shorter and less vulnerable to severe weather.

Monitoring and Evaluation: Outcome 7

Monitoring and Evaluation is integral to the outcomes-based approach which encourages consideration at all stages of adaptation policy development. Further information including a general introduction to the framework, and a description of the foundation and principles can be found in the monitoring and evaluation introduction and Annex 3 respectively.

Key sources of existing monitoring evidence for Outcome 7 include: Food Standards Scotland, Health Protection Scotland, and Export Statistics Scotland. There is currently limited data available for some themes, but by identifying what we need to measure not just what we know we can, the framework highlights monitoring gaps which will be filled as more data and associated monitoring arrangements are developed.

Monitoring the Adaptation Process (‘What are we doing?’) The themes set out the structure to monitor the implementation of and output from adaptation policies and actions which support the Outcome. Indicators will include metrics of, for example: extent of monitoring of food borne disease, the reach of public awareness campaigns, and funding for climate change adaptation related projects in developing countries.

Monitoring the Sub-Outcomes (‘Is it working?’) The Sub-Outcome monitoring themes highlight the key components of each Sub-Outcome and provide the structure for evaluating progress. Indicators will include metrics of, for example: food borne disease, public awareness levels, and export statistics for climate vulnerable products.

Monitoring the outcome Monitoring at this high level will directly link the Outcome to wider government policy and the National Performance Framework by utilising relevant indicators already associated with these high-level monitoring frameworks.

National Performance Framework Indicators

Sustainable Development Goals Indicators

  • Food insecurity
  • International networks
  • Contribution of development support to other nations
  • International exporting (value of Scottish exports excluding oil and gas)
  • Food price anomalies
  • Prevalence of moderate or severe food insecurity in the population
  • Total official international support to infrastructure
  • Number of least developed countries receiving specialised support for raising capacities for effective climate change-related planning and management

Monitoring and Evaluation Structure: Outcome 7

Monitoring and Evaluation Structure: Outcome 7

UK Climate Change Risk Assessment: Associated Risks

The UK Climate Change Risk Assessment risks that will be addressed by the policies presented in Outcome 7 are set out below:

It1:
Risks from weather related shocks to international food production and trade.

It2:
Imported food safety risks.

It3:
Risks and opportunities from long term, climate-related changes in global food production.

It4:
Risks to the UK from climate-related international human displacements.

It5:
Risks to the UK from international violent conflict.

It6:
Risks to international law and governance.

It7:
Opportunities from changes to international trade routes.


Contact

Email: roddy.maclean@gov.scot