9. Engagement, Behaviour Change and Public Information
9.1 This review did not have the opportunity to conduct research or discussions on engagement. Some relevant materials are being gathered by Transport Scotland. Further structured work on this subject seems highly desirable and the urgent need for it is included in the General Recommendations at the head of the report.
9.2 It is widely accepted and identified in the CAFS strategy and in EU policy and public surveys that public information, awareness and behaviour change are inter-linked and essential for the delivery of long-term change in the environment generally and air pollution specifically. The delivery of better information is one matter, the achievement of behaviour change potentially quite another. Input received from Transport Scotland on levels of public awareness of LEZs, and academic insight into factors influencing behavioural change can be found in Annex 9.
9.3 Some behaviour change is already taking place. And some market signals are very effective in triggering responses. Some bus routes and bus pass systems are very popular, active travel is growing, electric and hybrid vehicles are increasing. Suitably nurtured these can develop further. But tackling the use of the car, generally and especially for urban journeys, will be necessary. Despite their cleaner image, electric vehicles still produce particulates from brakes and tyres etc., use rare earth inputs, have energy and life cycle requirements, contribute to road wear and congestion and compete with public options.
9.4 Engagement strategies will require to be carefully constructed around assessing aspects of demand from potentially very diverse users as well as shaping supply and influencing what shape future demand could take. Direct regulation and demand management tools - banning certain vehicles from certain urban routes and locations, route and space use charging, as well as parking limits and removing vehicle provisions altogether from streets and new or existing housing and offices, combined with active and public transport provision will likely be part of a successful model. Clear and strong leadership is needed for the necessary transformational change and this must aim to prepare the public for this and engage them in how it is to be achieved. This work will be vital.
B1. Specific demand assessment and behavioural research should be commissioned. This should then be integrated into strategic mobility planning and delivery effort as well as with work to establish how the public would wish to engage in future developments. This could be integrated too with efforts at developing an engaged approach to placemaking.