Care and Support for Adult Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings: A Review

A Review examining the care and support needs of victims of human trafficking and what works to meet those needs, including a consideration of Scottish provision.


Alpes, M. J. (2008) ‘The Traffic in Voices: Contrasting Experiences of Migrant Women in Prostitution with the Paradigm of “Human Trafficking”’. Human Security Journal, Vol. 6, Spring, pp. 34-45.

Amnesty International (2008) Scotland’s Slaves: An Amnesty International Briefing on Trafficking in Scotland, Edinburgh: Amnesty International Scotland.

Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group (2010) Wrong Kind of Victim, London: ATMG.

Armstrong, H. (2008) Rebuilding Lives: an Introduction to Promising Practices in the Rehabilitation of Freed Slaves, Washington: Free the Slaves.

Bales, K. (2000) Disposable People, New Slavery in the Global Economy, University of California Press.

Bales, K. (2007) Ending Slavery, How we Free Today’s Slaves, University of California Press.

Bales, K. (2009) The Slave Next Door, Human Trafficking and Slavery in America Today, University of California Press.

Busch-Armendariz, N., Nsonwu, M. and Cook Heffron, L. (2011) ‘Human Trafficking victims and their Children’, Journal of Applied Research on Children, Vol. 2: 1: Article 3,

Caliber (2007) Evaluation of Comprehensive Services for Victims of Human Trafficking, Fairfax:VA report submitted to the US Department of Justice.

Cameron, S. and Newman, E. (Eds) (2008) Trafficking in Humans, Tokyo: United Nations University Press.

Clawson, H. and Dutch, N. (2007) Addressing the Needs of Victims of Human Trafficking: Challenges, Barriers and Promising Practices, US Department of Health and Human Services.

Clawson, H., Dutch, N., Amy Solomon, A. and Grace, LG., (2009) Human Trafficking Into and Within the United States: A Review of the Literature

Commissioner for Human Rights (2010) Criminalisation of Migration in Europe, Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

Council of Europe (2007), Action against trafficking in human beings: measures to protect and promote the rights of victims, Regional Seminar London, 10-11 December.

Craig, G., Gaus, A., Wilkinson, M., Skrivankova, K. and McQuade, A. (2007) Contemporary Slavery in the UK, York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

Dwyer, P., Lewis, H., Scullion, L., Waite, L. (2011) Forced Labour and UK Immigration Policy: Status Matters? York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

Easton, H. and Matthews, R. (2012) Investigating the experiences of people trafficked into commercial sexual exploitation in Scotland, Glasgow: Equality and Human Rights Commission Scotland.

Ebbe, Obi N. I. And Dilip K. Das. (2008) Global Trafficking in Women and Children, CRC Press.

ECPAT (2010) Child Trafficking in the UK: A Snapshot, London: ECPAT.

Equal Opportunities Committee (2010) Inquiry into Human Trafficking in Scotland, Scottish Parliament.

Equality and Human Rights Commission (2011) Inquiry into Human Trafficking in Scotland, Glasgow: Equality and Human Rights Commission.

Farr, K. (2005) Sex Trafficking: The Global Market in Women and Children, Worth Publishing.

Future Group (2006) Falling Short of the Mark: An International Study on the Treatment of Human Trafficking Victims, Canada: the Future Group.

Goodey, L. (2008) ‘Human Trafficking’, Criminology and Criminal Justice, 8 (4) 421-442.

GRETA (Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings) (2011) First General Report on Greta’s Activities, Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

Hales, L. and Gelsthorpe, L. (2012) ‘The Criminalisation of Migrant Women’, Paper presented at the University of Cambridge, January 2012.

Haynes, D. (2007) ‘(Not) Found Chained to a Bed in a Brothel: Conceptual, Legal, and Procedural Failures to Fulfil the Promise of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act’, Georgetown Immigration Law Journal, Vol. 21:337.

Health and Human Services Commission (2008) The Texas Response to Human Trafficking, Austin, Texas: Commission Report to the 81st Legislature.

HM Government (2011) Human Trafficking: The Government’s Strategy, London: Home Office.

Home Affairs Committee (2009) The Trade in Human Beings: Human Trafficking in the UK, Session 2008-9, London: Home Affairs Committee Publications (sixth report).

Home Office and Scottish Government (2007) UK Action Plan on Tackling Human Trafficking, London: TSO.

Hoyle, C., Bosworth, M. and Dempsey, M. (2011) ‘Labelling the Victims of Sex Trafficking’, Social and Legal Studies, 20(3) 313-329.

Hughes, D. (2001) ‘The ‘Natasha’ Trade: Transnational Sex Trafficking’, National Institute of Justice Journal, 9-15.

Hyland, K. (2001) ‘Protecting Human Victims of Trafficking: An American Framework, Berkeley Women’s Law Journal, 16, 29-71.

International Human Rights Law Institute, (2002) In Modern Bondage: Sex Trafficking in the Americas, Central America and the Caribbean.

International Organization for Migration (IOM) (2007) The IOM Handbook on Direct Assistance for Victims of Trafficking, Switzerland: IOM.

Kangaspunta, K. (2003) ‘Mapping the Inhuman Trade’, Focus on Crime and Society, Vol 3 (1 and 2) 81-103.

Siddhartha, K. (2009) Sex Trafficking, Inside the Business of Modern Slavery, Columbia University Press.

Kelly, L. (2005) ‘You can find anything you want’, International Migration, Vol 43 (1/2) 236-265.

Kelly, L. and Regan, L. (2000) Stopping Traffic, London: Home Office Police Research Series Paper 125.

Kempadoo, K. (2005) Trafficking and Prostitiution Reconsidered, New Perspectives on Migration, Sex Work and Human Rights. Paradigm Publishers.

Lalani, M. (2011) Ending the Abuse: Policies that Work to Protect Migrant Domestic Workers, London: Kalayaan.

Lebov, K. (2009) Human Trafficking in Scotland 2007/08, Edinburgh: Scottish Government.

Lee, M. (2007) Human Trafficking. Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Miko, F. and Park, G. (2002) Trafficking in Women and Children: the US and International Response, CRC Report for Congress, USA: Library of Congress.

Macy, R. and Johns, N. (2011) ‘Aftercare Services for International Sex Trafficking Survivors, Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 12 (2) 87-98.

Malarek, V. (2003) The Natashas, Inside the New Global Sex Trade, Arcade Publishing.

Moorhead, C. (2006) Human Cargo a journey among refugees, London: Vintage 2006.

OSCE/ODIHR (2004) National Referral Mechanisms: Joining Efforts to Protect the Rights of Trafficked Persons, A Practical Handbook, Poland: OSCE/ODIHR.

Poppy Project (2008) Routes In, Routes Out: Quantifying the Gendered Experience of Trafficking to the UK, London: Eaves Housing for Women.

Poppy Project (2009) Male-Ordered: The mail-order bride industry and trafficking in women for sexual and labour exploitation, London: Eaves Housing for Women.

Richards, S., Steel, M. and Singer, D. (2006) Hope Betrayed: An analysis of women victims of trafficking and their claims for asylum, London: Eaves Poppy Project.

Ribando Seelke, C. (2010) “Trafficking in Persons in Latin America and the Caribbean” Congressional Research Service Report for Congress. 7-5700, December 9. <>

Schloenhardt, A. and Loong, M. (2011) ‘Return and Reintegration of Human Trafficking Victims from Australia’, International Journal of Refugee Law. Vol. 23 No. 2 pp. 143-173.

Secretariat of the Committee on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men (Secretariat)(2009) Handbook for Parliamentarians, Strasbourg: Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe.

Seelke, C. (2010) Trafficking in Persons in Latin America and the Caribbean, Congressional Research Service. USA.

Segrave M., Milivojevic, S. and Pickering, S. (2009) Sex trafficking: International context and response, Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Shahinian, G. (2008) ‘Trafficking in persons in the South Caucasus - Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia’ in S. Cameron and E. Newman (Eds) Trafficking in Humans, Tokyo: United Nations University Press.

Solace (2009) The role of local authorities in addressing human trafficking, London: Solace Study Group.

Special Representative (2012) Report by OSCE Special Representative and Co-Ordinator for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, following her visit to the UK, 7-10 March 2011, Vienna: OSCE.

Srikantiah, J. (2007) ‘Perfect Victims and Real Survivors’ Boston University Law Review, 87, 157-211.

Stephen-Smith, S. (2008) Detained: Prisoners with no crime, detention of trafficked women in the UK, London: Eaves Housing for Women.

Stepnitz, A. (2009) Of Human Bondage: Trafficking in women and contemporary slavery in the UK, London: Eaves Housing for Women.

Surtees, R. (2007) Listening to Victims, Austria: International Centre for Migration Policy Department.

Surtees, R. (2010) Monitoring Anti-Trafficking Re/Integration Programmes: A Manual, Brussels and Washington: King Baudouin Foundation and Nexus Institute.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2006) Toolkit to Combat Trafficking in Persons, New York: United Nations.

Warden, Tara (2010) Identifying the Root Causes in Sex Traffic, Central America. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Stirling, Stirling, UK.

Williamson, E., Dutch, N. and Clawson, H. (2008) Evidence-Based Mental Health Treatment for Victims of Human Trafficking, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Zimmerman, C. (2003) The Health Risks and Consequences of Trafficking in Women and Adolescents: Findings from a European Study, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

Zimmerman, C. and Borland, R. (2009) Caring for Trafficked Persons, Guidance for Health Providers, Switzerland: International Organization for Migration.

Zimmerman, C., Hossain, M., Yun, K., Roche, B. Morison, L. and Watts, C. (2006) Stolen Smiles, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.


Email: Debbie Headrick

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