Scotland's reputation overall
Scotland's position on the NBISM
Scotland's 2020 score of 62.6 and rank of 17th places Scotland in the Top 20 countries and indicates that Scotland has a high level of international recognition. Scotland's overall reputation in terms of the NBISM score has maintained between 2018 and 2020 (62.7 and 62.6 respectively). Figure 1 shows that Scotland's relative rank has decreased by one place since 2018 (from 16th in 2018 to 17th in 2020). This is because the rank may change in relation to other countries' performance while the absolute score will not.
When looking at scores, Scotland's reputation maintained between 2008 (when Scotland joined the survey) and 2012, and then improved between 2012 and 2020. See Figure 1.
Scotland's score of 62.6 places Scotland in the 7th decile, far closer to the country with the top score of 69.1 than the country with the bottom score of 47.4. Countries that did better than Scotland and ranked in the Top 10 were Germany, United Kingdom, Canada, Japan, France, Italy, Switzerland, Sweden, Australia, and the United States.
Table 1 shows how people in different demographic groups score and rank Scotland. With regard to gender, women tended to score Scotland's reputation higher than men (63.0 and 62.2 respectively). Notably, respondents in the 45 years or over age group (63.8) and 30 to 44 years age group (63.0) tended to score Scotland's reputation higher than respondents between the ages of 18 and 29 years (60.6).
In relation to occupation, the data only allow disaggregation between business/executives and other occupations. Those in the former group tended to view Scotland more positively in terms of Scotland's reputation score (66.1) than those in other occupations (61.1). However, across the NBISM dataset, business/executives tended to give all countries a higher score overall (on average 4.7 points higher) than those in other occupations. See Table 1.
Additionally, those who have had some exposure to Scotland, whether having visited a Scottish website (64.5) or having visited Scotland for business and/or holiday (63.6), scored Scotland's reputation higher than those with little or no exposure to Scotland. Those who had visited Scotland also ranked Scotland more favourably. See Table 1.
|Visited a Scottish Website|
In nearly every one of Scotland's dimensions and their underlying attributes, similar patterns were seen across these demographic groups. See Annex A within this report for summary findings on each of Scotland's dimensions and their underlying attributes broken down by demographic group.
Scotland's reputation in the 20 core panel countries
In 2020 Scotland received its highest overall scores for reputation from India (70.4), China (69.2) and the United Kingdom (67.8). The lowest overall scores for Scotland were received from Japan (53.9), South Korea and Turkey (both scoring Scotland 55.5).
Figure 2 shows Scotland's 2020 rank by each of the 20 core panel countries, and how this compares with 2018. In 2020 the highest overall ranks for Scotland were received from the United Kingdom (2nd), Australia (10th) and the United States (11th). The lowest overall ranks for Scotland were received from Egypt (27th), India (22nd), Mexico, Russia, South Korea and Turkey (all ranking Scotland 21st).
Scotland's score in 2020 was higher in seven countries than it had been in 2018, most notably in China and the United Kingdom. However, Scotland's score was lower in 13 countries in 2020 than it had been in 2018, with the biggest decrease recorded by South Korea.
In eight countries (Germany, United Kingdom, Poland, Argentina, Australia, Italy, Russia, and Turkey) Scotland's rank was higher in 2020 than it was in 2018. Scotland's rank remained stable in four countries (China, South Korea, Sweden and the United States) and was lower in eight countries (India, Canada, Mexico, South Africa, Japan, France, Egypt and Brazil) between 2018 and 2020. See Figure 2.
In two countries (Egypt and India) Scotland's rank was lower in 2020 compared to 2018, but the reputational scores were higher. In Germany, Poland, Argentina, Italy and Turkey the score was lower in 2020, but the rank was higher.
We can see from the results above that the distribution of scores can vary considerably depending on the particular panel country. For example, Scotland received its highest overall score from India (70.4) however this contrasted with India's relatively low rank for Scotland (22nd). This tells us that India scores most countries highly. As mentioned previously, it is useful to look at the scores and ranks together, as individually they may deliver different messages about a countries reputation/performance.
Familiarity with Scotland
At the start of the NBISM survey, respondents are asked to rate how familiar they are with each country. Familiarity is presented as the percentage of respondents who had at least some knowledge of Scotland.
Table 2 shows that in 2020 the NBISM panel countries were on average more familiar with Scotland than the 2018 sample. Sixty-seven per cent of respondents reported being familiar with Scotland, resulting in a familiarity ranking of 21 out of 50. Whilst Scotland's ranking has maintained over this period there has been an increase in score: in 2018, 61 per cent of respondents reported being familiar with Scotland.
Variations between panel countries
Figure 3 shows levels of familiarity with Scotland across the 20 panel countries in 2018 and 2020. European countries tended to be the most familiar with Scotland in 2020 with 93 per cent of respondents from the United Kingdom, 85 per cent from Russia, 79 per cent from Sweden having at least some knowledge of Scotland. Seventy-nine per cent of respondents from Australia also had at least some knowledge of Scotland. There was one notable exception among European countries, however – when looking at the score, France was the fourth least familiar with Scotland (52 per cent) in 2020. Nonetheless, France's 50-nation average familiarity score of 47 per cent demonstrates that respondents from France have low levels of familiarity with the 50 measured nations. However, respondents from France are more familiar with Scotland than with most of the measured nations, ranking it 13th.
Between 2018 and 2020, levels of familiarity with Scotland increased the most in China (63 per cent in 2018 to 74 per cent in 2020), the United States (59 per cent in 2018 to 68 per cent in 2020) and Australia (70 per cent in 2018 to 79 per cent in 2020). Levels of familiarity decreased the most in India and Mexico, dropping by three percentage points each. See Figure 3.
Western European and Central/Eastern European countries showed the greatest familiarity with Scotland in 2020, both with an average familiarity score of 73 per cent, followed by North American countries (69 per cent). Scotland received its lowest familiarity score from Latin American countries (59 per cent).
All geographical regions showed an increase in familiarity with Scotland between 2018 and 2020. Familiarity with Scotland in the Western European and North American countries increased the most during this period, increasing from 67 percent in 2018 to 73 per cent in 2020, and from 63 percent in 2018 to 69 percent in 2020 respectively.
Favourability towards Scotland
At the start of the NBISM survey, respondents were asked to rate how favourable they are towards Scotland on a scale of 1.0 to 7.0 (with 1.0 being extremely unfavourable and 7.0 being extremely favourable).
Table 3 shows that Scotland was rated relatively highly in terms of favourability (score of 4.9 out of 7.0) with a rank of 14th out of 50 participating nations. Whilst Scotland's favourability score has maintained since 2018, its rank has jumped two places from 16th to 14th.
Variations between panel countries
Figure 4 shows levels of favourability towards Scotland across the 20 panel countries in 2018 and 2020. None of the 20 core panel countries gave Scotland a favourability score of four (on a scale of 1.0 to 7.0) or less in 2020. This suggests that Scotland is viewed comparatively positively by all panel countries.
The countries that tended to be the most favourable towards Scotland in 2020, were the United Kingdom (5.6), Australia, Russia and Canada (all scoring Scotland 5.2). Japan was the least favourable towards Scotland, scoring Scotland 4.3 out of 7.0 in 2020. Even though Japan was the least favourable towards Scotland, the score is above the midway point, highlighting that respondents in Japan tend to have favourable views of Scotland. See Figure 4.
In 2020, the NBISM panel countries were just as favourable towards Scotland as the 2018 sample (average favourability score of 4.9 out of 7.0 in both 2018 and 2020). The greatest increase in favourability towards Scotland during this period could be found in China (4.7 to 5.1), while the greatest decline in favourability towards Scotland was in Poland, Mexico, Argentina, South Korea, Turkey, Japan, Italy (all decreasing by 0.1 points). See Figure 4.
Geographical regions range in favourability from 5.1 in Western European and North American countries, followed by Latin American and Middle East/African (4.9) with Central/Eastern European and Asia/Pacific countries scoring Scotland 4.8 out of 7.0.
Between 2018 and 2020 there was little to no difference in geographical regions' favourability towards Scotland. Levels of favourability towards Scotland either increased by 0.1 points or maintained over this period.