Publication - Research and analysis

Young people's experiences of precarious and flexible work – Main Report

The research report presents findings on young people's experiences of precarious and flexible work. These work conditions included where young people had for example zero hours contracts, low wages, lack of progression opportunities, dissatisfaction with current employment, or varying hours.

Young people's experiences of precarious and flexible work – Main Report
Appendix C – quantitative survey

Appendix C – quantitative survey

Introduction

Good morning/afternoon, I am [NAME] from Progressive, an independent market research company which is carrying out a survey on behalf of the Scottish Government about different types of employment contracts and the employment conditions associated with these. The research will be used to help develop support for people who want to change their circumstances. The interview will take about 10 minutes to complete. Would you like to take part?

>GDPR and Informed consent section<

Screening/Quota Questions

Sampling points – Interviewer to select sample point

Single code
  Code
Central Scotland
Coatbridge 1
Falkirk 2
Hamilton 3
Linlithgow 4
Shotts 5
Stirling 6
Glasgow
Barrhead 7
Bishopbriggs 8
Glasgow City Centre 9
Greenock 10
Paisley 11
Renfrew 12
Rutherglen 13
Highlands & Islands
Aviemore 14
Elgin? 15
Inverness 16
Shetland 17
Lothians
Craigmiller / Niddrie 18
Dalkeith 19
Edinburgh City Centre 20
Edinburgh East 21
Edinburgh South 22
Edinburgh West 23
Livingston 24
Pilton / Muirhouse 25
Ratho / Kirkliston / Newbridge 26
Mid Scotland & Fife
Dunfermline 27
Glenrothes 28
Kirkcaldy 29
Perth 30
Saline 31
North East Scotland
Aberdeen City Centre 32
Arbroath 33
Dundee City Centre 34
Inverurie 35
Peterhead 36
South Scotland
Biggar 37
Dumfries 38
Galashiels 39
Gretna 40
Hawick 41
Jedburgh / Selkirk / Kelso 42
Peebles 43
West Scotland
Ayr 44
Irvine 45
Kilmarnock 46
Prestwick 47
Troon 48
- Other, specify - 49
SQ2. Are you currently working in Scotland? Single code
  Code Route
Yes 1 SQ4
No 2 SQ3
Prefer not to say 3 SQ3

Ask if SQ2=2 or 3

SQ3. Have you had any work at all in the last 24 months in Scotland? This includes any seasonal, temporary, casual work, or self-employment. Single code
  Code Route Screen out page
Yes 1 SQ4
No 2 Close Thank you for your time. On this occasion we are only speaking to people who have been employed over the last 24 months in Scotland
Prefer not to say 3 Close

I would now like to ask you a few classification questions. This is to ensure that we speak to a broad range of people in your area.

SQ4. How old are you? Single code
  Code Route Screen out page
Under 16 years old 1 Close
16 years old 2 SQ5
17 years old 3
18 years old 4
19 years old 5
20 years old 6
21 years old 7
22 years old 8
23 years old 9
24 years old 10
25+ years old 11 Close Thank you for your time. On this occasion you do not fit the criteria
Prefer not to say 11 Close
SQ5. Are you…….? Single code
  Code
Male (including trans man) 1
Female (including trans woman) 2
Describe in another way, specify_____________ 3
- Prefer not to say 4 - close
SQ6. How would you describe your ethnic group? Single code, spontaneous
  Code
White
Scottish 1
Other British 2
Irish 3
Gypsy, Roma, Traveller 4
Polish 5
Other White ethnic group, please specify 6
Mixed
Any mixed or multiple ethnic background, please specify 7
Asian, Asian Scottish, or Asian British
Indian, Indian Scottish or Indian British 8
Pakistani, Pakistani Scottish or Pakistani British 9
Bangladeshi, Bangladeshi Scottish or Bangladeshi British 10
Chinese, Chinese Scottish or Chinese British 11
Other, please specify 12
African
African, African Scottish or African British 13
Other, please specify 14
Caribbean or Black
Caribbean, Caribbean Scottish or Caribbean British 15
Black, Black Scottish or Black British 16
Other, please specify 17
Other Ethnic group
Arab, Arab Scottish or Arab British 18
Other, please specify 19
Prefer not to say 20 - close

Position: ____________________________

Industry: ____________________________

Single code – interviewer code

SQ8. What is the occupation of the chief income earner in the household?
  Code
AB 1
C1 2
C2 3
D 4
E 5
Prefer not to say 6 - close

Main Questions – Current Employment

Q1a. Thinking about your most recent employment, which of the following best applies to you? If you have more than one job please think about your main job. Show screen, single code only
Randomise list Code
Permanent position 1
Fixed term position (over a year) 2
Fixed term position (up to a year) 3
Temporary work 4
Seasonal position 5
Casual position 6
Freelance 7
Self-employed 8
Internship 9
Apprenticeship 10
Other non-permanent position, specify_______________ 11
Unsure/Don't know 12
Prefer not say 13
Q1b. Where did you find out about your job? Multicode possible, spontaneous
  Code
Job website 1
Word of mouth (friend, family, teacher etc.) 2
Social media 3
Recruitment Agency / other agency 4
Online / digital platform or App e.g. Uber, TaskRabbit, Deliveroo 5
Ad at the premises e.g. poster in window etc. 6
Submitted speculative CV into place of work 7
Internal vacancy (advertised by current employer) 8
Nowhere – set up own business 9
Other, specify 10
Unsure/Don't know 11
Q2. How many hours do you work each week at this job? Single code
  Code
Up to 10 1
Over 10 up to 14 2
15 to 30 3
31 to 40 4
41 to 50 5
Over 50 6
Varies every week 7

Ask if SQ2 = 1(yes)

Q3. How many jobs do you currently have? Single code
  Code Route
1 1 Q5
2 2 Q4a
3 3
4+ 4
Work at different places every week or so 5
Cannot classify, please explain___________ 6 Q5

Ask if Q3 = 2, 3, 4 or 5

Q4a. Which of the following best applies to the other jobs that you have? Show screen, multicode possible
Randomise list Code
Permanent position 1
Fixed term position (over a year) 2
Fixed term position (up to a year) 3
Temporary work 4
Seasonal position 5
Casual position 6
Freelance 7
Self-employed 8
Internship 9
Apprenticeship 10
Other non-permanent position, specify_______________ 11
Unsure/Don't know 12
Prefer not say 13

Ask if Q3 = 2, 3, 4 or 5

Q4b. How many hours do you work each week at your other job(s)? If more than one other job combine the number of additional hours you work.Single code
  Code
Up to 10 1
Over 10 up to 14 2
15 to 30 3
31 to 40 4
41 to 50 5
Over 50 6
Varies every week 7
Q5. Do you have a contract that is written and agreed with your employer? If you have more than one job please think about your main job. Single code
  Code Route
Yes 1 Q6a
No 2 Q6a
No, I run my own business 3 Q9
Unsure/Don't know 4 Q6a
Prefer not say 5 Q6a
Q6a. Which of the following describes your most recent employment contract/employment? If you have more than one job please think about your main job. Show screen, single code
Randomise list Code
Full time contract 1
Part time contract 2
Zero hours contract 3
Varying hours / Flexi contract 4
No contract I just turn up for work when I am asked 5
Other, specify__________ 6
Unsure/Don't know 7
Prefer not say 8

Ask if Q3 = 2, 3, 4 or 5

Q6b. Thinking about your other job(s) which of the following describes your employment contract/ employment for your other jobs? Please select all that apply. Show screen, multicode possible
Randomise list Code
Full time contract 1
Part time contract 2
Zero hours contract 3
Varying hours / Flexi contract 4
No contract I just turn up for work when I am asked 5
Other, specify__________ 6
Unsure/Don't know 7
Prefer not say 8

Working Conditions

Q7. Does your employer/contract guarantee you a minimum number of hours work a week? Single code
  Code
Yes 1
No 2

Ask IF Q5=2 or 4 (no written contract)

Q8. How do you find out about the conditions of your employment such as contracted hours, entitlement to benefits, protocols when ill etc? Spontaneous, multicode possible
  Code
Verbally / face-to-face 1
Internet search 2
Email / App 3
Text messages / Whatsapp messages 4
I am not informed of my working conditions (Single code only) 5
Other, specify 6
Unsure/Don't know 7
Q9. What attracted you to the main job you currently do/recently held? Spontaneous, multicode possible
  Code
Financial security / Good pay 1
To top-up my income 2
Good benefits / rewards / pension 3
Reputation of the company 4
The number of working hours 5
Flexibility of shifts/hours 6
Location 7
Wanted experience in the sector/role / stepping stone to other jobs 8
Opportunity to develop/progress 9
Opportunity to travel 10
Was struggling to find a job 11
Felt pressured by parents / partner / family to get a job 12
Felt pressured by the job centre / benefits agency to get a job 13
My friends/family members work there 14
Other, specify 15
Unsure / don't know 16
Q10. Which of the following rights at work do/did you have in the job most recently held? Single code per statement
  Yes I have this No I don't have this Don't know Not appropriate to me
Guaranteed number of working hours per day 1 2 3 -
Guaranteed number of days per week 1 2 3 -
Flexibility in the hours you work 1 2 3 -
Reasonable notice given to you when agreeing shifts/hours to work 1 2 3 -
Paid National Minimum Wage or above 1 2 3 -
Lunch and rest breaks provided 1 2 3 -
Holiday pay 1 2 3 -
Sick pay 1 2 3 -
Training and development opportunities 1 2 3 -
Public holidays off 1 2 3 -
Parental rights (such as maternity leave, parental leave, paid time to look after your child) 1 2 3 4

Overall experience

Q11. Thinking about your terms of employment overall, how satisfied are you/were you with it? Please use the following scale where zero is not at all satisfied and 10 is completely satisfied single code
0 - Not at all satisfied 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 – Completely satisfied D/K
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Q12. Why did you give the rating you did for satisfaction? Open ended, probe fully

_____________________________________________________________________

Q13. To what extent would you say your most recent employment impacts on each of the following aspects of your life? Please answer using the following slider scale: show screen, single code
  Impacts negatively         No impact         Impacts positively
Your mental health in general -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5
Your physical health in general -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5
Your finances in general -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5
Your social life -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5
Your relationship with partner, family, friends -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

Advantages and Disadvantages

Q14. What are the top three most positive characteristics of your recent employment? Please select up to three responses. Show screen
Randomise list Code
Level of pay 1
Benefits e.g. sick pay, holiday pay / rewards / pension provided 2
Reputation of the company 3
The number of working hours 4
Flexibility of shifts/hours 5
Location 6
Experience I am gaining 7
Variety of work 8
Type/quality of work 9
Opportunities given to develop / promotional opportunities 10
Opportunities given to travel 11
Enjoy the work 12
The number/length of breaks 13
People I work with 14
No commitment/contract 15
Something else, specify____ 16
Nothing 17
Q15. What are the top three biggest issues in relation to your most recent employment? Please select up to three responses. Show screen
Randomise list Code
Low pay/lack of financial security 1
Lack of benefits e.g. sick pay, holiday pay / rewards / pension 2
Too few hours given 3
Too many hours given 4
Irregularity of hours per week/month 5
Long hours 6
Unsociable hours 7
Unfair allocation of hours e.g. first come first served 8
Lack of notice given when being informed of hours/changes to hours 9
Location 10
Lack of opportunities to develop / promotional opportunities 11
The type of work given 12
Limited/unstructured breaks 13
People I work with 14
Expected to do more than other colleagues 15
Something else, specify____ 16
Nothing 17

Future Employment

Ask if yes at SQ2 (currently employed)

Q16a. Do you want to change your working situation in the next 12 months? Single code
  Code
Yes, definitely 1
Yes, possibly 2
No 3
Unsure/Don't know 4

Ask if yes (code 1 or 2) at Q16a

Q16b. How you would like to change your working situation? Single code
  Code
Change company I work for 1
Change job/position within the company I work for 2
Prefer not to say 3
Unsure / Don't know 4

Ask if yes (code 1 or 2) at Q16a

Q16c. In what way would you like to change your working situation? Spontaneous, multicode possible
  Code
Increase in hours 1
Decrease in hours 2
Change shift pattern/days worked 3
Better pay 4
Promoted post 5
Better prospects/development opportunities 6
Contract type 7
Location 8
Other, specify 9
Unsure/Don't know 10

Ask if yes (code 1 or 2) at Q16a

Q17. What, if anything, might stop you from changing your working situation? Spontaneous multicode possible
  Code
Lack of experience 1
Lack of qualifications 2
Lack of jobs in general 3
Lack of confidence 4
Other commitments e.g. caring, childcare 5
Lack of information about other jobs 6
Lack of knowledge as to where to look for jobs 7
Lack of motivation / just can't be bothered 8
Lack of time to search/ attend interviews 9
Poor relationship with my employer/manager 10
Nothing, just haven't got round to it 11
Other, specify________________ 12
Unsure/Don't know 13

Ask if yes (Code 1 OR 2) at Q16a

Q18. If wanting to change your working situation in the future, what information, advice or guidance would help you to do so? Spontaneous, multicode possible
  Code
Advice / guidance on CV writing 1
Advice / guidance on changing career 2
Advice / guidance on preparing for and attending interviews 3
Information on basic employment rights 4
Guidance on where to seek jobs / best websites to use 5
Work experience / placement opportunities 6
Apprenticeship opportunities 7
Advice on current local job opportunities 8
Access to / better entry routes to specific jobs/industries 9
Awareness of / access to support groups 10
Awareness of / access to online communities 11
Support to engage / communicate with employer 12
Other, specify [probe fully] 13
Nothing 14
Unsure/Don't know 15

Ask if yes (code 1 OR 2) at Q16a, exclude those who code 14 at Q18

Q19. How would you prefer to receive this information, advice and guidance? Spontaneous, multicode possible
  Code
Websites / online 1
Social media 2
App 3
Seminar, talks 4
Face-to-face meeting 5
Other, specify 6
Unsure/Don't know 7

Other classification / Protected Characteristics

Interviewer note: respondent is not responsible for paying own bills if they only pay for personal items such as mobile phone, car etc.

Q20. Are you financially independent? By this we mean that you are responsible for, and currently pay your own living expenses such as rent or mortgage payments, bills, food etc. Single code
  Code
Yes I am responsible for my own living expenses, bills, food etc. 1
No I am dependent on family members/someone else to cover my living expenses, bills, food etc. 2
Prefer not to say 3
Q21. Do you have anyone who is financially dependent on you? Single code
  Code
Yes 1
No 2
Prefer not to say 3
Q22. Are you currently in full-time or part-time education? Single code
  Code
Full-time education 1
Part-time education 2
Not in education 3
Q23. Do you have a long-standing illness, disability or infirmity? Longstanding means anything that has troubled you or is likely to affect you over a period of time. Single code
  Code
Yes 1
No 2
Prefer not to say 3
Q24. Could you please tell me your full postcode? Please note this is for analysis purposes only to ensure a broad geographical coverage of views are received. It will not be passed on to any third parties or the Scottish Government.
  Code
Postcode:_______________________________________________________ Type in
Don't know / unsure - Please tell me the name of the town/village/city you live in 1
Prefer not to say 2

Scripting note: daily look-up required for urban/rural and simd classification

Classification – Place of work

The final questions are to allow us to classify your place of work for analysis purposes.

Q25. Which sector do you work in?
  Code
Agriculture, fisheries, mining and utilities 1
Manufacturing 2
Construction 3
Wholesale and Retail 4
Hotels and Restaurants 5
Transport, storage and communications e.g. Taxi, air or rail transport, warehousing activities, publishing, radio broadcasting, data processing, telecommunications 6
Financial services e.g. bank, building society, insurance etc. 7
Business services e.g. HR, call centres, cleaning services, landscaping, office support, professional services, bookkeeping, accounting, real estate etc. 8
Public Administration e.g. Foreign affairs, Justice and judicial activities, fire service etc. 9
Education 10
Health & Social work 11
Arts and other services e.g. Arts, museum activities, fitness, hairdressing, item repairs 12
Other, specify___________________________ 13
Unsure / don't know 14
Prefer not to say 15
Q26. What size of organisation do you work for?
  Code
Large, corporate organisation e.g. one large office with over 250 employees or multiple stores, offices across the country 1
Medium sized organisation e.g. 51 - 250 employees 2
Small organisation e.g. up to 50 employees 3
Unsure / don't know 4

Contact

Email: youngpersonguar@gov.scot