Publication - Research and analysis

What Works to Reduce Crime?: A Summary of the Evidence

Published: 10 Oct 2014
ISBN:
9781784128241

The review examines the research evidence on what works to reduce crime. It focuses on three key strategies: 1)targeting the underlying causes of crime 2)deterring potential offenders by ensuring that the cost of offending is greater than the benefits and 3)increasing the difficulty of offending by reducing opportunities to commit crime.

What Works to Reduce Crime?: A Summary of the Evidence
Footnotes

Footnotes

1. See http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/0038/00385880.pdf

2. Smith, D (2004) Parenting and Delinquency at Ages 12 to 15. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh

3. Brantingham, PL & Faust, L (1976) 'A conceptual model of crime prevention', Crime and Delinquency, 22:284 - 96.

4. See http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/0038/00385880.pdf

5. Hans Eysenck (1998) Dimensions of Personality

6. See also European report on preventing violence and knife crime among young people (WHO 2010) p31

7. Grove, Eckert, Heston, Bouchard, Segal and Lykken, 1990, Heritability of substance abuse and antisocial behavior: A study of monozygotic twins reared apart. Biological Psychiatry, Volume 27, Issue 12, 15 June 1990, Pages 1293-1304. More recent research by Caspi et al found evidence of a 'criminal gene' (Monoamine Oxidise A -MAOA) which could be 'switched on' within maltreated children and cause an increase in aggression and antisocial behaviour in adolescence. However, children who had the gene and were subject to good, caring child rearing practices were far less likely to develop antisocial behaviour.

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9. http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2013/01/lead-crime-link-gasoline

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14. Gottfredson, D., Wilson, D. and Najaka, S. (2002) 'School-based crime prevention' in Evidence-Based Crime Prevention. Sherman, L., Farrington, D., Welsh, B. and MacKenzie, D. (eds.) London: Routledge, pp 56-164.

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17. See, for example, Moffitt, T.E. 1993. "Life-course-persistent" and "adolescence-limited" antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674-701 and Moffitt, T.E. et al (2011) 'A Gradient of Childhood self-control predicts health, wealth and public safety' in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. January 2011.

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19. Moffitt, T.E. et al (2011) 'A Gradient of Childhood self-control predicts health, wealth and public safety' in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. January 2011.

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28. See Tremblay, R.E. (2000). The development of aggressive behavior during childhood: What have we learned in the past century? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 24, 129-141.

29. Fraser, A. et al. (2010) Youth Violence in Scotland: Literature Review. Edinburgh: Scottish Government.

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32. Gottfredson, D., Wilson, D. and Najaka, S. (2002) 'School-based crime prevention' in Evidence-Based Crime Prevention. Sherman, L., Farrington, D., Welsh, B. and MacKenzie, D. (eds.) London: Routledge, pp 56-164.

33. Welsh, B. And Hoshi, A. (2006) 'Communities and Crime Prevention' in: Shermann, L. et al (Eds) Evidence Based Crime Prevention. Routledge.

34. One possible explanation for this was that the young people with no prior criminality had formed friendships with those who had through their involvement in the mentoring programme.

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37. Calculated using Cohen's d coefficient.

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39. Gottfredson, D., Wilson, D. and Najaka, S. (2002) 'School-based crime prevention' in Evidence-Based Crime Prevention. Sherman, L., Farrington, D., Welsh, B. and MacKenzie, D. (eds.) London: Routledge, pp 56-164.

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46. Sampson, R.J. and Laub, J.H. (2004) 'A General Age-Graded Theory of Crime: Lessons Learned and the Future of Life-Course Criminology' in: D. Farrington (ed.) Advances in Criminological Theory (Vol. 14 ): Integrated Developmental and Life Course Theories of Offending. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishing.

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53. Gottredson, M. & Hirschi, T (1990) A General Theory of Crime. Stanford, C.A: Stanford University Press.

54. Page 93

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56. World Health Organisation Factsheet (2008) http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/publications/violence/en/

57. Scottish Prison Service (2013) Prisoner Survey 2013 http://www.sps.gov.uk/Publications/Publication-5345.aspx

58. Scottish Prison Service (2011) Prisoner Survey 2013- Young Offenders
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59. Harmful Drinking Two: Alcohol and Assaults, (2006) NHS Quality Improvement Scotland.

60. Unpublished data supplied by Strathclyde Police.

61. Scottish Government (2013) Homicide in Scotland 2012/13. https://www.gov.scot/publications/homicide-scotland-2012-13/

62. Scottish Government (2014) Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2012/13: Main findings http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/0044/00447271.pdf

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68. For up-dates see: http://www.healthscotland.com/topics/health/alcohol/offenders.aspx

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70. For more detail on this analysis, see: Crime and Macroeconomic Performance in Scotland. Scottish Government. Nov 2010. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Crime-Justice/CrimEco

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