What Works to Reduce Crime?: A Summary of the Evidence
The review examines the research evidence on what works to reduce crime. It focuses on three key strategies: 1)targeting the underlying causes of crime 2)deterring potential offenders by ensuring that the cost of offending is greater than the benefits and 3)increasing the difficulty of offending by reducing opportunities to commit crime.
Aleixo, P.A. & Norris, C.E. (2000) Personality and moral reasoning in young offenders, Personality and Individual Differences, 28(3):609-623.
Anderson, P. & Baumberg, B. (2006) Alcohol in Europe: A Public Health Perspective - A report for the European Commission. Institute of Alcohol Studies.
Armitage, R. (2000) An Evaluation of Secured by Design Housing within West Yorkshire - Briefing Note 7/00. London: Home Office.
Armitage, R & Monchuk, L (2009) "1999 to 2009: Re-evaluating Secured by Design Ten Years On". In: Proceedings of iDOC'09 What's Up Doc' International Design Out Crime Conference. Design Out Crime Research Centre, Perth, Western Australia.
Armitage, R. and Smithson, H. (2007) Alley-gating revisited: the sustainability of residents' satisfaction? Internet Journal of Criminology.
Audit Commission (2009) Tired of Hanging Around: Using Sport and Leisure Activities to Prevent Antisocial Behaviour by Young People. London: Audit Commission.
Bannister, J., Pickering, J., Batchelor, S., Burman, M., Kintrea, K. and McVie, S. (2010) Troublesome Youth Groups, Gangs and Knife Carrying in Scotland. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government.
Barton, C.K.B. (2003) Restorative Justice: the Empowerment Model. Sydney: Hawkins Press.
Batchelor, S (2005) 'Prove me the Bam!' Victimisation and agency in the Lives of young women who commit violent offences. Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Glasgow.
Bennet, T. (2006) Situational Burglary and Housing Interventions. In Reducing Crime: the effectiveness of criminal justice interventions, in A. E. Perry, C. McDougall and D.P. Farrington (eds.) Chichester: Wiley.
Bernazzani, O. & Tremblay, R.E. (2006). "Early parent training." In B.C. Welsh & D.P. Farrington (eds.), Preventing crime: What works for children, offenders, victims, and places. Dordrecht. Springer.
Best, D., Rome, A., Hanning, K.A., White, W., Gossop, M., Taylor, A. and Perkins, A. (2010) Research for Recovery: A Review of the Drugs Evidence Base. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government.
Bjor, J., Knutsson,, J. and Kuhlhorn, E. (1992) The celebration of Midsummer Eve in Sweden: A study in the art of preventing collective disorder. Security Journal 3(3): 169 - 174.
Bleetman, A, Perry, C, Crawford, R and Swann, I (1997) "Effect of Strathclyde police initiative 'Operation Blade' on accident and emergency attendances due to assault" Journal of Accident Emergency Medicine, 14; 153 - 156.
Bouffard, J. and Bouffard, L. A. (2009) "Deterrence in the Real World: Certainty, Severity and Swiftness in a DUI Court Context" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA
Bowers, K.J. (2001) Small business crime: the evaluation of a crime prevention initiative. Crime Prevention and Commuity Safety: an international journal, 7:23 - 42.
Bowers, K. & Johnson, S. (2003) Reducing Burglary Initiative: the Role of Publicity in Crime Prevention. Home Office Research Study 272. London: Home Office
Bowers, K., Johnson, S.D., Hirschfield, A.F.G. (2004) Closing Off Opportunities for Crime: An Evaluation of Alley-Gating. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 10(4): 285-308.
Bowers, K., Johnson, S., Guerette, R.T., Summers, L., Poynton, S. (2011) Spatial displacement and diffusion of benefits among geographically focused policing initiatives. Campbell Systematic Reviews 2011.3 DOI: 10.4073/csr.2011.3
Bowers, K.J. Shane, D., Johnson, S.D. and Hirschfield, A.F.G (2004). The measurement of crime prevention intensity and its impact on levels of crime. British Journal of Criminology, 44(3),419 - 40.
Bradford, B (2011) Police Numbers and Crime Rates: a rapid evidence review Academia.edu: http://www.academia.edu/796325/Police_numbers_and_crime_rates_-_a_rapid_evidence_review
Braga, A., Papachristos, A. and Hureau, D. (2012) Hot spots policing effects on crime. Campbell Systematic Reviews 2012: 8.
Braga, A.A. and Weisburd, D.L. (2012) The Effects of "Pulling Levers" Focused Deterrence Strategies on Crime. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 2012: 6.
Brand, S. and Price, R. (2000), The Economic and Social Costs of Crime, Home Office Research Study Number 217, Home Office, London.
Brantingham, P.L. & Faust, L. (1976) 'A conceptual model of crime prevention', Crime and Delinquency, 22:284 - 96.
Budd, T. (2001) Burglary: Practise Messages from the British Crime Survey. Briefing Paper 5/01, London: Home Office.
Budd, T. (1999) Burglary of Domestic Dwellings: Findings from the British Crime Survey, Home Office Statistical Bulletin 4/99. London: Home Office.
Bushway, S., & Reuter, P. (2002). Labor markets and crime risk factors. In L. Sherman, D. Farrington, B. Welsh, & D. MacKenzie (Eds.), Evidence-based crime prevention. New York, NY: Routledge Press.
Bushway, S.D. (2003). "Re-entry and Prison Work Programs". Prepared for the Urban Institute Reentry Roundtable on Employment Dimensions of Re-entry, May 19-20, 2003.
Caldwell, L. and Darling, N. (1999) Leisure context, parental control and resistance to peer pressure as predictors of adolescent partying and substance use. Journal of Leisure Research, 31(1).
Carr, K. and Spring, G. (1993) Public Transport Saftey: a community right and a community responsibility. In Clarke, R.V. (ed.) Crime Prevention Studies. Vol. 1. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.
Caspi, A., Wright, B.R.E., Moffitt, T.E. and Silva, P.A. (1998) Early failure in the labor market: Childhood and adolescent predictors of unemployment in the transition to adulthood. American Sociological Review, 63: 424-451.
Chaiken, J.M., Lawless, M.W. and Stevenson, K.A. (1992). "Exact Fares on Buses." In: R.V Clarke (ed.), Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies. Albany, NY: Harrow and Heston.
Clarke, R (1995) "Situational Crime Prevention". In M. Tonry and D.P. Farrington (eds.) Building a Safer Society: strategic approaches to crime prevention, crime and justice , Vol. 19:91-150. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Clarke, R.V. (1993) Fare evasion and automatic ticket collection in the London Underground. In Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies. R.V Clarke (ed.), Albany, NY: Harrow and Heston.
Clarke, R. & Goldstein, H. (2002) "Reducing theft at construction sites: lessons from a problem-oriented project". In N. Tilley (ed.) Analysis for Crime Prevention Vol 13, pp 89 - 130. Devon: Wilan Publishing.
Clarke, R.V. and McGrath, G. (1990) Cash reduction and robbery prevention in Australian betting shops, Security Journal 1:160 - 3.
Coalter, F. (1989) Sport and Anti-Social Behaviour. A Literature Review. Edinburgh: Scottish Sports Council.
Coalter, F., Allison, M. and Taylor, J. (2000) The role of sport in regenerating deprived areas. Edinburgh: The Scottish Executive.
Cooper, P., Arnold, R. and Boyd, E. 2001. The effectiveness of nurture groups. Preliminary findings. British Journal of Special Education, 28(4): 160-166.
Crabbe, T. (2000) A sporting chance? Using sport to tackle drug use and crime. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 7(4).
Crabbe, T. (2006a) Knowing The Score: Positive Futures Case Study Research: Final Report. Swindon: Crime Concern.
Crabbe, T. (2006b) Going the Distance: Impact, Journeys and Distance Travelled: Third Interim Positive Futures Case Study Research Report. Manchester: Substance.
Dillon, L., Chivite-Matthews, N., Grewal, I., Brown, R., Webster, S., Weddell, E., Brown, G. and Smith, N. (2007) Risk, protective factors and resilience to drug use: identifying resilient young people and learning from their experiences. Home Office Online Report 04/07. London: Home Office.
Eades, C. (2006). Young People and Knife Carrying: What to Do? London: Centre for Crime and Justice Studies, King's College London.
Eades, C., Grimshaw, R., Silvestri, A. and Solomon, E. (2007). Knife Crime: A Review of Evidence and Policy. London: Centre for Crime and Justice Studies, King's College London.
Eck, J. E. (2006) "Preventing crime at places". In L.W. Sherman, D.P. Farrington, B.C.Welsh and D.L. MacKenzie (eds) Evidence-Based Crime Prevention. London: Routledge.
Ekblom, P.A. (2002) 'From the Source to the Mainstream is Uphill: The Challenge of Transferring Knowledge of Crime Prevention Through Replication, Innovation and Anticipation.' In: N. Tilley (ed.) Analysis for Crime Prevention, Crime Prevention Studies 13:131-203. Devon, UK: Willan Publishing.
Ekblom, P.A. (1987) Preventing robberies at sub-post offices: an evaluation of a security initiative. London: Home Office.
Ekblom, P.A. & Tilley, N. (2000) Going Prepared: criminology, situational crime prevention and the resourceful offender. The British Journal of Criminology 40:376 -98.
Eysenck, H. (1998) Dimensions of Personality. London: Transaction Publishing.
Farrington, D.P., Langan, P.A., and Wikstrom, P-O. (1994). "Changes in Crime and Punishment in
America, England and Sweden between the 1980s and the 1990s", Studies in Crime Prevention 3:104-131.
Farrington, D.P., Gallagher, B., Morley, L., St. Ledger, R.J. and West, D.J. (1986) 'Unemployment, school leaving and crime', British Journal of Criminology, 26:335-56.
Farrington, D.P., & Welsh, B.C. (2003) Family-based prevention of offending: A meta-analysis. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 36: 127-151
Felson, M. and Clarke, R.V. (1998), 'Opportunity makes the thief: practical theory for crime prevention', Police Research Series, Paper 98. London: Home Office.
Flood-Page, C., Campbell, S., Harrington, V. and Miller, J. (2000) Youth Crime: Findings from the 1998/99 Youth Lifestyles Survey, Home Office Research Study 209, London: Home Office.
Forrester, D. Frenz, S., O'Connor, M. & Pease, K. (1990) Housing Community and Crime: the Kirkholt Burglary Prevention Project: Phase II. Crime Prevention Unit Paper 23. London: Home Office.
Fraser, A., Burman, M., Batchelor, S. and McVie, S. (2010) Youth Violence in Scotland: A Literature Review. Edinburgh: Scottish Government.
Gault, I. (2003) Study on Youth Offending in Glasgow. Stirling: SCRA.
Go Well (2010) Go Well Briefing Paper 9: Evaluation of GHA's Youth Diversionary Programme
Gottfredson, M. & Hirschi, T (1990) A General Theory of Crime. Stanford, C.A: Stanford University Press.
Gottfredson, D., Wilson, D. and Najaka, S. (2002) 'School-based crime prevention' in L. Sherman, D. Farrington, B. Welsh and D. MacKenzie (eds.) Evidence-Based Crime Prevention. London: Routledge, pp 56-164.
Green, D.P. and Shapiro, I. (1994) Pathologies of Rational Choice Theory. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Grove, W.M., Eckert, E.D., Heston, L., Bouchard, T.J., Segal, N. and Lykken, D.T. (1990) Heritability of substance abuse and antisocial behavior: A study of monozygotic twins reared apart. Biological Psychiatry, 27(12):1293-1304
Hesseling, R. (1994). Displacement: A review of the empirical literature. In R.V. Clarke (Ed.), Crime Prevention Studies, Vol. 3. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.
Halliday, J., French, C. and Goodwin, C. (2001). Making Punishments Work: Report of a Review of the Sentencing Framework for England and Wales. London: Home Office.
Hirschfield, A. (2004) The impact of Reducing Burglary Initiatives in the north of England. Home Office On-line Report 40/04.
Holden, T. and Lloyd, R. (2004). The role of education in enhancing life chances and preventing offending. Home Office Development and Practice Report 19. London: Home Office
Home Office (2006) Tackling Vandalism and other Criminal Damage Guide
Home Office (2006) Tackling Youth Vandalism
Homel, R. & Clark, J. (1994). The prediction and prevention of violence in pubs and clubs. Crime Prevention Studies, 3:1-46.
Hope, T. (1995) Community crime prevention. In M. Tonry and D.P. Farrington (eds), Building a safer society: Strategic approaches to crime prevention: Vol 19. Crime and Justice: A Review of Research. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 21-89.
Hough, M., Jackson, J., Bradford, B., Myhill, A. and Quinton, P. (2010) 'Procedural Justice, Trust, and Institutional Legitimacy', Policing- A Journal of Policy and Practice, 4(3).
Hough, M. and Sato, M. (2011) Trust in justice: why it is important for criminal policy, and how it can be measured. Final report of the Euro-Justis project. Helsinki: HEUNI
Hoyle, C and Young, R. 2002 "Restorative Justice: assessing the prospects and pitfalls. In The Handbook of Criminal Justice Process. M. McConville and G. Wilson (eds), 525 - 48. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
ISD Scotland (2011) Drug Misuse Statistics Scotland, 2011
ISD Scotland (2013), Scottish Drug Misuse Database: Overview of individuals assessed in 2011/12.
Jackson, J., Hough, M., Bradford, B., Hohl, K. and Kuha, J. (2012) Policing by consent: Understanding the dynamics of police power and legitimacy. ESS Country Specific Topline Results Series Issue 1 (UK).
Jacobs, J. (1961) The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House.
Jones, B. and Tilley, N. (2004) The Impact of High Visibility Patrols on Personal Robbery. London: Home Office.
Kelling G.L. and Coles C. M. (1996) Fixing Broken Windows: Restoring order and reducing crime in our communities. New York. Free Press
Knight, B. and Pascoe, T. (2000), Burglaries Reduced By Cost Effective Target Hardening, Garston, Watford: DETR, Building Research Establishment.
Langan, P.A., and Farrington, D.P. (1998). Crime and Justice in the United States and England
and Wales, 1981-96 . Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Lattimore, P. K., Witte, A. D., & Baker, J. R. (1990). Experimental assessment of the effect of vocational training on youthful property offenders. Evaluation Review, 14(2), 115-133.
Laycock, G. (1997), "Operation Identification, or the power of publicity?" In R. Clarke (ed.) Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies 2nd ed. New York. Harrow and Heston.
Laycock, G. (1985) Property Marking: a deterrent to domestic burglary? Crime Prevention Unit Paper 3, London: Home Office.
Livingstone, N., Macdonald, G. and Carr, N. (2013) Restorative Justice Conferencing for Reducing Recidivism in Young Offenders (Aged 7 to 21). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD008898. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008898.pub2.
Long, J., Welch, M., Bramham, P., Butterfield, H. and Lloyd, E. (2002) Count Me In, London: Department for Culture Media and Sport.
Losel, F. and Beelmann, A. (2007). 'Child Social Skills Training' in B. Welsh and D. Farrington (Eds) Preventing Crime: What Works for Children, Offenders, Victims and Places. New York: Springer.
Mahoney, J., Stattin, H. and Lord, H. (2004) Unstructured youth recreation centre participation and anti-social behaviour development: Selection influences and the moderating role of anti-social peers, International Journal of Behavioural Development, 28: 553-560.
MacKenzie, S. and Henry, A. (2009) Community Policing: A review of the Evidence. Edinburgh: Scottish Government.
MacQueen, S., Curran, J., Hutton, L. and Whyte, B. (2007) Support and Service for Parents: A Review of the Literature in Engaging and Supporting Parents. Edinburgh: Scottish Government.
Marcus, D., Fulton, J., Clarke, E. (2010). Lead and conduct problems: A meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology , 39(2), 234-241.
Mastern, A.S., Best, K., and Garmezy, N., (1990) Resilience and development: Contributions from the study of children who overcome adversity, Development and Psychopathology, 2(4):425-444.
Masuda, B. (1996). "An Alternative Approach to the Credit Card Fraud Problem." Security Journal 7(1):15-21.
Masuda, B. (1993). Credit Card Fraud Prevention: A Successful Retail Strategy. In R.V. Clarke (ed.) Crime Prevention Studies. Vol. 1. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press, pp 121-134.
Mathews, R (1993) Kerb crawling, prostitution and multi-agency policing. Crime Prevention Unit Series Paper No.46. London: Home Office.
Mathews, R. (1992) Developing more effective strategies for curbing prostitution. . In R.V. Clarke (ed.) Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies. Albany, NY: Harrow and Heston.
Matza, D. and Sykes, G.M. (1964) Techniques of neutralisation: a theory of delinquency. American Sociological Review 22(6):664 - 70.
Mazerolle, L., Bennett, S., Davis, J., Sargeant, E., Manning, M. (2013) Legitimacy in Policing: A Systematic Review. Campbell Systematic Reviews 2013:1 DOI: 10.4073/csr.2013.1
McAra, L. and McVie, S. (2010) 'Youth Crime and Justice: Key Messages from the Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime'. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 10:179.
McIntyre, S. & Homel, R (1997) "Danger on the Dance Floor: A study in interior design, crowding and aggression" In Policing for Prevention: Reducing Crime, Public Intoxication and Injury Crime Prevention Studies, Volume 7, R Homel (ed): 92 - 113.
McKinlay, W., Forsyth, A.J.M. and Khan, F. (2009) Alcohol and Violence among Young Male Offenders in Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Prison Service.
McVie, S. (2010) Gang Membership and Knife Carrying: Findings from the Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime - Research Findings. Edinburgh:The Scottish Government.
Morris, A. and Maxwell, G. (1998) "Restorative Justice in New Zealand: Family Group Conferences as a Case Study." Western Criminology Review 1 (1).
Nagin, D.S. and Pogarsky, G. (2000) Integrating Celerity, Impulsivity, and Extralegal Sanction Threats in to a Model of General Deterrence: Theory and Evidence. Criminology, 39(4): 865-892.
Nevin, R. (2007) Understanding international crime trends: The legacy of preschool lead exposure. Environmental Research 104:315-336.
Newman, O. (1996) Creating Defensible Space. Washington DC: US Department of Housing and Urban Development.
NHS Health Scotland - Alcohol Outcomes Framework - http://www.healthscotland.com/OFHI/alcohol/logicmodels/lm_01.html
NHS Health Scotland (2010) Monitoring and Evaluating Scotland's Alcohol Strategy http://www.healthscotland.com/scotlands-health/evaluation/planning/mesas.aspx
NHS Quality Improvement Scotland (2006) Harmful Drinking Two: Alcohol and Assaults.
O'Connor, T. and Colwell, J. (200. The effectiveness and rationale of the 'nurture group' approach to helping children with emotional and behavioural difficulties remain within mainstream. British Journal of Special Education ,29(2): 96-100.
Osterberg, E. (2004) What Are the Most Effective and Cost-Effective Interventions in Alcohol Control? Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.
Painter, K. and Farrington, D.P. (2001) Evaluating Situational Crime Prevention Using A Young People's Survey. British Journal of Criminology 41:266 - 284.
Patterson, G. R. (1982). Coercive family process. Eugene, OR: Castalia.
Piquero, A.R., Farrington, D.P. & Blumstein, A. (2003). "The criminal career paradigm." In M. Tonry (ed.) Crime and justice: A review of research, volume 30. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Piquero, A.R., Farrington, D.P., Welsh, B.C., Tremblay, R. Jennings, W.G. (2008) Effects of Early Family/Parent Training Programs on Antisocial Behavior & Delinquency, Campbell Systematic Reviews 2008:113.
Piquero, A.R., Jennings, W.G. and Farrington, D.P. (2010) Self-control Interventions for Children Under Age 10 for Improving Self-control and Delinquency and Problem Behaviours. Campbell Systematic Reviews 2010:2
Poyner, B. (1993) What works in crime prevention: an overview of evaluations. In R.V. Clarke (ed.) Crime Prevention Studies vol.1 New York: Criminal Justice Press.
Poyner, B. (1991) Situational Crime Prevention in two parking lot facilities. Security Journal, 2: 96 - 101.
Poyner, B. and Warne, C. (1986) Violence to staff: a basis for assessment and prevention. London: Tavistock.
Poyner, B. and Webb, B. (1992) Reducing theft from shopping bags in city centre markets. In R.V. Clarke (ed.) Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies. Albany, NY: Harrow and Heston.
Raynor, P. (2004) 'Rehabilitative and reintegrative approaches' in: A. E. Bottoms, S. Rex and G. Robinson (Eds) Alternatives to Prison: Options for an Insecure Society. Cullompton:Willan
Retzinger, S.M. (1996) Strategy for community conferences: emotions and social bonds. In Restorative Justice :International Perspectives. Monsey, NY: Special Protections Commentary.
Reynolds, S., MacKay, T. and Kearney, M. (2009) Nurture groups: a large-scale, controlled study of effects on development and academic attainment. British Journal of Special Education, 36(4): 204-212.
Robins, D. (1990) Sport as prevention: The role of sport in crime prevention programmes aimed at young people. Oxford: Centre for Criminological Research, University of Oxford.
Robson, K. And Feinstein, L. (2007) Leisure Contexts in Adolescence and their Associations with Adult Outcomes: A More Complete Picture. London: Centre for Research on the Wider Benefits of Learning.
Ruiz, J. (2004) A Literature Review of the Evidence Base for Culture, the Arts and Sport Policy. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
Sallybanks, J .(2000) 'Assessing the police use of decoy vehicles' Police Research Series 137: London: Home Office.
Sampson, R.J. (2004) 'Networks and neighbourhoods: the implications of connectivityfor thinking about crime in the modern city' in McCarthy, H., Miller, P. and Skidmore, P. (Eds) Who governs in an interconnected world? Demos: Network Logic
Sampson, R.J. (1997) Neighborhoods and violent crime: a multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science 277:918-224.
Sampson, R.J. and Laub J.H. (1993) Crime in the Making: Pathways and Turning Points through Life. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
Sampson, R.J. and Laub, J.H. (2004) 'A General Age-Graded Theory of Crime: Lessons Learned and the Future of Life-Course Criminology' in: D. Farrington (ed.) Advances in Criminological Theory (Vol. 14 ): Integrated Developmental and Life Course Theories of Offending. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishing.
Sampson, R.J. and Raudenbush, S.W. (1999) Systematic Social Observation of Public Spaces: A New Look at Disorder in Urban Neighbourhoods. American Journal of Sociology, 105: 603 - 51.
SCCJR (2013) Knife Crime Interventions: 'what works?'
Schneider, R. H. and Kitchen, T. (2007) Crime Prevention and the Built Environment. London: Routledge.
Scott, S., Spender, Q., Doolan, M., Jacobs, B., Aspland, H. (2002). 'Multicentre controlled trial of parenting groups for child antisocial behaviour in clinical practice'. British Medical Journal, 323: 194-6.
Scottish Government (2010) Crime and Macroeconomic Performance in Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Government.
Scottish Government (2012a) Statistical Bulletin Crime and Justice Series: Recorded Crime in Scotland, 2011-12.
Scottish Government (2013) Statistical Bulletin Crime and Justice Series: Recorded Crime in Scotland, 2012-13.
Scottish Government (2012b) Statistical Bulletin Crime and Justice Series: Homicide in Scotland, 2011-12.
Scottish Government (2013) Statistical Bulletin Crime and Justice Series: Homicide in Scotland, 2012-13.
Scottish Prison Service (2011) Prisoner Survey 2011.
Scottish Prison Service (2013) Prisoner Survey 2013.
Sherman, L. W. and Strang, H. (2007) Restorative Justice: The Evidence. London: The Smith Institute
Sherman, L.W., Strang, H. and Woods, D. (2000) Recidivism patterns in the Canberra Reintegrative Shaming Experiment. Canberra Centre for Restorative Justice: ANU.
Shapland, J., Atkinson, A., Atkinson, H., Dignan, J., Edwards, L., Hibbert, J., Howes, M., Johnstone, J., Robinson, G. and Sorsby, A. (2008) Does Restorative Justice Affect Reconviction? The Fourth Report from the Evaluation of Three Schemes. London: Ministry of Justice.
Sherman, L.W. and Eck, J.E. (2006) 'Policing for crime prevention' in L.W. Sherman, D.P. Farrington, B.C.Welsh and D.L. MacKenzie (eds) Evidence-Based Crime Prevention. London: Routledge.
Shucksmith, J., Philip, K., Spratt, J. and Watson, C. (2005) Investigating the links between mental health and behaviour in schools. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
Skogan, W.G. (1990) Disorder and Decline: Crime and the Spiral of Decay in America). Berkley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Sloan-Howitt, M and Kelling, G.L. (1990) Subway Graffiti in New York City: "Getting Up" vs "Meaning it and cleaning it". Security Journal 1: 131 - 6.
Smith, D.J. (2005) Crime and Punishment in Scotland, 1981-1999, in M. Tonry and D. Farrington (eds) Crime and Justice: A Review of Research vol. 33: 83-122, University of Chicago Press.
Smith, A. and Waddington, I. (2004) Using 'sport in the community schemes' to tackle crime and drug use among young people: some policy issues and problems. European Physical Education Review, 10(3).
Smith, D., McVie, S., Woodward, R., Shute, J., Flint, J. and McAra, L. (2001) Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime: Key Findings at Ages 12 and 13. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Smith, D. (2004) Parenting and Delinquency at Ages 12 to 15. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh.
The Stanford Research Institute (1970) Reduction of robbery and assault of bus drivers. Vol. 3 Technological and operational methods. Stanford, CA: Stanford Research Institute.
Stolzenberg, L. and D'Alessio, S.J. (1997). "Three Strikes and You're Out": The Impact of California's New Mandatory Sentencing Law on Serious Crime Rates. Crime and Delinquency, 43(4), 457-469.
Stretesky, P.B., & Lynch, M.J. (2004) The relationship between lead and crime. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 45 (2): 214-29.
Sutherland, A., Merrington, S., Jones, S., Baker, K. and Roberts, C. (2005) Role of Risk and Protective Factors. London: Youth Justice Board for England and Wales.
Teedon, P., and Reid, T. (2009) Evaluation of SBD - Glasgow Housing Association - Architectural Liaison Officer's Conference, Nottingham, January 2009.
Tilley, N. and Hopkins, M. (1998) Business as Usual: an evaluation of the small business and crime initiative. Policy Research Series Paper 95. London: Home Office.
Tonry, M. (ed.) Learning from the Limitation of Deterrence Research in Crime and Justice: A Review of the Research, Vol 37. Chicago:University of Chicago Press.
Trasler, G. (1986) "Situational Crime Control and Rational Choice: a critique". In Situational Crime Prevention: From Theory into Practice. K. Heal and G. Laycock (eds.) London: HMSO.
Trasler, G. (1993). Conscience, opportunity, rational choice, and crime. In R. V. Clarke & M. Felson (eds.), Routine activity and rational choice. Advances in Criminological Theory, vol. 5. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Tremblay, R.E. (2000). The development of aggressive behavior during childhood: What have we learned in the past century? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 24: 129-141.
Tseloni, A., Mailley, J., Farrell, G. and Tilley, N. (2010) "Exploring the International Decline in Crime Rates", European Journal of Criminology, 7(5): 375-394.
Tseloni, A., Wittebrood, K., Farrell, G. and Pease, K. (2004), "Burglary victimization in England and Wales, the United States and the Netherlands: a cross-national comparative test of routine activities and lifestyle theories", The British Journal of Criminology, 44(1):66-91.
Tyler, T. R. (1997) "Citizen discontent with legal procedures: a social science perspective on civil procedure reform" Law and Society Review 28:809 - 31.
Tyler, T. R. (1990) Why People Obey the Law. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Van Dijk, J., Tseloni, A. and Farrell, G. (eds.) (2012) The International Crime Drop: New Directions in Research. London: Palgrave MacMillan.
Van Ours, J and Vollard, B. (2013) The Engine Immobiliser: a non-starter for car thieves Department of Economics, CentER, TILEC, Tilburg University http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2202165
Visher, C.A., Winterfield, L. & Coggeshall, M.B. (2006) Systematic Review of Non-custodial Employment Programs: impact on recidivism rates of ex-offenders. Campbell Collaboration.
Von Hirsh, A., Bottoms, A.E., Burnley, E. and Wikstrom, P-O. (1999) Criminal Deterrence and Sentence Severity: An Analysis of Recent Research. Oxford: Hart.
Walklate, S. in Mooney, G. and Neal, S. (eds.) (2009) Community. Open University Press.
Walklate, S. (2002) 'Crime and Violence in a Northern British City', in D. Feenan (ed.) Managing Responses to Violence, pp. 79-98. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Walklate, S. (2000) 'Crime and community: fear or trust?' British Journal of Sociology, 49(4): 550-569.
Ward, L. and Diamond, A. (2009). Tackling Knives Action Programme (TKAP) Phase 1: Overview of Key Trends From A Monitoring Programme. London: Home Office.
Weidner, R.R. (1997) Target hardening at a New York City subway station. Decreased fare evasion - at what price? In: R.V Clarke (ed.), Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies. Albany, NY: Harrow and Heston.
Welsh, B.P. and Farrington, D.P. (2009) Making Public Places Safer. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Welsh, B.P., Farrington, D.C. (2008) Effects of closed circuit television surveillance on crime. Campbell Systematic Reviews 2008:17
Welsh, B.P. & Farrington, D.P. (2006) CCTV and Street Lighting: Comparative Effects on Crime. In Reducing Crime: the effectiveness of Criminal Justice Interventions, in A. E. Perry, C. McDougall, D. P. Farrington (eds.) Chichester: Wiley.
Welsh, B. And Hoshi, A. (2006) 'Communities and Crime Prevention', in L. Sherman, D. Farrington, B. Welsh and D. MacKenzie (eds.) Evidence-Based Crime Prevention. London: Routledge
WHO Europe (2010) European Report on Preventing Knife Crime and Violence Among Young People.
Wilson, C. (2012) The Public and the Justice System: Attitudes, Drivers and Behaviour. Edinburgh: Scottish Government.
Wilson J. Q and Kelling G. L. (1982) 'Broken Windows: The Police and Neighbourhood Safety' Atlantic Monthly, March 1, 1982:29-38.
Wright, J.P., Dietrich, K.N., Ris, M.D., Hornung, R.W., Wessel, S.D. et al. (2008) Association of Prenatal and Childhood Blood Lead Concentrations with Criminal Arrests in Early Adulthood. PLoS Med 5(5): e101. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050101
Yates, J. (2006) 'You Just Don't Grass': Youth, Crime and 'Grassing' in a Working Class Community, Youth Justice 2006: 6: 195-210.
Email: Social Research
There is a problem
Thanks for your feedback