Wild seaweed harvesting: strategic environmental assessment - environmental report

Investigates the sustainability and potential environmental impacts of wild seaweed and seagrass harvesting, maerl extraction and removal of beach-cast seaweed.

13. References

ABPmer, 2013. Tools for Appropriate Assessment of Fishing and Aquaculture Activities in Marine and Coastal Natura 2000 Sites. Reports II, III and V. R. 2070. Report for Marine Institute.

Adey, W.H. and McKibbin, D.L., 1970. Studies on the maerl species Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) nov. comb. and Lithothamnion corallioides (Crouan) in the Ria de Vigo. Botanica Marina, 13, 100-106.

Airoldi, L., and Beck, M. W., 2007. Loss, status and trends for coastal marine habitats of Europe. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 45: 345-405.

Amsler, C. D. and Neushul, M. 1991. Photosynthetic physiology and chemical composition of spores of the Kelps Macrocystis pyrifera, Nereocystis luetkeana, Laminaria farlowii and Pterogophora californica. J. Phycol. 27: 26-34.

Angus, S., 2009. Dé tha cearr air a'mhachaire? Biodiversity issues for Scottish machair: an initial appraisal. Glasgow Naturalist, 25 (Supplement), 53-62.

Angus, S.,. Seaweed Harvesting and Gathering in Scotland: the Legal and Ecological Context, Forthcoming.

Angus, S., 2012. Ecosystem services provided by tangle Laminaria hyperborea on the west coast of the Uists, Outer Hebrides. CoastAdapt. Inverness: Scottish Natural Heritage.

Angus, S. and Rennie, A., 2014. An Ataireachd Aird: The storm of January 2005 in the Uists, Scotland. Ocean & Coastal Management, 94, pp.22-29.

Baines, M.E. and Evans, P.G.H., 2012. Atlas of the Marine Mammals of Wales. CCW Monitoring Report No. 68. 2nd edition. 139pp.

Baxter, J.M., Boyd, I.L., Cox, M., Donald, A.E., Malcolm, S.J., Miles, H., Miller, B., Moffat, C.F., (Editors), 2011. Scotland's Marine Atlas: Information for the national marine plan. Marine Scotland, Edinburgh. pp. 191.

Bekkby, T. and Moy, F.E. 2011. Developing spatial models of sugar kelp ( Saccharina latissima) potential distribution under natural conditions and areas of its disappearance in Skagerrak. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 95: 477-483.

Bellamy, D. J., John, D. M. and Whittick, A., 1968. The "kelp forest ecosystem" as a "phytometer" in the study of pollution of the inshore environment. Underwater Association Report 79-82.

Bernstein, B.B., Williams B.E. & Mann, K.H. 1981. The role of behavioural responses to predators in modifying sea urchins ( Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) destructive grazing and seasonal foraging patterns. Marine Biology, 63: 39-49.

Birkett, D.A., Maggs, C.A., Dring, M.J., Boaden, P.J.S. and Seed, R., 1998. Infralittoral Reef Biotopes with Kelp Species (volume VII). An overview of dynamic and sensitivity characteristics for conservation management of marine SACs. Scottish Association of Marine Science ( UK Marine SACs Project). 174p.

Blanc, A. and Daguzan, J., 1998. Artificial surfaces for cuttlefish eggs ( Sepia officianalis L.) in Morbihan Bay, France. Fisheries Research 38, 225-231.

Blight, A., Foster-Smith, R., Sotheran, I., Egerton, J., McAllen, R., Savidge, G., 2011. Development of a Methodology for the Quantitative Assessment of Ireland's Inshore Kelp Resource. Marine Research Sub-Programme 2007-2013 Project Based Award. Project Reference: PBA/SW/07/002 (01). Marine Institute 2011 ISSN: 2009-3195.

Blight, A. J. and Thompson, R. C., 2008. Epibiont species richness varies between holdfasts of a northern and a southerly distributed kelp species. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 88: 469-475.

Blunden, G., Binns, W.W. and Perks, F., 1975. Commercial collection and utilisation of maerl. Economic Botany, 29(2), pp.141-145.

Boaden, P.J. and Dring, M.J., 1980. A quantitative evaluation of the effects of Ascophyllum harvesting on the littoral ecosystem. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 33: 700-710.

Bodkin, J. L., 1988. Effects of kelp forest removal on associated fish assemblages in central California. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 117:227- 238.

Bodvin, T., Steen, H., Hansen, H.Ø., Sannæs, H., Bosgraaf, S. and Moy, F., 2014a. Effekter av tarehøsting på fisk og skalldyr, Flatanger 2014.

Bodvin, T., Steen, H. and Moy, F., 2014b. Effekter av tarehøsting på fisk og skalldyr i Vikna, Nord-Trøndelag 2013.

Boney, A.D., 1965. Aspects of the biology of the seaweeds of economic imprtance. Advances in Marine Biology, 3, 105^253.

Borum, J. and Wium-Andersen, S. 1980. Biomass and production of epiphytes on eelgrass ( Zostera marina L.) in the Oresund, Denmark. Ophelia Suppl 1:57-64

Bos, A.R., Bouma, T.J., de Kort, G.L.J., van Katwijk, M.M., 2007. Ecosystem engineering by annual intertidal seagrass beds: Sediment accretion and modification. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 74: 344-348.

Bosence, D., and Wilson, J., 2003. Maerl growth, carbonate production rates and accumulation rates in the northeast Atlantic. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 13: S21-S31.

Bouma, T.J., De Vries, M.B., Low, E., Peralta, G., Tánczos, I.C., van de Koppel, J. and Herman, P.M.J., 2005. Trade-offs related to ecosystem engineering: a case study on stiffness of emerging macrophytes. Ecology, 86(8), pp.2187-2199.

Bradley, K., and Houser, C., 2009. Relative velocity of seagrass blades: Implications for wave attenuation in low-energy environments. Journal of Geophysical Research 114:F01004

Brodie, J., John, D. M., Tittley, I., Holmes, M.J. Williamson, D.B., 2007. Important Plant Areas for algae: a provisional review of sites and areas of importance for algae in the United Kingdom. Plantlife International, Salisbury, UK.

Brodie, J. and Wilbraham, J., 2013. 'Seaweed survey of the Outer Hebrides, 2012'. The Crown Estate, 89 pages."

Brodie, J., Williamson, C.J., Smale, D.A., Kamenos, N.A., Mieszkowska, N., Santos, R., Cunliffe M., Steinke M., Yesson C., Anderson K.M., Asnaghi V., Brownlee C., Burdett H., Burrows M.T., Collins S., Donohue P.J.C., Harvey B., Foggo A., Noisette F., Nunes J., Ragazzola F., Raven J.A., Schmidt D.N., Suggett D., Teichberg M., Hall-Spencer J.M., 2014 The future of the northeast Atlantic benthic flora in a high CO 2 world. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Bros, A.R., Bou,a. T. J., de Kort, G.L.J. and van Katwijk, M.W., 2007. Ecosystem engineering by annual intertidal seagrass beds: Sediment accretion and modification. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 74, 1-2: 344 - 348.

Burrows, M.T., Kamenos, N.A., Hughes, D.J., Stahl, H., Howe, J.A. and Tett, P., 2014b. Assessment of carbon budgets and potential blue carbon stores in Scotland's coastal and marine environment. Review, 17: 101-161.

Burrows, M.T., Macleod, M., Orr, K., 2010. Mapping the intertidal seaweed resources of the Outer Hebrides. Scottish Association for Marine Science Internal Report No. 269

Burrows, M.T., Smales, D., O'Connor, N., Van Rein, H and Moore, P., 2014a. Marine Strategy Framework Directive Indicators for UK Kelp Habitats Part 1: Developing proposals for potential indicators. JNCC Report No. 525. SAMS/ MBA/ QUB/ UAber for JNCC, JNCC Peterborough.

CDFG E.I.R., 2001. Calif. Dept. of Fish and Game. Final Environmental Document -Giant and Bull Kelp Commercial and Sport Fishing Regulations -Section 30 and 165, Title 14, California Code of Regulations (Eds. Larson and Mc Peak).

Cebrián J, Duarte C, Marbà N, Enríquez S., 1997. Magnitude and fate of the production of four co-occurring Western Mediterranean seagrass species. Marine Ecology Progress Series 155:29-44

Celtic Sea Minerals. No date. Calcareous marine algae harvest sites (webpage).
Available at http://www.celticseaminerals.com/

Centre for Conservation Ecology and Environmental Science ( CCEES) and ABPmer, 2010. Description of the ecosystem services provided by broad-scale habitats and features of conservation importance that are likely to be protected by Marine Protected Areas in the Marine Conservation Zone Project area. Final Report.

Chapman, A. R. O., 1984. Reproduction, recruitment and mortality in two species of Laminaria in South West of Nova Scotia. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology & Ecology, 78: 99-109.

Christianen, M.J., van Belzen, J., Herman, P.M., van Katwijk, M.M., Lamers, L.P., van Leent, P.J. and Bouma, T.J., 2013. Low-canopy seagrass beds still provide important coastal protection services. PloS one, 8(5), p.e62413.

Christie, H., Jorgensen, N. M., Norderhaug, K. M. and Waage-Nielsen, E., 2003. Species distribution and habitat exploitation of fauna associated with kelp ( Laminaria hyperborea) along the Norwegian coast. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 83: 687-699.

Christie, H., S. Fredriksen, and E. Rinde, 1998. Regrowth of kelp and colonization of epiphyte and fauna community after kelp trawling at the coast of Norway. Hydrobiologia 375-376:49-58.

Clark, J., Dolman, S.J. and Hoyt, E., 2010. Towards Marine Protected Areas for Cetaceans in Scotland, England and Wales: A scientific review identifying critical habitat with key recommendations. Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, Chippenham, UK, 178pp.;

CODA, 2009. Cetacean Offshore Distribution and Abundance in the European Atlantic ( CODA). Final Report. 43pp.;

Comhairle Nan Eilean Siar, 2013. Consultation response to draft Seaweed Policy Statement 2013.

Connell, S.D. and Russell, B.D., 2010. The direct effects of increasing CO 2 and temperature on non-calcifying organisms: increasing the potential for phase shifts in kelp forests. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B, 277:1409-1415.

Cooke, A. and McMath, A., 2001. Sensitivity and mapping of inshore marine biotopes in the southern Irish Sea (SensMap): development of a protocol for assessing and mapping the sensitivity of marine species and benthos to maritime activities.

D'Avack, E.A.S., Tyler-Walters, H. & Wilding, C., 2015. Zostera marina/angustifolia beds on lower shore or infralittoral clean or muddy sand. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line][last accessed 24.02.16]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.
Available from: http://www.marlin.ac.uk/habitat/detail/257

d'Avack, E.A.S., Tillin, H., Jackson, E.L. & Tyler-Walters, H. 2014. Assessing the sensitivity of seagrass bed biotopes to pressures associated with marine activities. JNCC Report No. 505.
Available from: http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/default.aspx?page=2132

Dale, A.L., McAllen, R. and Whelan, P., 2007. Management considerations for subtidal Zostera marina beds in Ireland. Irish Wildlife Manuals, No. 28. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin, Ireland.

Davison, D.M., and Hughes, D.J., 1998. Zostera Biotopes (volume I). An overview of dynamics and sensitivity characteristics for conservation management of marine SACs. Scottish Association for Marine Science ( UK Marine SACs Project).

Dayton P. K., 1985. Ecology of kelp communities. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 16: 215-245.

DECC, 2004. Strategic Environmental Assessment 5 ( SEA 5), SEA 5 Environmental Report [Online]
Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/strategic-environmental-assessment-5-environmental-report
[Accessed 20/05/16].

Dugan, J.E., Hubbard, D.M., 2010. Loss of coastal strand habitat in southern California: the role of beach grooming. Estuaries and Coasts 33 (1), 67-77.

Dugan, J. E., Hubbard, D. M., McCrary, M. D. and Pierson, M. O., 2003. The response of macrofauna communities and shorebirds to macrophyte subsidies on exposed sandy beaches of southern California. Estuarine, Coastal & Shelf Science, 58S: 25-40.

Duggins, D.O., Simenstad, C.A. and Estes, J.A., 1989. Magnification of secondary production by kelp detritus in coastal marine ecosystems. Science, 245, 170-173.

Eckman, J. E., Duggins, D. O., and Sewell, A. T., 1989. Ecology of under storey kelp environments. I. Effects of kelps on flow and particle transport near the bottom. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 129:173-187.

Eckrich, C.E. and Holmquist J.G., 2000. Trampling in a seagrass assemblage: direct effects, response of associated fauna, and the role of substrate characteristics. Marine Ecolocy Progress Series 201: 199-209.

Edwards, A., 1980. Ecological studies of the kelp, Laminaria hyperborea, and its associated fauna in South-West Ireland. Ophelia, 19: 47-60.

Ellis, J.R., Milligan, S.P., Readdy, L., Taylor, N. and Brown, M.J. 2012. Spawning and nursery grounds of selected fish species in UK waters. Sci. Ser. Tech. Rep., Cefas Lowestoft, 147: 56pp.

Fernández, Á., Arenas, F., Trilla, A., Rodríguez, S., Rueda, L. & Martínez, B., 2015. Additive effects of emersion stressors on the ecophysiological performance of two intertidal seaweeds. Marine Ecology Progress Series,536: 135-147.

Fonseca, M.S. and Cahalan, J.A., 1992. A preliminary evaluation of wave attenuation by 4 species of seagrass. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 35: 565-576.

Fonseca, M.S., and Cahalan, J.A., 1992. A preliminary evaluation of wave attenuation by four species of seagrass. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 35:565-576

Foster, M.S. and Barilotti, D.C., 1990. An approach to determining the ecological effects of seaweed harvesting: a summary. In Thirteenth International Seaweed Symposium (pp. 15-16). Springer Netherlands.

Frederiksen, S., Sjøtun, K., Lein, T. E. and Rueness, J., 1995. Spore dispersal in Laminaria hyperborea (Phaeophyceae). Sarsia, 80:47-54.

Freiwald, A. and Henrich, R., 1994. Reefal coralline algal build-ups within the Arctic Circle: morphology and sedimentary dynamics under extreme environmental seasonality. Sedimentology, 41, 963-984.

Gambi, M.C., Nowell, A.R.M., and Jumars, P.A., 1990. Flume observations on flow dynamics in Zostera marina (Eelgrass) beds. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 61: 159-169.

Ganter, B., 2000. Seagrass ( Zostera spp.) as food for brent geese (Branta bernicla): an overview. Helgoland Marine Research, 54(2-3), pp.63-70.

Gaylord, B., Rosman, J.H., Reed, D.C., Koseff, J.R., Fram, J., MacIntyre, S., Arkema, K., McDonald, C., Brzezinski, M.A., Largier, J.L. and Monismith, S.G., 2007. Spatial patterns of flow and their modification within and around a giant kelp forest. Limnology and Oceanography, 52(5), pp.1838-1852.

Geffen, A. J., Nash, R. D. M., and Dickey-Collas, M. 2011. Characterization of herring populations west of the British Isles: an investigation of mixing based on otolith microchemistry. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 68: 1447-1458.

Gibson, R.N., Ansell, A.D., and Robb, L., 1993. Seasonal and annual variations in abundance and species composition of fish and macrocrustracean communities on a Scottish sandy beach. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 98, 89-105.

Giesen, W.B.J.T., van Katwijk, M.M., and Den Hartog, C., 1990. Eelgrass condition and turbidity in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Aquatic Botany 37, 71-85

Gilburn, A.S., 2012. Mechanical grooming and beach award status are associated with low strandline biodiversity in Scotland. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 107:81-88

Gordon, J.D.M., 2003. Fish & Fisheries in the SEA4 Area, Report to the Department of Trade and Industry [Online]
Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/513974/Fish___Fisheries_in_the_SEA4_Area.pdf
[Accessed 20/05/16]

Grall, J. and Hall Spencer, J.M., 2003. Problems facing maerl conservation in Brittany. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 13(S1), pp.S55-S64.

Guiry, M.,D., 1997. Went Memorial Lecture 1996. Research and development of a sustainable Irish seaweed industry. Occasional Papers in Irish Science and Technology Royal Dublin Society No 14:1-11.

Gunnarson, K., 1991. Populations de Laminaria hyperborea et Laminaria digitata (Pheophycees) dans la Baie de Breidifjrdur, Islande. Rit Fiskideildar, 12: 1-148.

Haegele C.W. and Schweigert J.F., 1985. Distribution and characteristics of herring spawning grounds and description of spawning behaviour. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 42(1):39-55.

Hall-Spencer, J.M., J. Grall, P.G. Moore and Atkinson, R.J.A, 2003. Bivalve fishing and maerl bed conservation in France and the UK- retrospective and prospect. Aquatic Conservation and Freshwater Ecosystems, 13, S33- S41.

Han, Q., Bouma, T. J., Brun, G.G., Suykerbuyk, W. and van Katwijk, M.M., 2012. Resilience of Zostera noltii to burial or erosion disturbances. Marine Ecology Progress Series 449: 133-143.

Hawkins, S. J. and Harkin, E., 1985: Primary canopy removal experiments in algal dominated communities low on the shore and in the shallows subtidal of the Isle of Man. Botanica Marina, XXVIII: 223-230.

Heck Jnr, K.L., Hays, G. and Orth, R.J., 2003. Critical evaluation of the nursery role hypothesis for seagrass meadows. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 253, pp.123-136.

Hemminga, M.A., and Duarte, C.M., 2000. Seagrass Ecology. Cambridge University Press.

Heraghty, N. (2013). Investigating the abundance, distribution and habitat use of juvenile Cancer pagurus (L.) of the intertidal zone around Anglesey and Llŷn Peninsula, North Wales ( UK) (Doctoral dissertation, Bangor University).
Available from: http://fisheries-conservation.bangor.ac.uk/documents/29.pdf
[Accessed 15/6/16]

Hill, J.M., 2008. Laminaria digitata Oarweed. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.
Available from: http://www.marlin.ac.uk/species/detail/1386
[Accessed 11/02/16]

Hill, J.M. and White, N., 2008. Ascophyllum nodosum. Knotted wrack. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.
Available from: http://www.marlin.ac.uk/species/detail/1336
[Accessed 11/02/2016].

Hill, R., Bellgrove, A., Macreadie, P.I., Petrou, K., Beardall, J., Steven, A. and Ralph, P.J., 2015. Can macroalgae contribute to blue carbon? An Australian perspective. Limnology and Oceanography, 60(5), pp.1689-1706.

Hiscock, S., 1979 A field key to the British brown seaweeds (Phaeophyta). Field Studies, 5, 1-44.

Hiscock, K., Sewell, J. and Oakley, J., 2005. Marine health check 2005. A report to gauge the health of the UK's sea-life.

Hiscock, K., Southward, A., Tittley, I. and Hawkins, S., 2004. Effects of changing temperature on benthic marine life in Britain and Ireland. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 14, 333-362.

Historic Scotland, no date a. About Marine Heritage [Online]
Available from: http://www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/index/heritage/wrecksites/the-role-of-historic-scotland.htm
[Accessed 28/04/16]

Historic Scotland, no date b. Historic Marine Protected Areas [Online]
Available from: http://www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/index/heritage/wrecksites/scotlands-historic-wrecks.htm
[Accessed 28/04/16]

Historic Scotland, no date c. What is a Historic Marine Protected Area? [Online]
Available from: http://www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/index/heritage/wrecksites/what-is-a-designated-wreck-site.htm
[Accessed 29/04/16]

Historic Scotland, no date d. Towards a Strategy for Scotland's Marine Historic Environment [Online]
Available at: www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/marine-strategy.pdf
[Accessed 29/04/2013].

Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Mumby, P.J., Hooten, A.J., Steneck, R.S., Greenfield, P., Gomez, E., Harvell, C.D., Sale, P.F., Edwards, A.J., Caldeira, K. and Knowlton, N., 2007. Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification. science, 318(5857), pp.1737-1742.

Hoffmann, A.J. and Camus, P. 1989. Sinking rates and viability of spores from benthic algae in central Chile. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 126 (3): 281 - 291.

Holt, T.J., Hartnoll, R.G. and Hawkins, S.J., 1997. The sensitivity and vulnerability to man-induced change of selected communities: intertidal brown algal shrubs, Zostera beds and Sabellaria spinulosa reefs. English Nature, Peterborough.

Houser, C., and Hill, P., 2010. Wave Attenuation across an Intertidal Sand Flat: Implications for Mudflat Development. Journal of Coastal Research 26: 403- 411.

Howard, A. E., and Bennett, D. B., 1979. The substrate preference and burrowing behaviour of juvenile lobsters ( Homarus gammarus (L.)). Journal of Natural History, 13(4), 433-438.

Hughes, R.G., Lloyd, D., Ball, L., Emson, D., 2000. The effects of the polychaete Nereis diversicolor on the distribution and transplantation success of Zostera noltii. Helgoland Marine Research, 54, 129-136.

Huntington, T.C., Roberts, H., Cousins, N., Pitta, V., Marchesi, N., Sanmamed, A., T. Hunter-Rowe, Fernandes, T.F., Tett, P., McCue, J. and Brockie, N., 2006. Some Aspects of the Environmental Impact of Aquaculture in Sensitive Areas. Report to the DG Fish and Maritime Affairs of the European Commission.

IMPACT, 1998. Marine habitat reviews presented by the United Kingdom. English Nature Peterborough. (Oslo and Paris Conventions for the prevention of marine Pollution Working Group on Impacts on the Marine Environment.

IPCC, 2007. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)].Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996 pp.

[Accessed 11/05/16].

IPCC, 2013. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1535 pp.
[Accessed on 3 October 2014];

Jackson. A., 2008. Fucus serratus Toothed wrack. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.
Available from: http://www.marlin.ac.uk/species/detail/1326
[accessed on 23/02/2016]

Jackson, E.J., Rowden, A.A., Attrill, M.J., Bossey, S.J., and Jones, M.B., 2001. The importance of seagrass beds as a habitat for fishery species. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An annual review. 39: 269 - 303

Jackson, E.L., Langmead, O., Beaumont, N., Potts, T. and Hattam, C.A., 2012. Seagrass Ecosystem Interactions with Social and Economic Systems. UK Defra Funded Study.

Jackson, E.L., Griffiths, C.A., Collins, K. & Durkin, O. 2013. A guide to assessing and managing anthropogenic impact on marine angiosperm habitat - part 1: literature review. Natural England Commissioned Reports NERC111 Part I.
Available from: http://publications.naturalengland.org.uk/publication/3665058

Jenkins, S.R., Norton, T.A. and Hawkins, S.J., 2004. Long term effects of Ascophyllum nodosum canopy removal on mid shore community structure. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 84: 327-329.

JNCC, 1995. Information Sheet on Ramsar Wetlands, Montrose Basin.

Johnston, C.S., Jones, R.G., and Hunt, R.D., 1977. A seasonal carbon budget for Laminarian population in a Scottish sea-loch. Helgolander wiss Meeresrunters. 30, 527 -545

Jones, L.A., Hiscock, K. and Connor, D.W., 2000. Marine habitat reviews. A summary of ecological requirements and sensitivity characteristics for the conservation and management of marine SACs. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough.

Jones, N.S. and Kain, J.M., 1967. Subtidal algal recolonisation following removal of Echinus. Helgolander Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, 15, 460-466.

Juanes, F., 2007. Role of habitat in mediating mortality during the post settlement transition phase of temperate marine fishes. Journal of Fish Biology, 70: 661-677.

Juanes, J.A., Guinda, X., Puente, A. and Revilla, J.A., 2008. Macroalage, a suitable indicator of the ecological status of coastal rocky communities in the NE Atlantic. Ecological Indicators 8: 351 - 359

Kain, J. M., 1964. Aspects of the biology of Laminaria hyperborea (L). Survival and growth of gametophytes. J. mar. biol. Ass. UK, 44: 415-433.

Kain, J. M., 1975. The biology of Laminaria hyperborea. VII. Reproduction of the sporophyte. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. UK, 55:567-582.

Kain, J. M., 1979. A view of the genus Laminaria. Oceanography and Marine Biology an Annual Review, 17, 101-161

Kain, J.M. and Jones, N. S. 1969. The biology of Laminaria hyperborea. V. Comparison with early stages of competitors. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 49: 455-473.

Kantrud, H.A., 1991. Wigeongrass ( Ruppia maritima L.): a literature review. [Online.] [Cited Friday, October 19, 2001].

Kelly, E. (ed.), 2005. The role of kelp in the marine environment. Irish Wildlife Manuals, No. 17. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin, Ireland.

Kelly, L., Collier, L., Costello, M. J., Diver, M., McGarvey, S., Kraan, S., Morrissey, J. and Guiry, M. D., 2001. Impact Assessment of Hand and Mechanical Harvesting of Ascophyllum nodosum on Regeneration and Biodiversity. Marine Resource Series, Marine Institute

Kennedy, H., Beggins, J., Duarte, C.M., Fourquean, J.W., Holmer, M., Marbá, N., and Middleburg, J.J., 2010. Seagrass sediments as a global carbon sink: Isotopic constraints. Global Biogeochem Cyc 24:1-8

Kirkman, H., and Kendrick, G.A., 1997. Ecological significant and commercial harvesting of drifting and beach-cast macro-algae and seagrasses in Australia: a review. Journal of Applied Phycology. 9: 311 - 326

Knight, M. and Parke, M., 1950. A biological study of Fucus vesiculosus L. and Fucus serratus L. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 29, 439-514.

Koch, E.W. and Gust, G., 1999. Water flow in tide-and wave-dominated beds of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum. Marine Ecological Progress Series 184:63-72

Koch, M., G. Bowes, C. Ross, and X.-H. Zhang, 2013. Climate change and ocean acidification effects on seagrasses and marine macroalgae. Glob. Change Biol. 19:103-132.

Krause-Jensen, D., Carstensen, J. and Dahl, K. 2007. Total and opportunistic algal cover in relation to environmental variables. Marine Pollution Bulletin,55: 114-125

Krumhansl, K.A. and Scheibling, R.E., 2012. Production and fate of kelp detritus. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 467, pp.281-302.

Laffoley, D. d. A. and Grimsditch, G., 2009. The management of natural coastal carbon sinks. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.

Lancaster, J. (Ed), McCallum, S., Lowe A.C., Taylor, E., Chapman A. and Pomfret, J., 2011. Development of Detailed Ecological Guidance to Support the Application of the Scottish MPA Selection Guidelines in Scotland's seas. Scottish Natural Heritage.

Lancaster, J. (Ed.), McCallum, S., Lowe A.C., Taylor, E., Chapman A. and Pomfret, J., 2014a. Development of detailed ecological guidance to support the application of the Scottish MPA selection guidelines in Scotland's seas. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report No.491. Maerl Beds - supplementary document.

Lancaster, J. (Ed.), McCallum, S., Lowe A.C., Taylor, E., Chapman A. and Pomfret, J., 2014b. Development of detailed ecological guidance to support the application of the Scottish MPA selection guidelines in Scotland's seas. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report No.491. Eelgrass Beds - supplementary document.

Lavery, P., Bootle, S. and Vanderklift, M., 1999. Ecological effects of macroalgal harvesting on beaches in the Peel-Harvey Estuary, Western Australia. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 49: 295-309.

Le Hir, P., Monbet, Y. and Orvain, F., 2007. Sediment erodibility in sediment transport modelling: Can we account for biota effects? Continental Shelf Research 27: 1116-1142.

Lobban, C. and Harrison, P. J., 1994. Seaweed ecology and physiology. Cambridge University Press. 366 p.

Løvås, S.M. and Tørum, A., 2001. Effect of the kelp Laminaria hyperborea upon sand dune erosion and water particle velocities. Coastal Engineering, 44(1), pp.37-63.

Lowe, R.J., Koseff, J.R., Monismith, S.G., 2005. Oscillatory flow through submerged canopies: 1. Velocity structure. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 110: C10016.

Luhar, M., Coutu, S., Infantes, E., Fox, S., Nepf, H., 2010. Wave-induced velocities inside a model seagrass bed. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 115: C12005.

MacDonald, D.S., Little, M., Eno, N.C. and Hiscock, K., 1996. Disturbance of benthic species by fishing activities: a sensitivity index. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 6(4): 257-268.

Madsen, J.D., Chambers, P.A., James, W.F., Koch, E.W. and Westlake, D.F., 2001. The interaction between water movement, sediment dynamics and submersed macrophytes. Hydrobiologia 444: 71-84.

Mann, K. H. 1972. Ecological energetics of the seaweed zone in a marine bay on the Atlantic coast of Canada: I. Zonation and biomass of seaweeds. Mar. Biol. 12:1-10.

Mann, K. H., 1973. Seaweeds: Their productivity and strategy for growth. Science. 182: 975 - 983

Mann, K. H., 1977. Destruction of kelp-beds by sea urchins: a cyclical phenomenon or irreversible degradation? Helgoland wiss Meeresunters 30:455-467.

Mann, K. H., 1982. Ecology of coastal waters: a systems approach: University of California Pr.

Marine Scotland, 2011. Scotland's Marine Atlas: Information for The National Marine Plan, pg 189.

Marine Scotland, 2013. Management Proposals of Inshore Fisheries Groups Strategic Environmental Assessment. Environmental Report, August 2013 [Online]
Available from: http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0043/00430277.pdf
[Accessed 10/05/16].

Marine Scotland, 2015. Wild Seaweed Harvesting Strategic Environmental Assessment Scoping Report. November 2015.

McHugh, D.J., 2003. A guide to the seaweed industry. Fao Fisheries Technical Paper 441. Food And Agriculture Organization Of The United Nations Rome, 2003

McLaughlin, E., Kelly, J., Birkett, D., Maggs, C. and Dring, M., 2006. Assessment of the Effects of Commercial Seaweed Harvesting on Intertidal and Subtidal Ecology in Northern Ireland. Environment and Heritage Service Research and Development Series. No. 06/26.

Mclachlan, J. and Bidwell, R. G. 1978. Photosynthesis of eggs, sperm, zygotes and embryos of Fucus serratus. Can. J. Bot., 56: 371-373.

McMath, A., Cooke, A., Jones, M., Emblow, C.S., Wyn, G., Roberts, S., Costello, M.J., Cook, B. and Sides, E.M., 2000. Sensitivity Mapping Of inshore marine biotopes in the southern Irish Sea (SensMap): Final report. Report by the Countryside Council for Wales ( CCW), Ecological Consultancy Services Ltd (Ecoserve), Dúchas, the Heritage Service.

McRoy, C.P. and McMillan, C., 1977. Productivity ecology and physiology of seagrasses. In Seagrass Ecosytem, edited by C. P . McRoy and C. Helfferich. New York: Dekker, 53 - 88

Mellors, J., Marsh, H., Carruthers, T.J.B and Waycott, M., 2002: 71(3): 1215-1226. [online]
Available at: http://www.helenemarsh.com/publications/JournalPapers/2002/Mellors%20et%20al%202002%20Bul.%20of%20Mar.%20Sci.%2071.pdf
[accessed 19/05/16]

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment ( MEA), 2005. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Ecosystems and Human Wellbeing Biodiversity Synthesis. Washington DC: Island Press;2005.

Moksnes, P-O., 2002. The relative importance of habitat - specific settlement, predation and juvenile dispersal for distribution and abundance of young juvenile shore crabs, Carcinus maenas. Journal of experimental marine biology and ecology. 271 (1): 41.

Mollison, D., 1983. Wave energy losses in intermediate depths. Applied Ocean Research 5(4): 234-237

Mork, M., 1996. The effect of kelp in wave damping. Sarsia 80: 323-327.

Nacken, M. and K. Reise., 2000. Effects of herbivorous birds on intertidal seagrass beds in the northern Wadden Sea. Helgoland Marine Research, 54: 87-94.

Natural England, 2014. Seaweed Harvesting. Natural England's Advice. July 2014

Nellemann, C., Corcoran, E., Duarte, C.M., Valdés, L., DeYoung, C., Fonseca, L. and Grimsditch, G., 2009. Blue Carbon. A Rapid Response Assessment, United Nations Environment Programme, GRID-Arendal.

Netalgae, 2012. Seaweed Industry in Europe: A Guide to Better Practice. An output of the Netalgae Project. [online]
Available at: http://www.netalgae.eu/uploadedfiles/Guide_8p_UK.pdf
[accessed 19/05/16].

Nielsen, S.L., Sand-Jensen, K., Borum, J., and Geertz-Hansen, O., 2002. Depth Colonization of Eelgrass ( Zostera marina) and Macroalgae as Determined by Water Transparency in Danish Coastal Waters. Estuaries, 25, 1025-1032.

Norderhaug, K.M. and Christie, H.C., 2009. Sea urchin grazing and kelp re-vegetation in the NE Atlantic. Marine Biology Research, 5(6), pp.515-528.

Norderhaug, K. M., Fredriksen, S. and Nygaard, K., 2003. Trophic importance of Laminaria hyperborea to kelp forest consumers and the importance of bacterial degradation to food quality. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 255:135-144

North, W., 1971. Growth of individual fronds of the mature giant kelp, Macroystis. In The Biology of giant kelp beds (Macroystis) in California, edited by W. North. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia Heft 32, Verlag von J. Cramer, 123 - 168

Norton, T.A., and Powell H.T., 1979. Seaweeds and rocky shores of the Outer Hebrides. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 77B, 141-153.

Norton, T.A. 1992. Dispersal by macroalgae, British Phycological Journal, 27:3, 293-301, DOI: 10.1080/00071619200650271

Nybakken, J.W., 2001. Marine Biology: An Ecological Approach. Fifth Edition. Benjamin Cummings. 516pp.

Orfanidis, S., Panayotidis, P. and Stamatis, N., 2001. Ecological evaluation of transitional and coastal waters: a marine benthic macrophytes based model. Mediterranean Marine Sci. 2/2, 45-65.

Orr, K.K., 2013. Predicting the ecosystem effects of harvesting beach-cast kelp for biofuel. PhD thesis. University of Aberdeen.

OSPAR, 2010. background document for maerl beds. Report prepared by J. M., Hall-Spencer, J. Kelly, C.A. Maggs for the Department of the Environment, Heritage & Local Government ( DoEHLG), Ireland as lead country.
Available on-line at http://qsr2010.ospar.org/media/assessments/Species/P00491_maerl.pdf

OSPAR, 2009. Background Document for Intertidal mudflats.
Available on-line at http://www.ospar.org/documents?v=7186

Paul, M., Bouma, T.J. and Amos., C.L., 2012. Wave attenuation by submerged vegetation: combining the effect of organism traits and tidal current. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 444: 31-41.

Peterken, C.J. and Conacher, C.A., 1997. Seed germination and recolonisation of Zostera capricorni after grazing by dugongs. Aquatic Botany, 59(3), pp.333-340.

Peterson, C.H., Summerson, H.C. and Fegley, S.R., 1987. Ecological consequences of mechanical harvesting of clams. Fishery Bulletin 85:281-298.

Philippart, C.J.M., 1994. Interactions between Arenicola marina and Zostera noltii on a tidal flat in the Wadden Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series

Phillips, R.C., & Menez, E.G., 1988. Seagrasses. Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences, no. 34.

Preen, A., 1995. Impacts of dugong foraging on seagrass habitats: observational and experimental evidence for cultivation grazing. Marine Ecology Progress Series 124: 201-213. [online]
Available at: http://www.int-res.com/articles/meps/111/m111p251.pdf
[accessed on 19/05/16].

Raffaelli, D., Hull, S. and Milne, H., 1989. Long-term changes in nutrients, weed mats and shorebirds in an estuarine system. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 30: 259-270.

Raffaelli, D.G., Raven, J.A. and Poole, L.J., 1998. Ecological impact of green macroalgal blooms. Oceanography and Marine Biololgy: an Annual Review 36: 97-125.

Reed, B.J. and Hovel, K.A., 2006. Seagrass habitat disturbance: how loss and fragmentation of eelgrass Zostera marina influences epifaunal abundance and diversity. Marine Ecology Progress Series 326:133-143.

Reid JB, Evans PGH, Northridge SP., 2003. Atlas of Cetacean distribution in north-west European waters, 76 pages, colour photos, maps. Paperback, ISBN 1 86107 550 2.

Rennie, A.F., and Hansom, J.D., 2011. Sea level trend reversal: Land uplift outpaced by sea level rise on Scotland's coast. Geomorphology 125: 193-202.

Reynolds, P.L. no date. Seagrass and Seagrass Beds. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History: Ocean Portal (web page).
Available from: http://ocean.si.edu/seagrass-and-seagrass-beds.

RSPB Machair LIFE+, 2014a. Machair LIFE+ Project Final Technical Report.
Available from: http://www.machairlife.org.uk/Machair_LIFE-Final_Technical_Report.pdf
[Accessed 15/6/16]

RSPB Machair LIFE+, 2014b. Conserving Scottish Machair LIFE+ Project Layman's Report - Booklet 1/3.
Available from: http://www.machairlife.org.uk/machair-life-crofting-booklet.pdf
[Accessed 15/6/16]

Scheibling, R.E. and Gagnon, P., 2006. Competitive interactions between the invasive green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides and native canopy-forming seaweeds in Nova Scotia(Canada). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 325: 1-14.

SCOS, 2013. Scientific Advice on Matters Related to the Management of Seal Populations: 2013. Report by SMRU, St. Andrew's University.

Scott, S. 1993. British kelp forests. British Wildlife, 4: 163-175.

Scottish Executive, 2001. Flora Celtica: Sustainable Development Of Scottish Plants [Online]
Available at: www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/156712/0042122.pdf
[accessed 10/02/2016]

Scottish Government, 2012. Climate Change and Ocean Acidification [Online]
Available from: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/marine/science/atlas/climatechange
[Accessed 11/05/16].

Seitz, R. D., Wennhage, H., Bergstro¨m, U., Lipcius, R. N., and Ysebaert, T., 2013. Ecological value of coastal habitats for commercially and ecologically important species. ICES Journal of Marine Science. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fst152.

Seitz, R.D., Wennhage, H., Bergstrom, U., Lipcius, R.N., and Ysebaert, T. 2014. Ecological value of coastal habitats for commercially and ecologically important species. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 71: 648-665.
Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283403388_Quantitative_value_of_coastal_habitats_for_exploited_species
[Accessed 15/6/16].

Short, F.T. and Neckles, H.A., 1999. The effects of global climate change on seagrasses. Aquatic Botany, 63(3), pp.169-196.

Sjøtun, K., Christie, H. and Fosså, J.H., 2000. Ressursgrunnlag for taretråling og gjenvekst etter prøvetråling i Sør-Trøndelag.

Sjøtun, K., Christie, H. and Fosså, J.H, 2006. The combined effect of canopy shading and sea urchin grazing on recruitment in kelp forest ( Laminaria hyperborea). Marine Biology Research, 2(01): 24-32.

Sjøtun, K., Fredriksen, S., Lein, T.E., Rueness, J. and Sivertsen, K., 1993. Population studies of Laminaria hyperborea from its northern range of distribution in Norway. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium, 14: 215-221.

Sjøtun, K., Fredriksen, S., and Rueness, J., 1996. Seasonal growth and carbon and nitrogen content in canopy and first-year plants of Laminaria hyperborea ( Laminariales, Phaeophyceae). Phycologica 35: 1-8.

Sjøtun, K. and Lorentsen, S-H., 2000. Kelp forest ( Laminaria hyperborea) as habitat for juvenile gadoids. Poster presented at the 3rd European Phycological Congress, Belfast, North-Ireland, 21-26 July, 2003.

Smale, D.A., Burrows, M.T., Evans, A.J., King, N., Sayer, M.D.J., Yunnie, L.E. and Moore, P.J., 2016. Linking environmental variables with regional-scale variability in ecological structure and standing stock of carbon within UK kelp forests. Marine Ecology Progress Series 542: 79-95

Smale, D.A., Burrows, M.T., Moore, P., O'Connor, N. and Hawkins, S.J., 2013. Threats and knowledge gaps for ecosystem services provided by kelp forests: a northeast Atlantic perspective. Ecology and Evolution, 3(11): 4016-4038.

Smith, B. D., 1985. Recovery following experimental harvesting of Laminaria longicruris and Laminaria digitata in South Western of Nova Scotia. Helgolander Meeres Untersuchungen, 39: 83-101

Sniffer, 2006. A Handbook of Climate Trends Across Scotland, [Online]
Available from: http://www.sniffer.org.uk/files/5513/4183/8003/CC03_1_Handbook.pdf
[Accessed 11/05/16]

SNH, undated. Scottish Kelp Plants [online]
Available at: http://www.snh.org.uk/publications/on-line/livinglandscapes/kelp/kelpplandts.asp
[accessed 18/03/2016]

SNH, undated. Seagrass beds [online]
Available at: http://www.snh.gov.uk/docs/B1000612.pdf
[accessed 08/02/2016]

SNH, 2015a. Trend Note: Trends of Otters in Scotland. Prepared using evidence from the Otter Survey of Scotland by Leonie Alexander and Melanie Findlay. Number 023, November 2015. [online]
Available at: http://www.snh.gov.uk/docs/A1794619.pdf
[accessed 19/05/16].

SNH, 2015b. Maerl - A Rocky Seaweed [Online]
Available at: http://www.snh.gov.uk/about-scotlands-nature/species/algae/marine-algae/maerl/
[accessed 10/02/16]

SNH, 2016. Seaweed Harvesting [online]
Available at: http://www.snh.gov.uk/land-and-sea/managing-coasts-and-sea/seaweed-harvesting/
[accessed 18/05/16]

Stamp, T.E. and Hiscock, K., 2015. Grazed Laminaria hyperborea forest with coralline crusts on upper infralittoral rock. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.
Available from: http://www.marlin.ac.uk/habitat/detail/333
[accessed 18.02.16]

Steen, H., 2010. Undersøkelser i forbindelse med prøvehøsting av stortare i Nord-Trøndelag 2010.

Steen, H., Bodvin, T. and Moy, F., 2013. Effekter av tarehøsting på fisk og skalldyr Nord-Trøndelag 2012.

Steen, H., Husa, V., Bodvin, T., Moy, F., Hansen, H.Ø., Sannæs, H. and Bosgraaf, S., 2014. Undersøkelser av stortarehøsting i Nordland i 2014.

Steen, H., Bodvin, T., Moy, F., Sannæs, H. and Hansen, H.Ø., 2015. Undersøkelser av stortarehøsting i Nordland i 2015.

Steller, D.L., Riosmena-Rodriguez, R, Foster, M.S. and Roberts, C.A., 2003. Rhodolith bed diversity in the Gulf of California: the importance of rhodolith structure and consequences of disturbance. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 13: S5-S20.

Steneck, R.S., Graham, M.H., Bourque, B.J., Corbett, D., Erlandson, J.M., Estes, J.A. and Tegner, M.J., 2002. Kelp forest ecosystems: biodiversity, stability, resilience and future. Environmental conservation, 29(04): 436-459.

Stroud, DA, Chambers, D, Cook, S, Buxton, N, Fraser, B, Clement, P, Lewis, P, McLean, I, Baker, H & Whitehead, S (eds)., 2001. The UK SPA network: its scope and content. JNCC, Peterborough.

Subrahmanyan, R., 1960. Ecological Studies on the Fucales. Part 1 Pelvetia canaliculata. Journal of the Indian Botanical Society, 39: 614-630 cited in White, N., 2008a In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.
Available from: http://www.marlin.ac.uk/species/detail/1342
[accessed 11/02/16]

The Minch Project website. Littoral seaweed resource management. [Online]
Available at: http://www.cne-siar.gov.uk/minch/seaweed/seaweed.htm#TopOfPage
[Accessed 24/5/16]

The Orkney Sheep Foundation, 2016. The Sheep. [online]
Available at: http://www.theorkneysheepfoundation.org.uk/the-sheep/
[accessed on 19/05/16].

The Scottish Government, 2011. Consultation on Seal Haul-Out Sites.
Available from: http://www.gov.scot/Resource/Doc/347210/0115571.pdf

The Scottish Government, 2013. Environmental Assessment (Scotland) Act 2005. Seaweed Policy Statement Consultation Document: Environmental Report. August 2013.

Tillin, H.M., Hull, S.C. and Tyler-Walters, H., 2010. Development of a Sensitivity Matrix (pressures- MCZ/ MPA features). Report to the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs from ABPmer, Southampton and the Marine Life Information Network ( MarLIN) Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the UK. .Defra Contract No. MB0102 Task 3A, Report No. 22.

Tollit, D., Black, A., Thompson, P., Mackay, A., Corpe, H., Wilson, B., Parijs, S., Grellier, K., and Parlane, S., 1998. Variations in harbour seal phoca vitulina diet and dive depths in relation to foraging habitat. Journal of Zoology, 244(2):209-222.

Tubbs, C. R., and Tubbs, J.M., 1983. The distribution of Zostera and its exploitation by wildfowl in the Solent, southern England. Aquat. Bot., 15: 223-239

Tyler, P., 1994. Ascophyllum harvesting in the Outer Hebrides. Unpublished MSc Thesis, Heriot-Watt University.

Tyler-Walters, H. and Wilding, C.M., 2008a. Zostera noltii beds in upper to mid shore muddy sand. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.
Available from: http://www.marlin.ac.uk/habitatsensitivity.php?habitatid=318&code=2004
[accessed 11/02/2016]

Tyler-Walters, H. and Wilding, C.M., 2008b. Zostera marina/angustifolia beds in lower shore or infralittoral clean or muddy sand. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 26 & 27/03/2010].
Available from: http://www.marlin.ac.uk/habitatecology.php?

UK Climate Projections, 2009. UKCP09 scientific reports.
Available at: http://ukclimateprojections.metoffice.gov.uk/
[accessed 09/02/2016]

UK NEA, 2011. UK National Ecosystem Assessment (2011) The UK National Ecosystem Assessment: Synthesis of the Key Findings. UNEP- WCMC, Cambridge.

UKCIP, 2010. UKCP09 sea level change estimates [Online]
Available at: http://www.ukcip.org.uk/wordpress/wp-content/PDFs/UKCIP_sea-level.pdf
[Accessed 20/05/16]

UKCIP, 2011. Recent Climate Trends [Online]
Available from: http://www.ukcip.org.uk/essentials/climate-trends/
[Accessed 8/2/2013]

Unsworth, R.K.F and Cullen-Unsworth, L.C., 2015. Pen Llŷn a'r Sarnau Special Area of Conservation ( SAC) Porthdinllaen Seagrass Project: A review of current knowledge

van Katwijk, M.M. Bos, A.R., Hermus, D.C.R. and Suykerbuyk, W., 2010. Sediment modification by seagrass beds: Muddificiation and sandification induced by plant cover and environmental conditions. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 89: 175 - 181

van Keulen, M., and Borowitzka, M.A., 2002. Comparison of water velocity profiles through morphologically dissimilar seagrasses measured with a simple and inexpensive current meter. Bull Mar Sci 71: 1257-1267.

Vanderklift, M. A. and Wernberg, T., 2008. Detached kelps from distant sources are a food subsidy for sea urchins. Oecologia, 157: 327-335.

Vasquez, J., 2008. Production, use and fate of Chilean brown seaweeds: re-sources for a sustainable fishery. Journal of Applied Phycology. 20: 457-467.

Vea, J. and Ask, E., 2011. Creating a sustainable commercial harvest of Laminaria hyperborea, in Norway. Journal of Applied Phycology, 23(3): 489-494. Check spelling in text

Verhoeven, J.T.A. and van Vierssen, W., 1978. Distribution and structure of communities dominated by Ruppia, Zostera and Potamogeton species in the inland waters of 'De Bol', Texel, The Netherlands. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science, 6: 417-428.

Vetter, E. W. and Dayton, P. K., 1998. Macrofaunal communities within and adjacent to a detritus-rich submarine canyon system. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 45: 25-54.

Vonk, J.A., Christianen, M.J. and Stapel, J., 2010. Abundance, edge effect, and seasonality of fauna in mixed-species seagrass meadows in southwest Sulawesi, Indonesia. Marine Biology Research, 6(3): 282-291.

Waage-Nielsen, E., Christie, H. and Rinde, E., 2003. Short-term dispersal of kelp fauna to cleared (kelp-harvested) areas. Hydrobiologia, 503: 77-91

Walker F.T., 1947. A seaweed survey of Scotland - Fucaceae (April 1945-December 1946). Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 159 (2): 90-99.

Walker, F. T. and Richardson, W. D., 1955. An ecological investigation of Laminaria cloustoni edm. (L.hyperborea Fosl.) around Scotland. Journal of Ecology, 43, 26-38.

Wallenstein, F.M., Neto, A.I., Patarra, R.F., Prestes, A.C.L., Alvaro, N.V., Rodrigues, A.S. and Wilkinson, M., 2013. Indices to monitor coastal ecological quality of rocky shores based on seaweed communities: simplification for wide geographical use. Journal of Integrated Coastal Zone Management. 13(1):15-25

Warner, G.F., 1984. Diving and Marine Biology. The Ecology of the Sublittoral. Cambridge Studies in Modern Biology, no. 3, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Water Framework Directive ( WFD) UK TAG, 2014. UKTAG Transitional Water Assessment Method Macroalgae. Fucoid Extent Tool. ISBN: 978-1-906934-38-5. [Online]
Available at: http://www.wfduk.org/sites/default/files/Media/Characterisation%20of%20the%20water%20environment/Biological%20Method%20Statements/TW%20Macroalgae%20Fucoid%20Extent%20Tool%20UKTAG%20Method%20Statement.PDF
[accessed 11/03/16].

Wells, E., Wilkinson, M., Wood, P., Scanlan, C., and Best, M. 2007a. Water Framework Directive development of classification tools for ecological assessment: Macroalgae Species Richness. Water Framework Directive - United Kingdom Technical Advisory Group ( WFD- UKTAG) [Online]
Available at: http://www.wfduk.org/sites/default/files/Media/Characterisation%20of%20the%20water%20environment/Biological%20Method%20Statements/Intertidal%20Rocky%20Shore%20Macroalgae%20Species%20Richness%20Technical%20Report.pdf
[accessed 12/02/16]

Wells M, Wilkinson M, Wood P, Scanlan C.2007b. The use of macroalgae species richness and composition on intertidal rocky seashores in the assessment of ecological quality under the European Water Framework Directive. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 55, 151-161

Werner, A. and Kraan, S., 2004. Review of the potential mechanisation of kelp harvesting in Ireland. Marine Resource Series, Marine Institute, Dublin

White, N., 2008a. Pelvetia canaliculata Channelled wrack. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.
Available from: http://www.marlin.ac.uk/species/detail/1342
[accessed 11/02/16]

White, N., 2008b. Fucus spiralis Spiral wrack. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 11/02/16]
Available from: http://www.marlin.ac.uk/species/detail/1337

White, N., 2008c. Fucus vesiculosus Bladder wrack. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 11/02/16]
Available from: http://www.marlin.ac.uk/species/detail/1330

Wilkinson, M. 1995. Information review on the impact of kelp harvesting. Scottish Natural Heritage Review, No 34. Scottish Natural Heritage, Edinburgh.

Wilkinson, M., 2001. Phytobenthos. In: Encyclopaedia of Ocean Sciences (J.H.Steele, K.K.Turekian and S.A.Thorpe, editors). Academic Press, London. pp 2172-2179.

Wilkinson, M., 2002. Seaweeds of the Lothians. In: Plant Life of Edinburgh and the Lothians (P.M.Smith, R.O.D.Dixon and M.P.Cochrane, editors). Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. PP 75-83.

Wilkinson, M., Scanlan, C.M. and Tittley, I. 1987. The attached algal flora of the estuary and Firth of Forth. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 93B: 343-354.

Wilkinson, M. and Wood, P., 2003. Type-specific reference conditions for macroalgae and angiosperms in Scottish transitional and coastal waters. Final report - 2003. SEPA project reference 230/4136 157pp.

Wilkinson, M., Wood, P., Wells, E., and Scanlan, C., 2007. Using attached macroalgae to assess ecological status of British estuaries for the European Water Framework Directive. Marine Pollution Bulletin 55 (2007): 136-150.

Wium-Andersen, S., and Borum, J., 1984. Biomass variation and autotrophic production of an epiphyte-macrophyte community in a coastal Danish area: I. Eelgrass ( Zostera marina L.) biomass and net production. Lophelia 23:165-179.

Zieman, J.C., Orth, R., Phillips, R.C., Thayer, G. and Thorhaug, A., 1984. The effects of oil on seagrass ecosystems. In Restoration of habitats impacted by oil spills (ed. J. Cairns & A.L. Buikema Jr.), pp. 37-64. Butterworth, Boston


Back to top