HRH Duke of Edinburgh, 10 June 1921 to 9 April 2021 Read more

Publication - Progress report

Trafficking and exploitation strategy: third annual progress report

Annual progress report and review of the trafficking and exploitation strategy and a report setting out implementation progress in 2019 to 2020.

95 page PDF

561.1 kB

95 page PDF

561.1 kB

Contents
Trafficking and exploitation strategy: third annual progress report
Delivering the Strategy

95 page PDF

561.1 kB

Delivering the Strategy

In Section 3 of the Strategy (Vision, Action Areas and making progress towards our outcomes), specific actions are set out under the headings "In the short term," "In the medium term," and "In the longer term."

This section summarises progress against each of these actions.

Action Area 1

What do we need to improve?

We want people who encounter victims to understand the signs, know what to do and have access to specialist advice and support. Victims have told us that first encounters are crucial and can help or hinder their movement towards recovery.

Progress to date

  • Creation of Police Scotland e-learning DVD for public sector organisations.
  • Standard awareness raising presentation for community groups and anyone with an interest available online.
  • NHS guidance for health workers has been published.
  • Local Authority guidance has been published by COSLA.
  • Appointment of a training officer within TARA.
  • Updated Glasgow City Council guidance for child trafficking survivors.

What do we need to improve?

We need to make clear that support is available through a number of organisations for all adult victims of trafficking recovered in Scotland.

Progress to date

  • Grant funding arrangements in place with TARA and Migrant Help to provide support to all adults of trafficking recovered in Scotland, including substantial increases in 2019/20 and 2020/21.
  • TARA and Migrant Help have legal drop-in clinics available for survivors to receive a range of early legal advice/interventions.
  • NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde are grant funded to provide a psychological trauma service to human trafficking and exploitation survivors.
  • A range of materials have been published, including Police Scotland's "Human Trafficking: Reading the Signs" in a variety of languages and includes contact details for TARA and Migrant Help.
  • Publication of COSLA guidance on No Recourse to Public Funds includes a section specifically relating to victims of human trafficking and exploitation.
  • JustRight Scotland have appointed a human trafficking lawyer to complement existing team and meet demand.
  • TARA-led multi-agency awareness raising sessions delivered across Scotland involving Scottish Guardianship Service and JustRight Scotland.

What do we need to improve?

We need to raise awareness amongst both the public and professionals about the existence of trafficking and exploitation in Scotland.

Progress to date

  • Scottish Government media campaign delivered in 2017 and another planned for later in 2020.
  • Programme of Rah Rah theatre performances in October 2018 and 2019.
  • Child Protection Committee events across Scotland.
  • Police Scotland marketing campaign in 2018.
  • Public Survey results in 2019 and 2020 supports need to raise awareness of human trafficking and exploitation in Scotland.

What do we need to improve?

We need to ensure the victim identification processes in the NRM are fit for purpose and are understood and trusted by victims and others. We want victims to be aware of the support available and trust it enough to ask for help.

Progress to date

  • We have continued to work with UK Government on the reform of the NRM to ensure it meets Scotland's needs.
  • Development of an NRM/First Responder toolkit is ongoing.

What do we need to improve?

We want training to be mainstreamed within services, with appropriate, fit for purpose training available.

Progress to date

  • Police Scotland online training has been undertaken by over 12,000 officers, a network of Human Trafficking Champions operates throughout the organisation, the Human Trafficking Standard Operating Procedure and internal guidance have been updated, and a bespoke training course for human trafficking investigators has also been developed and delivered.
  • COPFS have appointed a National Lead Prosecutor for human trafficking and local leads across country. Training packages for staff includes video from Solicitor General and human trafficking training within the sexual offences awareness raising course.
  • Local Authority/Third Sector training by Hope for Justice across Scotland with more than 100 organisations represented.
  • TARA-led multi-agency awareness raising sessions delivered across Scotland involving Scottish Guardianship Service and JustRight Scotland.

What do we need to improve?

We need coherent and tailored support processes which recognise the trauma that victims have experienced, to facilitate victims' recovery, and build victims' resilience to reduce the likelihood of re-trafficking.

Progress to date

  • Support provision for victims placed on a statutory footing from 1 April 2018, relevant period for support set at 90 days or until a Conclusive Grounds (CG) decision is determined, whichever comes first.
  • Grant funding arrangements in place with TARA and Migrant Help to provide support to victims.
  • NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde also funded to provide psychological trauma service to victims.
  • Aberlour Comic Relief Project to improve outcomes for children affected by abuse and trauma.

What do we need to improve?

We need to consider and clarify what the identification and support processes for the victims of slavery, servitude and forced or compulsory labour should be.

Progress to date

  • Identification and support processes aligned with that for victims of human trafficking from 1 April 2018.

Short Term Actions

The Scottish Government and partners will raise awareness amongst the general public about human trafficking and exploitation by means of a publicity campaign. Victims will be involved in the development of this campaign.

Progress to Date

  • Scottish Government media campaign in 2017 and public surveys since 2017 have highlighted increasing awareness of human trafficking as a result of campaign.
  • Police Scotland's marketing campaign in 2018 hit over 2.5 million viewers across social media platforms.
  • Annual public survey results have been published and have informed media and awareness raising activity.
  • The 2020 public survey has been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic but has been completed with a revised methodology.
  • A Scottish Government media campaign planned for May 2020 has had to be postponed due to COVID-19 but will run later in 2020.

Short Term Actions

The Scottish Government will work with partners to consider how members of the public can report their suspicions in a straightforward way.

Progress to Date

  • All Scottish Government media campaign materials have directed the public to report concerns to the Modern Slavery Helpline. This led to a spike in calls to the Helpline during the 2017 campaign. A similar spike in calls was evident around the Police Scotland campaign in 2018.
  • The Modern Slavery Helpline website includes a webpage giving specific information relevant to Scotland and digital adverts linked directly to this.
  • The Modern Slavery Helpline website also allows for online referrals, and they have released a smartphone app.
  • Crimestoppers also provide a route for anonymous reporting.

Short Term Actions

Members of the Strategy Implementation Group will lead a short-term project to develop an agreed set of materials that could be used by organisations to raise awareness amongst their workforce about human trafficking and exploitation.

Progress to Date

  • A standard awareness raising presentation was developed and placed on the COSLA Migration Scotland website for free download.
  • The presentation has been regularly updated.
  • Police Scotland have also worked with partners to develop an e-learning DVD for professionals, which has been widely distributed.

Short Term Actions

Members of the Strategy Implementation Group will facilitate work to create processes/pathways aligned around victims' needs with clear referral mechanisms and pathways developed within each public sector organisation.

Progress to Date

  • Broad awareness of referral pathways exist through awareness raising activities.
  • New human trafficking guidance for local authority and NHS workers has been published.
  • Further work is needed to define referral mechanisms and pathways across public sector.

Short Term Actions

The Scottish Government and partners will work with non-public-sector organisations to alert them to the likelihood that they may encounter victims in the course of their work.

Progress to Date

  • Action Area 3 and the Corporate Group have led on engagement with non-public-sector bodies, including food and drink industry awareness raising events in Glasgow and Elgin during 2018.
  • Human trafficking guidance for businesses in Scotland has been published.

Short Term Actions

The Scottish Government will publicise the support available during the relevant support period through different organisations to all victims of human trafficking recovered in Scotland and entered into the NRM process.

Progress to Date

  • TARA and Migrant Help grant conditions set out the support available during the relevant period and this is made clear to any victims recovered and who agree to enter into the NRM.
  • This is also highlighted in training materials and during awareness raising sessions.

Short Term Actions

The Scottish Government will continue to work with the Home Office on the review of the NRM process (including as that affects children) and will consider the review recommendations when published.

Progress to Date

  • The Scottish Government supports the stated goals of NRM reform: faster decision making, improved identification of victims and a more child friendly process.
  • We continue to engage with the UK Government to ensure reforms lead to an NRM which works for Scotland and reflects our distinct systems and legislation.
  • The Scottish Government has hosted engagement sessions for Scottish first responders and other stakeholders to feed in their views to the Home Office.

Short Term Actions

First Responders who make referrals to the NRM will establish systems to ensure that victims are fully aware of the process and its implications.

Progress to Date

  • This is set out clearly by TARA, Police Scotland and Migrant Help in discussion with victims when seeking consent.
  • A small sub-group of Action Area 1 are developing a First Responder toolkit to improve the quality of referrals submitted into the NRM.

Short Term Actions

The Scottish Government and NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde will, through The Anchor Service, continue to offer specialist psychological assessment, formulation and therapy as appropriate (and referral to other mental health services if indicated) to all adult victims of human trafficking recovered in Scotland.

Progress to Date

  • Scottish Government have grant funded The Anchor to provide a national psychological service for victims of human trafficking, increasing funding in response to increased number of referrals.
  • Grant arrangements continue in 2020/21.

Short Term Actions

The Scottish Government will continue to develop and refine arrangements for support services that are victim-centred and sensitive to age, gender and culture.

Progress to Date

  • During 2018/19, TARA and Migrant Help undertook a self-evaluation process supported by Evaluation Support Scotland with a focus on the experiences of trafficking survivors to provide additional assurance that they are being effectively and appropriately supported. Key outcomes were identified for each organisation.
  • TARA Recovery Books for survivors are now in operation.
  • TARA organised an independently facilitated service user consultation for clients to feedback on their experiences of support.
  • Migrant Help translate case management and client information paperwork to common languages to improve survivors' access to information, understanding of their rights and feelings of independence.

Short Term Actions

The Scottish Government will consider how victims of slavery, servitude and forced or compulsory labour should be identified and supported.

Progress to Date

  • From 1 April 2018, victims of slavery, servitude and forced or compulsory labour receive identical statutory support to victims of human trafficking.

Short Term Actions

Local public protection committees and partnerships, including those for adult and child protection and violence against women, should also ensure that their policies, training and practice meet current need with regard to human trafficking and exploitation.

Progress to Date

  • Police Scotland's decision to create tactical groups in the three command areas alongside COSLA's human trafficking guidance for local authorities will provide a basis for the development of local partnerships.
  • Further work is needed to ensure effective local partnership working.

Short Term Actions

Support agencies will take an active role in making victims aware and supporting them to claim compensation, where appropriate.

Progress to Date

  • Both Migrant Help and TARA provide drop-in legal clinics to support clients in a range of legal matters, including access to compensation.

Short Term Actions

The Scottish Government will set up a network to provide the opportunity for local specialists to share learning and best practice.

Progress to Date

  • Police Scotland's decision to create tactical groups across Scotland alongside COSLA's human trafficking guidance for local authorities will provide a basis for the development of local partnerships.

Short Term Actions

The Scottish Government will continue to work closely as appropriate with the Independent Anti-Slavery Commissioner on issues that will help to identify victims and support them to safety and recovery.

Progress to Date

  • The office of the IASC are members of the Action Area 1 group and the IASC has undertaken a number of engagements in Scotland since taking up post in May 2019.

Medium Term Actions

Organisations who may encounter victims in the course of their work will establish clear referral mechanisms within their organisation for victims and incidents of human trafficking and exploitation.

Progress to Date

  • Guidance for local authorities has been published by COSLA.
  • Guidance for health workers has been published by the Scottish Government and NHS Health Scotland.
  • Progress has been made towards implementing the duty to notify including pilots with Edinburgh City Council, Border Force and GLAA. A public consultation ran from 16 June to 6 September 2019, the analysis of which has now been published.

Medium Term Actions

Local partnerships will be established or built on to help support victims' longer term and wider needs.

Progress to Date

  • Police Scotland's decision to create tactical groups across Scotland alongside COSLA's human trafficking guidance for local authorities will provide a basis for the development of local partnerships.
  • Further work is needed to strengthen local partnerships.

Medium Term Actions

The Strategy Implementation Group and others will create information sharing pathways and protocols that respect victims' interests and safety.

Progress to Date

  • The Strategy Implementation Group and Action Area 1 supported the development of NHS and local authority guidance.

Medium Term Actions

Organisations should offer appropriate and proportionate training to staff who are likely to encounter victims in the course of their work.

Progress to Date

  • Police Scotland online training has been undertaken by over 12,000 officers and a 4 day investigators course has also been delivered.
  • COPFS have appointed a National Lead Prosecutor for human trafficking, with local leads across the country. Training packages for staff includes a video from the Solicitor General and human trafficking training within the sexual offences awareness raising course.
  • Hope for Justice have delivered local authority/Third Sector training in locations across Scotland with more than 100 organisations represented.
  • TARA-led multi-agency awareness raising sessions delivered across Scotland involving Scottish Guardianship Service and JustRight Scotland.

Medium Term Actions

Organisations should carry out appropriate, regular awareness raising for staff who may encounter victims in the course of their work.

Progress to Date

  • TARA-led multi-agency awareness raising sessions delivered across Scotland involving Scottish Guardianship Service and JustRight Scotland.
  • Hope for Justice have delivered local authority/Third Sector training in locations across Scotland with more than 100 organisations represented.

Long Term Actions

The Scottish Government and other relevant statutory and support organisations will work to develop effective partnerships across the UK and in other countries to continue support to adult victims returning home.

Progress to Date

  • TARA and Police Scotland visited Romania in April 2018, leading to improved outcomes for clients being repatriated. Direct communication between victims and practitioners in their home country was enabled which has allowed links to be developed before their return.
  • Police Scotland participated in a delegation which visited Vietnam in December 2018 and plans are in place for the secondment of Vietnamese officers.
  • Police Scotland and COPFS benefit from good working relationships with counterparts across Europe through Europol and Eurojust and are working to maintain these so far as possible following the UK's departure from the European Union.
  • COPFS continuing engagement with counterparts in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
  • UK-wide bodies including Border Force and GLAA work alongside Scottish bodies to co-ordinate and deliver services in Scotland.

Long Term Actions

The Scottish Government will work with others to create effective communication channels so that victims know where to find help and support. They will ensure that victims' views are reflected to ensure that communications aimed at potential victims are accessible and reduce fear.

Progress to Date

  • Public awareness raising activity has included producing and distributing resources in the native languages of common source countries.
  • The Scottish Government has recently agreed funding for a pilot project to provide targeted outreach and information tools to seasonal workers.
  • SOHTIS have developed a resource for ESOL teachers and a project working alongside frontline service providers who engage with groups at risk of trafficking.

Action Area 2

What do we need to improve?

We need to develop systems to support the duty to notify the police under section 38 of the Act while protecting victims' privacy and safety.

Comments

  • Pilots with City of Edinburgh Council, Border Force and GLAA tested systems and processes between February 2018 and September 2019. A public consultation ran from 16 June to 6 September 2019, the analysis of which has now been published.
  • Migrant Help and TARA worked with the Scottish Government to develop a victim/survivor questionnaire to gain their feedback on Scottish Government plans. Migrant Help interviewed 31 clients and provided translations so that these could be included as part of the DTN consultation.

What do we need to improve?

We want to consider how local authorities and others can use the powers already available to them – for example environmental health, licensing of houses of multiple occupation (HMOs) – to identify perpetrators and disrupt their activity.

Comments

  • COSLA play a key role in implementing the Strategy and work with local authorities to improve action on human trafficking.
  • This includes the development and publication of new human trafficking guidance for local authority workers in October 2019.
  • Dundee City and East Lothian Councils have revised the scope of the Public Entertainment Licensing (PEL) regime to include nail bars. This means that any nail bar will need a PEL in order to operate within the Council boundaries.
  • Lothian and Borders Division have brought together a range of local partners to address particular cases under investigation including the Scottish Fire and Rescue Service (SFRS), Trading Standards, Midlothian Council and the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency.
  • Royal Environmental Health Institute Scotland CPD events offered training for professional bodies.

What do we need to improve?

We must improve how data is collected and analysed so that we can identify trends, inform services and develop tailored plans to tackle trafficking and exploitation.

Comments

  • The implementation of duty to notify will play a key role in strengthening data collection.
  • Police Scotland are considering a restructure of the National Human Trafficking Unit to provide it with an investigative and analytical capability in addition to the strategic co-ordination role that it currently delivers.
  • Other Police Scotland activity in this area has included Operation Encounter (relating to the National Human Trafficking Threat Desk) and the creation of the Code 17 Storm Marker for human trafficking calls to 101 in 2019.

What do we need to improve?

We want intelligence to be shared between local partners in Scotland and with other countries where appropriate, so that patterns of trafficking can be identified and appropriate solutions put in place.

Comments

  • Police Scotland is trialling a new partners intelligence portal in North Region.
  • Police Scotland will continue to benefit significantly from Europol membership until end of 2020 and are working to mitigate the impact of Brexit after this.
  • Rail networks can facilitate trafficking both within Scotland and cross border. BTP are working with Police Scotland to raise awareness of rail links particularly where tickets are located when someone presents or during house searches relating to trafficking or County Lines. The data that can be pulled from tickets can identify travel routes, payment methods and ultimately those responsible for facilitation.
  • Migrant Help have been assisting Police Scotland by providing information and data on Vietnamese clients, and have facilitated clients being re-interviewed for intelligence gathering purposes.

What do we need to improve?

Police Scotland, prosecutors and the courts will, where appropriate, make full use of the orders and powers available to them to disrupt activity and seize assets wherever trafficking or exploitation occurs.

Comments

  • Police Scotland have developed and circulated new guidance for officers.
  • COPFS and Police Scotland are working to identify how increased use could be made of the confiscation of property powers under the Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Scotland) Act 2015.

What do we need to improve?

We will consider whether awareness raising is needed for those who work in the criminal justice system and, if so, how that can be provided.

Comments

  • Police Scotland have developed and rolled out e-learning on human trafficking to over 12,000 officers.
  • COPFS has delivered training for Fiscal Deputes.
  • Police Scotland NHTU presented at an event hosted by the Judicial Institute.
  • Scottish Government officials presented at a meeting of Edinburgh Criminal Justice Social Workers.
  • British Transport Police have undertaken human trafficking training appropriate to Scotland.
  • In September, Migrant Help presented at the National Human Trafficking Conference at the Scottish Police College, raising awareness of how Migrant Help supports potential victims of human trafficking. The presentations also covered how to identify indicators of human trafficking.

What do we need to improve?

We want successful actions to be publicised, to send the message that Scotland is a country that is hostile to human trafficking and exploitation.

Comments

  • The Scottish Government human trafficking newsletter is issued on a bi-annual basis, highlighting good practice and positive action.
  • Police Scotland NHTU run an annual conference on human trafficking, highlighting successful operations.
  • The multi-agency communications group provides a forum for joint planning of messaging and making the most of opportunities to publicise anti-trafficking activity.

Short Term Actions

The Scottish Government will take forward work in relation to the duty to notify, ensuring those with a duty are clear on what they have to do. We will ensure that process protects victims' human rights and that the information gained is helpful in breaking the cycle of trafficking and exploitation.

Progress to Date

  • Public consultation on duty to notify opened on 16 June 2019 and ran until 6 September.
  • The responses and an analysis have now been published online. These show strong support for proposals in consultation paper.
  • The Scottish Government will work with partners to implement the duty but timescales have been impacted by COVID-19.

Short Term Actions

The Scottish Government will work with agencies not directly covered by the duty to notify (including UK-wide agencies ) to ensure that full use is made of their knowledge and expertise.

Progress to Date

  • The proposed approach to duty to notify is to develop non-statutory agreements with relevant bodies that cannot be named in the duty.
  • This approach was piloted with Border Force and GLAA.
  • Responses to the consultation showed support for this approach.

Short Term Actions

Police Scotland and COPFS will apply for the new court orders available (Trafficking and Exploitation Prevention Orders (TEPO) and Trafficking and Exploitation Risk Orders (TERO)) where appropriate to disrupt trafficking and exploitation.

Progress to Date

  • New guidance for Police Scotland officers in respect of TEPOs and TEROs has been developed.
  • Annual progress reports provide updates on the number of TEPOs and TEROs that have been granted.

Short Term Actions

The Scottish Government will seek to facilitate accurate collection and sharing of data that can inform the development of local services and processes.

Progress to Date

  • The duty to notify also places a duty on Police Scotland to share information with other bodies, and processes for this will be developed as part of implementation.

Short Term Actions

Police Scotland will appropriately record and investigate all reports of trafficking or exploitation as a crime.

Progress to Date

  • Police Scotland NHTU monitor compliance to ensure that crime reports are recorded. Local crime managers comply with Scottish Crime Recording Standards and all human trafficking crimes are recorded. Intelligence is also recorded as appropriate.
  • Police Scotland has introduced a new human trafficking call type to its call recording system.
  • Police Scotland has participated in UK-wide Operation Aidant activity and information sharing following on from these operations.
  • Police Scotland has developed a memorandum of understanding with the Modern Slavery Helpline.

Short Term Actions

Appropriate awareness raising will be considered for those who work in the criminal justice system, so that they have the knowledge of this kind of offending. COPFS will continue to assess and develop the role of the specialist human trafficking prosecutors as appropriate.

Progress to Date

  • Police Scotland has produced internal and external training material. With assistance of the Scottish Government this training material is being distributed to external partners to raise awareness.
  • NHTU continue to provide one to one training to external agencies.
  • Moodle training developed and in place for police officers. External partners (social work/National Health Service/Scottish Fire and Rescue Service/Scottish Ambulance Service) have been provided with copies of external training material. Network of champions established throughout Police Scotland and HT champions established with COPFS in respect of HT cases reported to them.
  • Police Scotland Standard Operating Procedure and Internal Guidance has been updated.
  • Police Scotland run a four day investigators course.
  • Training to COPFS staff during sexual offences awareness raising course.

Short Term Actions

The Scottish Government and partners will work together to ensure that convictions and victims' experiences are publicised in Scotland, the UK and beyond, while ensuring that this publicity does not compromise the safety of victims or their families.

Progress to Date

  • Bi-annual Scottish Government human trafficking newsletters pick this up.
  • The Annual Strategy Progress Reports provide case studies and reflect the voices of victims and survivors.
  • Arrests and convictions related to human trafficking continue to be promoted through usual media outlets to raise awareness and increase confidence in reporting amongst public.
  • The joint communications group provides a forum for coordination of messages.

Medium Term Actions

Police Scotland and COPFS, where it is appropriate and possible, will ensure that an application for a JIT is submitted to Eurojust. Successful operations to apprehend perpetrators in and with other countries will mean an effective use of resources, as well as improved learning and co-operation across countries. This will also contribute to a more robust picture of trafficking in Scotland.

Progress to Date

  • Police Scotland work closely with European partners and directly support Slovakian, Romanian and PSNI police forces, through formal JIT processes.
  • Police Scotland's engagement with Europol allows high quality intelligence sharing through SIENA.
  • Police Scotland have a team looking to mitigate the impact of Brexit on European investigations.
  • Following the successful secondment of Romanian officers, secondment of Vietnamese officers has been agreed but delayed due to COVID-19.

Medium Term Actions

The Scottish Government will set up a group to review how data is collected by different agencies, to ensure that data collected is useful and coherent, and to create a comprehensive picture of data collection with regard to human trafficking and exploitation in Scotland.

Progress to Date

  • A human trafficking analyst, in collaboration with NHTU officers, set up a new recording system for enquiries and referrals ensuring statistical data and intelligence is both accurate and accessible for reporting and analysis. The analyst produces a bi-monthly threat assessment reviewing intelligence, responses and results in relation to potential human trafficking and exploitation in Scotland. This also informs the annual multi-agency strategic assessment and is shared with the Joint Slavery and Trafficking Analysis Centre (JSTAC).

Long Term Actions

Police Scotland and COPFS will develop closer working relationships with organisations in source/transit countries, where appropriate.

Progress to Date

  • Romanian officers seconded to Police Scotland.
  • Trip to Romania in April 2018 for TARA and Police Scotland.
  • Police Scotland visit to Vietnam as part of wider delegation visit in 2018.
  • Romanian officers assisted Border Force at Glasgow Airport during days of action.
  • Border Force Operation Outrun - a joint operation using profiling to identify Eastern European females vulnerable to sexual exploitation at Glasgow Airport.
  • The Cabinet Secretary for Justice chaired an international round table with NGOs in November 2019 to explore longer term steps on international action.

Long Term Actions

The Scottish Government will aim to ensure that the benefits of cross-border co-operation between criminal justice agencies within the EU and beyond are maintained as set out in Scotland's Place in Europe.

Progress to Date

  • This is a key focus for Police Scotland, COPFS and the Scottish Government in managing the impact of Brexit in particular.

Action Area 3

What do we need to improve?

We need to tackle the causes of poverty and inequality, including gender inequality, in Scotland to address the vulnerability of people to being trafficked and exploited.

Comments

  • A gender pay gap action plan was published in March 2019.
  • Wider work under the Fairer Scotland Action Plan to address poverty has included the launch of a new Financial Health Check service, delivered by the Citizen's Advice network, and introduction of the Fairer Scotland Duty on public bodies.

What do we need to improve?

We want people to know about the extent of trafficking and exploitation and its impact in Scotland.

Comments

  • Public survey results each year show increasing awareness of trafficking but most people still do not realise its extent in local communities in Scotland.
  • A Scottish Government marketing campaign in 2017 had a key message that human trafficking is happening in Scotland, and had significant impact and reach.
  • A further campaign planned for 2020 has been pushed back because of the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Police Scotland and other partners have delivered their own awareness raising campaigns.
  • A joint communications planning group has been established to co-ordinate approaches.

What do we need to improve?

We want to inform the public, encouraging them to question and reject the exploitation of other human beings.

Comments

  • Public survey results have shown increases in the number of respondents saying that they would report concerns about trafficking to the police.
  • Awareness raising activity has included a call to action to report concerns through the Modern Slavery Helpline, resulting in increased calls from Scotland.

What do we need to improve?

We want the public to be aware that what they buy and from whom they buy it could contribute to this crime.

Comments

  • Guidance for Businesses in Scotland launched on 18 October 2018.
  • Direct contact with high profile Scottish firms that had not published a Modern Slavery Statement has increased compliance.
  • A question about consumer awareness and responsibility was added to the annual public survey in 2019, and responses suggest that people think this is important but lack information about how to make informed purchasing decisions.

What do we need to improve?

We want individuals or communities assessed as being at risk of trafficking or exploitation to get help to increase their resilience.

Comments

  • The Scottish Government has recently agreed funding for a pilot project to provide targeted outreach and information tools to seasonal workers.
  • The Serious Organised Crime Taskforce has taken forward work within at risk communities.

What do we need to improve?

We want to consider how tailored prevention efforts could be used with communities assessed as being at risk of human trafficking.

Comments

  • As above.

What do we need to improve?

We want victims to get support and understanding from the wider community

Comments

  • Awareness raising activity has highlighted the impact on victims, and survivor engagement has been a key element of Strategy development and implementation.

What do we need to improve?

We want to work across the Scottish Government to seek to ensure that other strategies and initiatives take account of human trafficking and exploitation.

Comments

Links have been made to other Scottish Government policy areas including:

  • New Scots Strategy.
  • Equally Safe.
  • Serious and Organised Crime.
  • Homelessness.
  • Procurement.
  • Social Security .
  • Fair Work.

Short Term Actions

The Scottish Government will take forward the key actions in the Fairer Scotland Action Plan.

Progress to Date

  • Significant progress has been made, and is set out in detail in annual progress reports on the Fairer Scotland Action Plan.

Short Term Actions

The Scottish Government will consult on a Delivery Plan for Equally Safe with work streams focusing on Primary Prevention, Capacity and Capability, Justice and Accountability.

Progress to Date

  • Significant progress has been made and is set out in detail in annual update reports on the Equally Safe Delivery Plan.

Short Term Actions

The Serious Organised Crime Strategy will address issues such as trafficking and exploitation that blight communities by working with schools, the third sector and other partners to raise awareness of the links with serious organised crime. Key partners on the Serious Organised Crime Taskforce such as Police Scotland will also work collaboratively and share information that will help detect, prosecute and disrupt those seeking to benefit from human trafficking and exploitation.

Progress to Date

  • Action on trafficking is an important element of the work of the Serious Organised Crime Taskforce.
  • Significant progress has been made in implementing the Serious Organised Crime Strategy, which is set out in detail in annual progress reports.

Short Term Actions

The Scottish Government will support UK-wide activity around the "transparency in supply chains" (TISC) duty and will develop specific guidance for businesses in Scotland around trafficking and exploitation and other human rights issues in their supply chains.

Progress to Date

  • A corporate group was established to draw in and empower business partners to play a role.
  • Human trafficking guidance for Businesses in Scotland was developed with the corporate group and launched on 18 October 2018.
  • The Cabinet Secretary for Justice wrote to eight high profile companies operating in Scotland that did not have a Trafficking and Slavery Statement. This led to improved compliance.
  • The national sustainable procurement tools and guidance have been revised and enhanced to cover human trafficking.
  • Engagement and awareness raising with business stakeholders has been taken forward by the corporate group.
  • The Scottish Government and partners have worked with the Home Office on compliance with the Modern Slavery Act 2015, and on the consultation on reforming the provisions around TISC.

Short Term Actions

The Scottish Government will raise awareness to ensure that human trafficking and exploitation is reflected appropriately in policies and guidance

Progress to Date

  • The second New Scots refugee integration strategy was published in January 2018.
  • On 26 April 2019 a new non-mandatory civic licensing regime for sexual entertainment venues (SEV) came into force.
  • Dundee City and East Lothian Councils have revised the scope of the Public Entertainment Licensing (PEL) regime to include nail bars. This means that any nail bar will need a PEL in order to operate within the Council boundaries.
  • COSLA and NHS human trafficking guidance developed and launched.

Medium Term Actions

The Scottish Government will consider what action is needed to ascertain how trafficking and exploitation affects Scotland to contribute to a greater understanding of its impact on Scottish society.

Progress to Date

  • Annual public awareness surveys have been carried out in 2017, 2018, 2019, and 2020.
  • The National Referral Mechanism statistics are published on a quarterly basis.

Medium Term Actions

The Scottish Government and partners will develop an awareness raising programme around proactive steps the public can take to help eradicate trafficking and exploitation, encouraging them to think about how what they buy and who they buy it from could contribute to this crime.

Progress to Date

  • Scottish Government marketing campaign in 2017 People Should Not Be Bought and Sold.
  • Police Scotland marketing campaign in 2018 In Plain Sight.
  • Evidence from annual surveys suggests purchasing power could be a useful theme for future awareness raising activity.

Medium Term Actions

The Scottish Government will identify ways for the public to report trafficking and exploitation and highlight where it may be happening, empowering them to report their suspicions.

Progress to Date

  • The Modern Slavery Helpline number is promoted in marketing and social media from Scottish Government.
  • The helpline offers online support through its website as well as phone referrals, and has also launched a smartphone app.
  • Crimestoppers provide an anonymous route to report concerns.

Medium Term Actions

The Scottish Government will consider how to research, identify and build partnerships with communities assessed as being at risk of trafficking and exploitation, such as the homelessness sector and to develop targeted prevention initiatives.

Progress to Date

  • CATRiS at St Andrews University has made good progress in joining together existing research activity relevant to trafficking.
  • Further work can be done to engage and raise awareness with the homelessness sector and other at-risk communities.

Long Term Actions

The Scottish Government will work with the UK's Independent Anti-Slavery Commissioner and others on work in source/transit countries, to improve partnership working and the capacity to break the cycle of trafficking and exploitation. We will also work with others to tackle poverty in source countries.

Progress to Date

  • The Scottish Government developed good relationships with the former and current IASC, including membership of the Strategic Oversight Group.
  • The TARA and Police Scotland trip to Romania led to improved relationships and processes for returning victims.
  • Police Scotland has developed its relationship with Vietnamese authorities, including a visit to Vietnam.
  • Secondment of Romanian officers to Police Scotland has been a success and plans are in place for secondment of Vietnamese officers.

Long Term Actions

The Scottish Government will build on existing work to assess how conditions that foster trafficking and exploitation can be addressed, to improve partnership working and the capacity to break the cycle of trafficking and exploitation.

Progress to Date

  • In November 2019, the Cabinet Secretary for Justice chaired a roundtable discussion with the Minister for Europe, Migration and International Development, Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and other key stakeholders involved in international work related to human trafficking. This identified where further work could be of value in this area.

Child Trafficking

What do we need to improve?

We want members of the public, as well as parents and those working with young people, to understand the risks and be able to identify where trafficking and exploitation of children might be happening in all its forms and the action to take. This includes highlighting the links with CSE and missing children. Work already being undertaken in relation to CSE will support this.

Comments

  • A Scottish Government media campaign took place in 2017 to raise awareness about human trafficking in Scotland.
  • A national media campaign planned for May 2020 has had to be postponed due to COVID-19 but will run later in 2020.
  • Workshops were jointly delivered between January and March 2019 by members of the National Child Sexual Exploitation and Child Trafficking Strategy Groups. The workshops targeted practitioners to raise awareness about the connections between child sexual exploitation (CSE) and child trafficking.
  • The Evaluation Report for the National Child Sexual Exploitation & Child Trafficking Workshops was published in summer 2019.
  • Following the workshops, the Child Trafficking Strategy Group is developing a further set of workshops. Dates for these workshops are currently on hold due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Workshops will be taken forward when it is safe to do so.
  • A conference on Child Criminal Exploitation and Serious Organised Crime was held in November 2019 to raise awareness and re-frame the narrative around children involved in serious organised crime as victims of exploitation.

What do we need to improve?

We need to better understand the routes into trafficking and exploitation situations for children and to use data more effectively to inform strategic and individual planning for child victims.

Comments

  • Research on child trafficking by the University of Stirling, which was commissioned by the Scottish Government to improve understanding of the routes into trafficking for children in Scotland, will be published in summer 2020.
  • The Child Trafficking Strategy Group will assess how to take the recommendations from the research forward.
  • Police Scotland plan to conduct a problem profile to increase the intelligence picture in Scotland which will include child trafficking and criminal exploitation.
  • Since January 2020, JustRight Scotland has been collating data on child victims of trafficking for the UK Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group, to increase understanding about trafficking across the UK and identify key issues and gaps which require legal intervention.

What do we need to improve?

Where young people are victims of crime, including trafficking or exploitation, there is a need to ensure that a child-centred, wellbeing approach is taken to their needs, in line with GIRFEC approach. It is also important to identify and assess the circumstances impacting on the child. A child who is involved in some offending behaviour, for example, may themselves be a victim. The introduction of the presumption against prosecution as per the Lord Advocate's instructions will further strengthen this position.

Comments

  • The Scottish Government has been revising the National Child Protection Guidance, including the section on supporting victims of child trafficking and exploitation. A public consultation on the guidance is currently on hold due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Police Scotland published a Standard Operating Procedure for Inter-Agency Referral Discussions (IRDs) in September 2019 and have been continuing to work in partnership with Social Work Scotland to develop the new Joint Investigative Interview (JII) Training. Work is ongoing to ensure the journey from IRD through to JII is streamlined.
  • JustRight Scotland, through training delivered in collaboration with TARA and Scottish Guardianship Service, has raised awareness and provided practical information on the Lord Advocate's instructions among key frontline services working with child victims of trafficking and children involved in offending behaviour.
  • Between September 2017 and December 2019, JustRight Scotland delivered training sessions across Scotland which focused on age assessment and the rights and entitlements of care leavers.
  • COPFS continues to apply the Lord Advocate's instructions regarding the presumption against prosecution of persons who are the victims of trafficking, slavery, servitude or forced or compulsory labour and who have committed offences as a consequence thereof. The Lord Advocate's instructions contain a specific, less onerous presumption against the prosecution of children who are the victims of human trafficking and commit offences as a consequence thereof.

What do we need to improve?

Children who have been trafficked or exploited are likely traumatised by their experience. Whilst many NHS Boards have already put a lot of effort into reducing waiting times for access to psychological therapies and to Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS), we need to continue to ensure that children have access to appropriate mental health services necessary to support recovery.

Comments

  • NHS Education for Scotland launched their National Trauma Training Framework and work continues to improve access to child and adolescent mental health services through the Mental Health Strategy 2017-2027.
  • Last year, the Scottish Guardianship Service (SGS), in partnership with NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde's Glasgow Psychological Trauma Service, The Anchor, were funded by Comic Relief for the next 3 years to deliver resilience building groups. This mental health project is called Allies and the aim is to provide early intervention support for asylum seeking and trafficked young men.

What do we need to improve?

In supporting recovery, we need to continue to be sensitive to the potential impact of other processes such as the National Referral Mechanism, immigration processes and the criminal injuries compensation system.

Comments

  • The Scottish Government, alongside key stakeholders, has been working with the Home Office on their proposals for making the National Referral Mechanism (NRM) more child-friendly.
  • JustRight Scotland, in collaboration with the Scottish Guardianship Service, have been co-delivering a child-centred legal service for child victims of trafficking across 16 local authorities.
  • The CTSG acknowledged that more advice and information should be made available about criminal injuries compensation to ensure victims are aware that they may be eligible for compensation.

What do we need to improve?

UK statistical information highlights the provision of inappropriate care placements for child victims can increase the risk of children going missing and becoming subject to further trafficking and exploitation. Whilst prevalence is lower in Scotland than in England, we need to minimise the risks of further exploitation.

Comments

  • Work continues to help prevent people from going missing and to ensure people get the best possible support through the National Missing Persons Framework for Scotland which was launched in May 2017.
  • Return discussion training has been delivered across Scotland and further e-learning training will be established in 2020.

What do we need to improve?

For unaccompanied child victims, we need to develop formal arrangements to enable Independent Child Trafficking Guardians to be appointed to assist, support and represent an eligible child in accordance with section 11 of the Act. Those arrangements will clarify their role and responsibilities and we will need to set out how the roles will complement existing local authority provision and contribute to outcomes for children.

Comments

  • A consultation seeking views on the role, functions and responsibilities of an Independent Child Trafficking Guardian (ICTG) was launched in August 2019 and the responses to the consultation were published in December 2019.
  • The analysis of the responses was published in May 2020; the next steps will be drafting regulations and starting the procurement process for the new ICTG service.

What do we need to improve?

We need to ensure that any relevant existing guidance reflects the presumption of age provision in section 12 of the Human Trafficking and Exploitation Act ( 2015).

Comments

  • An Age Assessment Working Group was set up by the CTSG to revise the age assessment guidance.
  • The Age assessment: practice guidance was published in March 2018.
  • The Scottish Government has been working with COSLA and JustRight Scotland to deliver training to support the implementation of the updated age assessment practice guidance for first-line managers. The first training took place in March and then remotely in April 2020.

Short Term Actions

The Scottish Government will continue to take forward the Child Protection Improvement Programme (CPIP) announced in February 2016, of which addressing child trafficking is a key work stream.

Progress to Date

  • Age-assessment guidance has been revised.
  • Stakeholder forum on NRM reform held in August 2018.
  • Research on routes into child trafficking was commissioned.
  • Other CPIP actions continuing to be taken forward. Regular updates on CPIP are published on the CPIP Blog.

Short Term Actions

Local Child Protection Committees (CPCs) should ensure that there is robust partnership working in place to address child trafficking and exploitation. This should be underpinned by specific and appropriate arrangements on child trafficking and exploitation through guidance, protocols or procedures, which are known and implemented by relevant services. This should include having in place appropriate strategic and practice linkages between child and adult services for older children and arrangements for the provision of advocacy.

Progress to Date

  • Electronic surveys were completed by CPCs in summer 2017 and the findings were presented to CTSG in October 2017 and CPC Scotland in December 2017.
  • A new survey was circulated to CPCs on Child Sexual Exploitation, which closed July 2019.

Short Term Actions

Local services working directly with children should have in place appropriate processes regarding the use of interpreters to support practice in relation to children where English is not their first language.

Progress to Date

  • CTSG members have discussed issues around interpreters and the impact these issues have on the child or young person such as re-traumatisation and safeguarding.
  • The CTSG acknowledge clear guidance and training for professionals about working with interpreters is required.
  • Voice Over (Social Enterprise interpreting organisation) are running an introduction to Community Interpreting Course in September 2020 at Glasgow Clyde College.
  • The Law Society of Scotland's Immigration & Asylum Sub-Committee is preparing a practice note on this issue.

Short Term Actions

The Scottish Government, in consultation with stakeholders will bring forward guidance on the use of Sections 22 and 25 of the Children (Scotland) Act 1995 regarding the provision of support to children. (Section 25 – provision of accommodation and Section 22 – promotion of welfare of children in need)

Progress to Date

  • The Scottish Government is currently revising the National Guidance for Child Protection which will include guidance for practitioners on the use of Sections 22 and 25 of the Children (Scotland) Act 1995.
  • Following publication of the revised National Guidance for Child Protection, consideration will be given on whether further guidance/practice notes are required on the use of Section 22 and 25 of the Children (Scotland) Act 1995.

Short Term Actions

In implementing the updated national action plan to prevent and tackle child sexual exploitation, we will ensure that Scotland is a hostile place for perpetrators and facilitators of CSE. This will be achieved through a variety of actions; to ensure perpetrators are identified early, held to account through the criminal justice system and by encouraging victims to report. This includes improving consistency in local problem profiling in order to build a national profile of CSE across Scotland.

Progress to Date

  • Delivery report of the 2016 updated National Action Plan to Prevent and Tackle Child Sexual Exploitation is to be published summer 2020.
  • Ongoing work on child sexual abuse and exploitation data to encompass a revised approach, using existing data sources to better understand prevalence, scale and nature of child abuse. Ongoing work to include partnerships with CELCIS, the centre of expertise on child sexual abuse and the Office of National Statistics.

Short Term Actions

To strengthen the multi-agency response to prevention, disruption and detection of perpetrators across Scotland, Police Scotland are currently piloting a child sexual exploitation and abuse intelligence sharing toolkit, which will formalise information collection sharing arrangements between the police, other law enforcement agencies, statutory agencies (including social work, education, housing, health and licensing), community groups, voluntary sector services and the business community (including hotels, taxi companies, food outlets, off licenses and hostels). The toolkit will be evaluated ahead of a national roll-out.

Progress to Date

  • The first pilot for the Partners Intelligence Toolkit (previously known as External Partners Portal for Intelligence Collection) commenced in February 2020 in Highlands and Islands and the pilot is subject to review.
  • A second pilot area has been identified for the Partners Intelligence Toolkit in Aberdeen with plans for the pilot to commence this year.

Short Term Actions

The Scottish Government will continue to support NHS Boards to meet their access targets for specialist child and adolescent mental health services with a programme of improvement.

Progress to Date

  • Work continues to improve access to child and adolescent mental health services through the Mental Health Strategy 2017-2027.
  • NHS Education for Scotland launched their National Trauma Training Framework which includes resources for practitioners. As part of this, a video was released on the impact of trauma on children and young people, and the approaches professionals can take to support them.
  • Last year, SGS in partnership with NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde's Glasgow Psychological Trauma Service, The Anchor, were funded by Comic Relief for the next 3 years to deliver resilience building groups. This mental health project is called the Allies and the aim of the groups is to provide early intervention support for asylum seeking and trafficked young men. SGS link progress and findings of the project into the National Mental Health Task Force.
  • SGS continues to support young people to navigate both statutory and non-statutory mental health services brokering relationships of trust between young people and mental health providers.

Short Term Actions

For unaccompanied children, who do not have someone with parental rights and responsibilities for them in the UK, the Scottish Government will consult with partners on introducing formal arrangements that will meet the duties in section 11 of the Act. Once that section is fully in force, Ministers will be under duty to make arrangements to enable a guardian to be appointed to children who have been trafficked, and relevant authorities will be under a duty to refer these children to this service. We will work together with partners in developing how this will be implemented.

Progress to Date

  • A consultation seeking views on the role, functions and responsibilities of an Independent Child Trafficking Guardian (ICTG) was launched in August 2019 and the responses to the consultation were published in December 2019.
  • The analysis of the responses was published in May 2020; the next steps will be drafting regulations and starting the procurement process for the new ICTG service.

Short Term Actions

The Scottish Government will work with partners to update the 2012 Age Assessment Guidance to reflect the provisions of section 12 of the Act and consider the need for any other revisions.

Progress to Date

  • An Age Assessment Working Group was set up by the CTSG to revise the age assessment guidance.
  • The Age assessment: practice guidance was published in March 2018.
  • Scottish Government has been working with COSLA and JustRight Scotland to deliver training to support the implementation of the updated age assessment practice guidance for first-line managers. The first training took place in March and April 2020.

Short Term Actions

The Scottish Government is taking forward a refreshed Child Internet Safety Action Plan. Whilst the Plan is wider in its scope than child trafficking, it will recognise the role that social media and online activity can play in the trafficking and exploitation of children.

Progress to Date

  • Progress report of National Action Plan on Internet Safety for Children and Young People will be published in summer 2020.
  • The Scottish Government will continue to engage with UKCIS and subgroups on improving the online safety landscape in Scotland.
  • Engagement will continue with UK Government in development of legislative and non-legislative measures to tackle online harms and regulation of online services provided in the UK.

Short Term Actions

The Scottish Government will commission a piece of research that will work with frontline workers and services to identify the presence of young people who have been trafficked and to establish their routes to arrival. Through this we can then make an evidence-based decision with our partners on whether any other action (such as the development of guidance) is needed to protect and safeguard, and, where possible, to prevent any such activity taking place.

Progress to Date

  • The research on child trafficking by the University of Stirling, which was commissioned by the Scottish Government to improve understanding of the routes into trafficking for children in Scotland, will be published in summer 2020.
  • The CTSG will need to consider the recommendations from the research.

Short Term Actions

Child and Adult Protection Committees should consider how best to collaborate to share learning and best practice in relation to addressing child trafficking and exploitation victims, particularly in relation to children transitioning to adult support services, where human trafficking issues may contribute to them being an adult at risk of harm.

Progress to Date

  • The University of Stirling undertook research to explore the capacity, experience and understanding of local authorities to provide a support system for unaccompanied children. The findings highlighted inconsistency of practice across Scotland and the final report Responding to Unaccompanied Minors in Scotland: Policy and Local Authority Perspectives was published in October 2018.
  • Child and Adult Protection Committees continue to ensure that relevant and up-to-date guidance and protocols are in place for children and young people who have been victims of trafficking and exploitation.
  • CTSG acknowledges further work is required for children who are transitioning to adult support services for victims of trafficking.

Medium Term Actions

The Scottish Government will work to ensure that local authorities across Scotland continue to provide care to a consistently high standard and, in terms of a child's entitlement to continuing care introduced by the Children and Young People (Scotland) Act 2014, both in short term and when they leave care.

Progress to Date

  • The Independent Care Review published its final report and conclusions on 5 February 2020. The Review provides recommendations and highlights issues around the care and after care of unaccompanied asylum seeking children.

Medium Term Actions

Child and Adult Protection Committees should consider how partners can best work together to identify and meet training needs.

Progress to Date

  • Child Protection Committees are multi-agency partnerships and as such will ensure that actions to meet training needs are taken on a collaborative basis. This includes links with adult protection and adult services and across public protection.
  • The Child Trafficking Strategy Group is currently developing a further set of workshops on child trafficking and sexual exploitation. The dates for these workshops are currently on hold due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Workshops will commence once social distancing rules have been eased.

Medium Term Actions

The Scottish Government, through the Child Protection Improvement Programme will support Child Protection Committees to identify and make better use of data for strategic and individual planning.

Progress to Date

  • A Minimum Dataset for Child Protection Committees has been developed.
  • The Minimum Dataset is a 'package' of data collation, presentation, analysis, reporting and scrutiny supports. The package will deliver robust data sets to support child protection improvement, local planning and service development, and expanded analytical capacity.

Medium Term Actions

Child Protection Committees should have in place appropriate mechanisms for the monitoring of effectiveness of guidance, protocols or procedures in place to address child trafficking and exploitation.

Progress to Date

  • The function of CPCs is to ensure that relevant and up-to-date guidance and protocols are in place. Select CPCs have been doing work on raising awareness through guidance and training.

Medium Term Actions

The Scottish Government, linking to the national Mental Health Strategy, will consider how (with partners) we can best maximise the current children's mental health provision and work together to better support recovery in the long-term.

Progress to Date

  • Work continues to improve access to child and adolescent mental health services through the Mental Health Strategy 2017-2027.
  • NHS Education for Scotland launched their National Trauma Training Framework which includes resources for practitioners.
  • Last year, SGS, in partnership with NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde's Glasgow Psychological Trauma Service, The Anchor, were funded by Comic Relief for the next 3 years to deliver resilience building groups. This mental health project is called the Allies and the aim of the groups is to provide early intervention support for asylum seeking and trafficked young men.
  • SGS link progress and findings of the project into the National Mental Health Task Force.
  • SGS launched a befriending service for victims of child trafficking.
  • SGS continues to support young people to navigate both statutory and non-statutory mental health services brokering relationships of trust between young people and mental health providers.

Long Term Actions

The Scottish Government recognises that a sustained and collaborative effort is necessary and will continue to take a joined-up approach with partners to support victim recovery, assist with reintegration and continue to address conditions that foster child trafficking and exploitation.

Progress to Date

  • The annual progress reports provide a summary of all work taken forward in the first three years of the Trafficking and Exploitation Strategy.

Contact

Email: human.trafficking@gov.scot