Section 5: Measures of progress
Identify victims and support them to safety and recovery
Number of potential victims identified
All victims (adults and children) who entered the NRM and (in due course) those identified through the 'duty to notify' process
The full 2019 NRM annual report was published by the Home Office Single Competent Authority in April 2020, including a breakdown of referrals from Scotland: https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/national-referral-mechanism-statistics-uk-end-of-year-summary-2019
Key figures for Scotland in 2019:
|Type||Male adult||Female adult||Male minor||Female minor||Male age not recorded||Female age not recorded||Total|
60% of all cases reported to the National Referral Mechanism in 2019 from Scotland related to labour exploitation.
The most common nationality of victims was Vietnamese (214) and Chinese (66).
Number of adult victims provided with support
Reports from the support provider
TARA supported 114 women over the course of 2019/2020. Of those supported 59 were 'newly identified' during the year. 30 women were provided with crisis accommodation by TARA and they supported 3 repatriations where women asked for their assistance to do so.
On the 31 March 2020 TARA had:
- 42 open cases;
- all had been referred to the NRM and granted a positive Reasonable Grounds (RG) decision;
- 2 have received positive Conclusive Grounds (CG) decisions but still require ongoing support; and
- 40 Conclusive Grounds (CG) decisions are 'outstanding'.
For the 42 open cases the average length of support is 8 months. Length of support ranges from 16 months to 1 month and the average reflects the particularly high referrals numbers in Q2 and Q3 of 2019/20.
Migrant Help supported 379 clients in 2019/20 including 291 new clients.
- 29 cases where a positive CG was made
- 25 cases where a negative CG was made, plus 1 where a negative CG was appealed but failed
- 34 cases where a negative RG was made
- 6 cases where the client decided to leave Scotland
- 6 cases where the client absconded
- 10 cases where was client was repatriated
- 86 cases where the CG is outstanding and support level is low
- 46 cases where the CG is outstanding and the support level is high
The average length of support in 2019/20 was 138 days.
Number of trafficked or exploited children supported through the child protection system
This will be based on the returns already provided to the Scottish Government by local authorities
In March 2020, the Children's Social Work Statistics for 2018/19 were published. The publication outlines the latest data on children and young people who are looked after, on the child protection register and in secure care in Scotland. The number of children and young people who have been recorded as victims of trafficking is grouped within the category "Other Concerns" in the publication.
Number of children who are allocated an independent child trafficking guardian (ICTG)
Number of children who receive the support of an ICTG
The Scottish Guardianship Service provides additional support for children and young people who have been trafficked, and for whom no-one in the UK holds parental responsibilities.
From 1 September 2010 until 31 March 2020 the service has supported 634 children and young people. Between 1 April 2019 until 31 March 2020, 166 children and young people were referred to the service for support.
Identify perpetrators and disrupt their activity
Number of individuals convicted for the offences
Persons convicted in that year under section 1 and section 4 of the Act and also under earlier legislation (section 22 of the Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 2003, section 4 of the Asylum and Immigration (Treatment of Claimaints etc.) Act 2004 and section 47 of the Criminal Justice Licensing (Scotland) Act 2010
Between 1 April 2019 and 31 March 2020, 5 persons were convicted under the offences listed.
Number of individuals convicted of offences with a human trafficking background
Convictions using the aggravations set out in sections 5, 6 and 7 of the Act in that year
Number of orders made under Part 4 of the Act
Orders made in that year using the powers in Part 4 of the Act
Between 1 April 2019 and 31 March 2020, 5 persons were made subject to Trafficking and Exploitation Prevention Orders in terms of Part 4 of the Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Scotland) Act 2015.
Address the conditions that foster trafficking and exploitation
Public awareness of the issue of human trafficking and exploitation
Questions in public survey conducted annually
The research in the first four waves was conducted using a face-to-face, in-home, CAPI Omnibus survey – the Scottish Opinion Survey (SOS) – as the method for data collection. Five waves of research have now been conducted:
- Wave 1 (2017): A sample of 1,025 adults aged 16+ was interviewed across Scotland between 1 and 26 March 2017.
- Wave 2 (2018): A sample of 1,008 adults aged 16+ was interviewed across Scotland between 28 February and 2 April 2018
- Wave 3 (2019): A sample of 1,082 adults aged 16+ was interviewed across Scotland between 20 February and 20 March 2019.
- Wave 4 (2020): A sample of 317 adults aged 16+ was interviewed between 4 and 10 March 2020
- Wave 5 (2020): A sample of 1,006 adults interviewed online between 2 and 6 April 2020
|2017 %||2018 %||2019 %||2020 F2F %||2020 Online %|
|Rest of the world (not including Europe)||63||69||67||72||60|
|Your local area of Scotland||5||4||5||4||8|
Only one of the four waves of face-to-face surveys had been completed this year when these had to be stopped due to COVID-19 restrictions. In the circumstances, a decision was made to restart the survey using online methodology (1,006 adults, during the first week of April). 317 face-to-face interviews had already been completed and the results of these surveys have been incorporated into the report as a separate dataset. The face-to-face dataset is limited by its small sample size and lack of population weighting. However, it provides a better comparator with previous years because of the consistent methodology, and the findings are generally in line with previous surveys. The results of the online survey cannot be directly compared with previous years' surveys.
Infrastructure and partnership working
Numbers of statutory bodies that have specific referral mechanisms for human trafficking and exploitation within their organisation and using them
Self-reporting through the Strategy Implementation Group
Section 38 of the Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Scotland) Act 2015 places a duty on Scottish public authorities to notify the Chief Constable of Police Scotland about a person who is, or appears to be, a victim of an offence under the Act. Notifications must not contain any information which could identify individuals unless consent has been given to do so.
The public consultation in respect of the duty launched on 16 June 2019 and closed on 6 September 2019.
The analysis report for the public consultation on section 38 of the Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Scotland) Act 2015: Duty to notify and provide information about victims, was published on 30 April 2020. The report can be accessed at the link below: https://www.gov.scot/isbn/9781839606908/
Number of organisations (statutory and non-statutory) within Scotland that have action plans or similar that contribute to delivering the overall aims of the Strategy
Self-reporting through the Stakeholder Forum arrangement
Slavery and Human Trafficking Guidance for Businesses was published by the Scottish Government in October 2018 in order to help organisations identify and prevent human trafficking and exploitation across their operations.
Following the independent review of the UK's Modern Slavery Act 2015, the Home Office held a public consultation in July-September 2019 around reforms to the obligation on businesses to produce and publish Slavery and Human Trafficking Statements. The Scottish Government supported this process, including hosting a joint session with the Home Office and Scottish stakeholders to ensure their views were captured.