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Publication - Research and analysis

Systems of local governance and how citizens participate: international review

Analyses local governance systems in seven case studies across the world, and how citizens are able to participate in local governance. The case studies are Denmark, England, Germany, New Zealand, Quebec, Scotland, and Uruguay.

83 page PDF

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83 page PDF

640.8 kB

Contents
Systems of local governance and how citizens participate: international review
Annex A: International indices used in case study selection

83 page PDF

640.8 kB

Annex A: International indices used in case study selection

This table gives a fuller description of the international indices used as part of the selection of case studies for inclusion in the review.

The following are summaries of the information gathered from the international indices on the selected case studies.

International Indices

Category

Index

Description

Democracy

Global State of Democracy Indices

Produced by International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA). Democracy defined as popular control over public decision-making and decision-makers, and equality of respect and voice between citizens in the exercise of that control. Countries rated on five attributes: representative government, fundamental rights, checks on government, impartial administration and participatory engagement and 16 sub-attributes. Rating is between 0-1.

Economist Intelligence Unit Democracy Index 2019

Countries are rated on five attributes: electoral process and pluralism, civil liberties, the functioning of government, political participation and political culture. Based on these ratings, each country is given an overall score. Countries are ranked by that overall score and categorised as 'full democracies', 'flawed', 'hybrid' and 'authoritarian'. The 2019 index classed 22 countries across the world as full democracies.

Governance

World Governance Indicators

Governance defined as "consisting of the traditions and institutions by which authority in a country is exercised". Countries rated on six attributes: voice and accountability, political stability and absence of violence, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law and control of corruption. Within each attribute, countries are ranked in a percentile.

Corruption

Corruption Perceptions Index 2019

Rates perceptions of public sector corruption according to experts and business people and provides a ranking.

Inequality

Gini Index

Measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country. The lower the rating, the lower the inequality; the higher the rating, the higher the inequality. Rating is between 0-100.

Denmark (population 5.8 million)

GSoD[9] : Rated in the top three countries for four attributes: participatory engagement/civil society participation; fundamental rights; impartial administration; checks on government

EIU: Ranked 7th equal (with Canada) internationally as a full democracy, 2019

WGI:

  • Voice and accountability – 97th percentile (2017)
  • Government effectiveness – 96th percentile (2017)

CPI: Equal least corrupt country worldwide in 2019 (with New Zealand)

Gini[10]:

  • Low inequality – score of 29 in 2016 (estimated)
  • State tradition: Scandinavian

Germany (population 82.2 million)

GSoD: Rated in top four countries in three attributes – impartial administration, fundamental rights, and participatory engagement/civil society participation

EIU: Ranked 13th internationally as a full democracy, 2019

WGI:

  • Voice and accountability – 96th percentile (2017)
  • Government effectiveness – 94th percentile (2017)

CPI: 9th equal least corrupt country worldwide in 2019

Gini: Low inequality – score of 27 in 2006

State tradition: Germanic

New Zealand (population 4.8 million)

GSoD: Rated as the 5th top country for PE/direct democracy

EIU: Ranked 4th internationally as a full democracy, 2019

WGI:

  • Voice and accountability – 99th percentile (2017)
  • Government effectiveness – 95th percentile (2017)

CPI: Equal least corrupt country worldwide in 2019 (with Denmark)

Gini: Medium inequality - score of 36.2 in 1997 (estimated)

State tradition: Anglo

Canada[11] (population 37.1 million; Quebec population 8.3 million)

GSoD : Rated as 6th highest country in one attribute - in participatory engagement/free local and regional elections

EIU: Ranked 7th equal (with Denmark) as a full democracy, 2019

WGI:

  • Voice and accountability – 96th percentile (2017)
  • Government effectiveness – 97th percentile (2017)

CPI: Equal 12th least corrupt country (with UK) in 2017

Gini : Medium inequality - score of 32.1 in 2005

State tradition: Quebec – French tradition

Uruguay (population 3.5 million)

GSoD: Rated in top five countries in two attributes – representative government and PE; under PE sub-attributes, the 2nd highest country for direct democracy (after Switzerland) and the 5th highest for electoral representation

EIU: Ranked 15th internationally as a full democracy, 2019

WGI:

  • Voice and accountability – 87th percentile (2017)
  • Government effectiveness – 68th percentile (2017)

CPI: Equal 21st least corrupt country worldwide (with France) in 2019

Gini: Medium inequality – 41.6 in 2014

State tradition: n/a:

United Kingdom[12] (UK population: 66.6m)

GSoD: The top 6th country for checks on government

EIU: Ranked 14th internationally as a full democracy, 2019

WGI:

  • Voice and accountability – 93rd percentile 2017
  • Government effectiveness – 91st percentile 2017

CPI: Equal 12th least corrupt worldwide (with Luxembourg, Canada and Netherlands) 2019

Gini: Medium inequality – 32.4 in 2012

State tradition: Anglo


Contact

Email: democracymatters@gov.scot