5. Background information on the collection of the data
5.1 Social Care Survey¹
Notes on chart
¹ Community Alarm/Telecare, Direct Payments, SDS and Social Worker/Support Worker information are for the financial year. Home Care, Housing Support and Meals data is for the March Census week.
¹ Clients can receive multiple social care services.
² Data on Social Worker / Support Workers and Self-Directed Support is in development, and not reported on in detail in this release. Follow-up analysis on these topics will be published at a later date.
³ 2 local authorities did not submit housing support data for 2016.
*3 local authorities did not submit meals data for 2016.
All the new data presented in this release was collected through the 2016 Social Care Survey. This is the fourth year of the survey, which replaced the previously separate Home Care and Direct Payments data collections (see 5.2).
The data is supplied by all 32 Local Authorities in Scotland, who collect this information as part of their Social Care Management Information system and is submitted to Scottish Government via a secure web-based system called ProcXed. The ProcXed system reduces administrative burdens and increases the speed, ease and accuracy (via inbuilt validation checks) of information exchange.
Information is returned for every person who has had a Social Care assessment and receives or uses:
During the Census Week (the census week normally includes the 31st March, but due to the early Easter holiday in 2016 a later date including the 6th April has been adopted):
- Home Care services, including re-ablement services
- Meals services (provided or purchased by the local authority);
- Housing Support services;
- OPTIONAL - other services e.g. Shopping, Laundry.
During the financial year 1 April 2015 to 31 March 2016:
- Community Alarms / other Telecare services (this was previously only collected for the census week);
- Services or support provided through Self-Directed Support, including Direct Payments;
- Social Worker / support worker services
5.2 Data collection prior to 2013
The 'Home Care Census' collected annual statistics on the number of people receiving a home help or Home Care service at the end of March each year. From March 2010, the statistics were collected at the individual level, having previously been collected through an aggregate data return. See http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Health/HomeCareCensus for more detail on the survey design and collection.
The "Self-Directed Support (Direct Payments)" Survey collected annual statistics on the number of people who receive direct payments to purchase the care that they need. It should be noted that this collection was focused solely on Direct Payments, and not Self-Directed Support as it is now defined (see section on Self-Directed Support below). These statistics relate to everyone who received a Direct Payment during the relevant financial year and from 2010 onwards have been collected at the individual level, having previously been collected through an aggregate data return.
See http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Health/SelfDirectedSupportcensus for more detail on the survey design and collection.
5.3 Self-Directed Support Act
The Self-Directed Support Act was introduced in Scotland in April 2014. Self-Directed Support ( SDS) gives people control over an individual budget and allows them to choose how that money is spent on the support and services they need to meet their agreed health and social care outcomes. (see http://www.selfdirectedsupportscotland.org.uk for details)
Self-Directed Support allows people to choose a number of different options for getting support. The person's individual budget can be:
- SDS Option 1: Taken as a Direct Payment (a cash payment). Information on Direct Payments has been collected since 2001 and is reported on in this publication.
- SDS Option 2: Allocated to a provider that the person chooses. The council holds the budget but the person is in charge of how it is spent (this is sometimes called an individual service fund); or
- SDS Option 3: the person can choose a council arranged service; or
- SDS Option 4: the person can choose a mix of these options for different types of support
Over time all Social Care and support will transition to being focused on achieving personal outcomes. This presents challenges for the reporting and comparability of Social Care data: increasing numbers of people will be directing their own support rather than services being provided directly for them. It is expected that in future this publication will become more focused on Social Care clients, what their needs are, their individual budget and the options that they choose.
More information on Self-Directed Support is available at:
5.4 Revisions to previous years' figures
East Dunbartonshire Council reported an error in their submitted Home Care Hours in 2015. This has been corrected in the 2016 publication.
5.5 Data Quality Issues
Direct Payments (Self-Directed Support Option 1)
The data quality issues in this report are primarily due to implementation of the Self-Directed Support Act (see 5.3), and the resulting change to recording systems carried out by Local Authorities. This mainly affects the figures for Direct Payments, now SDS Option 1:
- For 2016 data, Angus council experienced an issue with their data which meant they were unable to return any financial information on Direct Payments. The Scotland level figures have therefore been adjusted to account for this missing data and ensure comparability with previous years. This was done by "scaling-up" the 2015 Angus figures based on the change between 2015 and 2016 in the other 31 Local Authorities, then adding the scaled-up figure to the Scotland total.
- For 2015 data, East Renfrewshire council were unable to submit any data on Direct Payments or the other SDS options. The Scotland-level figures for both the number of clients receiving Direct Payments and expenditure have therefore been adjusted to account for this missing data and to ensure comparability with previous years. This was done by "scaling-up" the 2014 East Renfrewshire figures based on the change between 2014 and 2015 in the other 31 Local Authorities, then adding the scaled-up figure to the Scotland total.
- For 2015 data, Scottish Borders and Falkirk councils have stated that some clients who were previously recorded as receiving Direct Payments have not been captured under the new SDS system as SDS Option 1. This has resulted in an apparent drop in Direct Payments clients in these authorities between 2014 and 2015. This has a minimal effect on the Scotland figures.
- For 2015, Local Authorities were asked to record the expenditure for Self-Directed Support as the Gross value of the budget allocated within the reporting year. Argyll & Bute and West Lothian councils have stated that they were unable to supply Gross expenditure figures and so supplied Net expenditure ( i.e. net of any client contribution) figures instead. These figures have been included within the Scotland level expenditure totals.
Data on Meals services has proved difficult for Local Authorities to capture and so the charts presented in this report have been provided for information on the data collection, rather than an exact number of the people in Scotland receiving Meals services. Three local authorities did not supply data on Meals services (East Renfrewshire, Edinburgh City and Eilean Siar).
Data on housing support was not returned by two Local Authorities (North Lanarkshire and West Dunbartonshire) this year which should be considered if trying to compare to previous years.
5.6 Client groupings
Since 2010, Local Authorities have been able to provide multiple client groups for each person. In this publication, where a local authority returned multiple client groups, in order to avoid double counting clients have been allocated to the group that appears first in the list below:
2. Mental Health Problems
3. Learning Disability
4. Learning Disability and Physical Disability
5. Physical Disability
6. Frail older people
7. Other vulnerable groups (including Addiction, Palliative Care and Carer's)
8. Not known
For example, if a client has dementia and has a physical disability, then they will appear in the dementia client group (as this appears higher in the list) for the purpose of analysis.
It should be noted that Local Authorities vary in how they record people whose reason for receiving a service is frailty due to old age. Some record this as 'physical disability' while others record as 'frail older people'. Therefore when looking at the older age groups these two client groups are best considered together when comparing statistics for different local authorities.
It is also important to note that "Dementia" is known to be under-recorded in social care management information systems.
5.7 Community Alarm and other Telecare services
From 2015, Local Authorities were asked to collect information on all people receiving a Community Alarm / Telecare service at any time during the financial year. This information was previously asked only for the March census week.
Telecare is the remote or enhanced delivery of care services to people in their own home by means of telecommunications and computerised services. Telecare usually refers to sensors or alerts which provide continuous, automatic and remote monitoring of care needs emergencies and lifestyle changes, using information and communication technology ( ICT) to trigger human responses, or shut down equipment to prevent hazards (Source: National Telecare Development Programme, Scottish Government). Community Alarms are considered to be the basic, introductory level of Telecare.
Community Alarm is defined as: A person in receipt of a technology package which consists of a communication hub (either individual home hub unit or part of a communal system e.g. the alarm system within sheltered housing), plus a button/pull chords/pendant which transfers an alert/alarm/data to a monitoring centre or individual responder.
Telecare is defined as: A person in receipt of a technology package which goes over and above the basic community alarm package identified above, and includes any other sensors or monitoring equipment e.g. (not an exhaustive list):
- linked pill dispensers,
- linked smoke detectors,
- linked key safes,
- bogus caller buttons and door entry systems,
- property exit sensors, extreme temperature, flood, falls, movement detectors.
Standalone devices and pieces of equipment are not be considered 'Telecare' for the purpose of this return i.e. they should be capable of alerting/providing information to a monitoring centre or individual responder and should generally be 'linked' to the home hub or communal alarm system.
5.8 Other data sources
In order to calculate rates per population, the National Records of Scotland mid-year population estimates have been used. For 2016 rates, the 2015 mid-year population estimates have been used as these are the latest available.
5.9 Cost of respondent burden
To calculate the cost of respondent burden to this survey each Local Authority was asked to provide an estimate of the time taken in hours to extract the requested information and complete the survey form. The average time from 29 Local Authorities has then been used within the calculation below to calculate that the total cost of responding to this survey is £37,000.