Short-term lets: consultation annexes
Research annexes to supplement the short-term lets consultation paper on a regulatory framework for Scotland.
1. These annexes form part of the Short-Term Lets: Consultation on Regulatory Framework for Scotland which can be accessed at the following webpage: http://www.gov.scot/ISBN/9781787817661
2. Retrieved from https://www.visitscotland.org/binaries/content/assets/dot-org/pdf/research-papers-2/insights---tourism-in-scotlands-regions-2016_update-may-18.pdf
3. Skift, 2017, The State of the Global Vacation Rental Market.
4. See also Airbnb (2017a). "Overview of the Airbnb Community in Scotland".
5. Information retrieved from Frontline 2018, p. 7.
6. https://www.airbnbcitizen.com/airbnb-debuts-top-15-locations-across-scotland/ and https://press.airbnb.com/airbnb-unveils-data-on-top-15-destinations-across-scotland-for-the-first-time-expands-experiences-on-airbnb-across-the-country/
8. "Peer-to-peer accommodation can be broadly defined as accommodation – such as spare room or an entire home – made available by an existing homeowner for others to rent, normally for a short period of time" (Open Data Institute, 2018, p. 3).
11. For a SPICe report on short-term lets in Edinburgh published in April 2019, see https://spice-spotlight.scot/2019/04/01/short-term-lets-in-edinburgh/
12. In 2017/18 the Isle of Skye had 550 Airbnb listings, i.e. 1 Airbnb for every 8 homes (Channel 4 News 2018). Alasdair Rae argued that there was a 91% increase in Airbnb listings in the area of Highland between 2016/17 and 2017/18 (Channel 4 news 2018). According to the Chartered Institute of Housing report (2019), Skye in 2017 had 5,813 dwellings and 550 Airbnb listings, i.e. almost one Airbnb listing for every 10 dwellings.
13. An active Airbnb listing is defined as "a listing that appears on the website during a search. Active listings do not necessarily have availability on a particular date or at all." (Airbnb 2017a, p. 12).
14. The difference in the number of listings between July and November 2018 is due to season variations in tourism. Listings might not necessarily be active and each property might have more than one listing, corresponding for instance to separate rooms.
15. Inside Airbnb Data November 18, 2018. Retrieved from http://insideairbnb.com/edinburgh/
16. They used the Scottish Government's 2015 estimated Stock of Dwellings.
17. According to Wachsmuth et al. (2017, p. 22) 'multi-listings' are defined as listings that belong to hosts who advertise two or more entire homes or three or more private rooms.
18. According to Rae (2018, p. 4), "It is important to note that not all entire home listings are available all year round, so the extent to which housing stock is 'lost' to the long-term rental market is difficult to discern from such headline figures." Rae, A. (2018). "From neighbourhood to "globalhood"? Three propositions on the rapid rise of short-term rentals." Area 0: 1-5.
20. Hosts might advertise on Airbnb and similar platforms one or more rooms of their residence and the entire property when they are away. Therefore, a single property might have more listings and thus we need to interpret the data on multi-listings with caution.
21. Retrieved from http://insideairbnb.com/edinburgh/#
22. Hosts are defined as Airbnb community members who rent a space using the Airbnb platform.
23. Median value of total income earned by a typical host during a year. A typical host operates at least one active listing and has at least one booking during the year studied.
24. Retrieved from https://www.gov.scot/publications/private-sector-rent-statistics-2010-2018/pages/11/
25. Information retrieved from https://www.gov.scot/publications/private-sector-rent-statistics-2010-2018/
26. Calculated using the Experimental Index of Private Housing Rental Prices for Scotland. The same percentage between January 2011 and February 2019 is 17.7% for England and 6.4% for Wales. There are no 2011 data for Northern Ireland in this Index.
27. Information retrieved from https://www.ons.gov.uk/economy/inflationandpriceindices/bulletins/indexofprivatehousingrentalprices/february2019
28. Retrieved from https://www2.gov.scot/Publications/2004/07/19731/40888
29. Retrieved from https://www2.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Housing-Regeneration/HSfS/HMO
30. Definitions and data retrieved from https://www2.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Housing-Regeneration/HSfS/LTemptysecondhomes
31. Information retrieved from the Tourism tax: Discussion Document, https://www.gov.scot/publications/transient-visitor-taxes-scotland-supporting-national-discussion/pages/3/
32. Retrieved from https://www.visitscotland.org/binaries/content/assets/dot-org/pdf/research-papers-2/tourism-in-scotland-2016-updated.pdf
33. Retrieved from https://www.visitscotland.org/binaries/content/assets/dot-org/pdf/research-papers-2/tourism-in-scotland-2017-summary.pdf
34. National Tourism Strategy (TS2020): https://scottishtourismalliance.co.uk/overview/
35. The tourism industry is based on the Scottish Government's 'Sustainable Tourism Growth Sector' definition.
36. VisitScotland (2018), Scottish Accommodation Occupancy Survey. https://www.visitscotland.org/binaries/content/assets/dot-org/pdf/research-papers-2/occupancy-annual-report-2017.pdf
37. STR Global is a source of global data on the hotel market and benchmarking.
38. The research included a literature review, analysis of secondary data provided by AirDNA, and case studies that brought together secondary data and primary qualitative evidence.
39. LJ Research is a tourism market research company based in Edinburgh and acquired in 2016 by STR global.
40. All the websites used for Annex B were accurate as for 8th April 2019.
41. Limit on number of nights a property can be let per year.
42. Limit on number of permits that can be issued.
43. Information retrieved from https://www.airbnbcitizen.com/airbnb-backs-new-home-sharing-tax-rules-for-danes/
44. Information retrieved from https://www.useguestbook.com/short-term-rental-regulations/athens/
45. Information retrieved from https://news.gtp.gr/2018/03/27/greece-clarifies-when-short-term-rentals-subject-vat/
46. Information retrieved from https://news.gtp.gr/2018/08/31/greeces-online-registry-short-term-rentals-goes-live/
47. Information retrieved from https://www.housing.gov.ie/housing/private-rented-housing/minister-murphy-announces-regulations-short-term-lettings
48. In 2014, local city districts temporarily stopped issued new licenses because the limit of 10% of the total number of properties in the private housing sector has been exceeded.
49. Information retrieved from https://www.airbnb.co.uk/help/article/856/hamburg
50. For HomeAway regulations in London: https://www.homeaway.co.uk/info/legal/owner-responsibilities/rules-for-london-owners
51. Even if hosts rent out their property for less than 90 consecutive nights but for more than 90 days cumulatively in a year.
52. Retrieved from https://www.airbnb.co.uk/help/article/1730/madrid
53. Retrieved from https://www.thelocal.es/20181218/what-you-need-to-know-about-spains-2018-rent-law-changes
54. Retrieved from https://www.citylab.com/life/2019/04/madrid-airbnb-apartment-vacation-rental-law-almendra-central/586291/?utm_source=twb
55. Retrieved from https://edition.cnn.com/travel/article/madrid-airbnb-restrictions-mass-tourism/index.html
56. Retrieved from https://grapevine.is/news/2018/06/11/icelands-parliament-to-begin-cracking-down-on-airbnb/
57. Retrieved from https://www.boston.gov/departments/inspectional-services/short-term-rentals
58. Retrieved from http://realestate.boston.com/renting/2019/01/16/massachusetts-airbnb-law/
59. Retrieved from https://www.airbnb.co.uk/help/article/868/new-york--ny
60. Retrieved from https://ny.curbed.com/2018/11/19/18103254/airbnb-nyc-proposed-rules-enforcement
61. For the list of counties in New York for which Airbnb collects taxes, see https://www.airbnb.co.uk/help/article/2319/occupancy-tax-collection-and-remittance-by-airbnb-in-new-york
62. For the list of counties in Pennsylvania for which Airbnb collects taxes, see https://www.airbnb.co.uk/help/article/2325/occupancy-tax-collection-and-remittance-by-airbnb-in-pennsylvania
63. Information retrieved from https://signaltoronto.com/10-things-know-proposed-short-term-rentals-policy/.
64. Information retrieved from https://www.toronto.ca/community-people/housing-shelter/rental-housing-standards/short-term-rentals/.
65. For the list of counties in Canada for which Airbnb collects taxes, see https://www.airbnb.co.uk/help/article/2283/occupancy-tax-collection-and-remittance-by-airbnb-in-canada
66. Information retrieved from https://vancouver.ca/doing-business/short-term-rentals.aspx
67. Information retrieved from https://vancouver.ca/news-calendar/city-s-short-term-rental-regulations-take-full-effect-september-1st.aspx
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