Scottish Natural Capital Accounts: 2023

This report estimates quantity and value of services supplied by Scotland's natural capital.

1. Main points

  • The total asset value of natural capital in Scotland that we can currently value is an estimated £230 billion in 2019, representing 13% of the total UK asset value.
  • The total annual value of ecosystem services that we can currently value in Scotland is estimated to be £15 billion in 2019, 30% of the total UK annual value.
  • Provisioning services account for 89% of Scotland's annual value in 2019, predominantly oil and gas (£12 billion) and agricultural biomass (£706 million).
  • Air pollution removal had the highest annual value of the regulating services, worth £145 million in avoided health impacts in 2019.
  • Health benefits from recreation, a newly estimated cultural service, had an asset value of £51 billion in 2019.
  • Renewable electricity generation in 2021 was three times greater than in 2008, despite a 15% fall between 2020 and 2021.
  • Between 1990 and 2021, the extent of mountain, moorland and heath in Scotland decreased from 34% to 26%.



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