Scottish Marine and Freshwater Science Vol 6 No 14: Developing an avian collision risk model to incorporate variability and uncertainty

The report describes the data required, and the methods used, to estimate collision

risk. It is accompanied by a worked example and R code (available at, which enables the collision risk calculations to be

performed in


Band, B. (2012a) Using a Collsion Risk Model to Assess Bird Collision Risks for Offshore Windfarms - with Extended Method: Worked Example.

Band, B. (2012b) Using a collision risk model to assess bird collision risks for offshore windfarms. SOSS report, The Crown Estate.

Band, W., Madders, M. & Whitfield, D.P. (2007) Developing field and analytical methods to assess avian collision risk at wind farms. (eds M. De Lucas, G.F.E. Janss & M. Ferrer), Quercus, Madrid.

Chamberlain, D.E., Rehfisch, M.R., Fox, A.D., Desholm, M. & Anthony, S.J. (2006) The effect of avoidance rates on bird mortality predictions made by wind turbine collision risk models. Ibis, 148, 198-202.

Cook, A.S.C.P., Johnston, A., Wright, L.J. & Burton, N.H.K. (2012) A Review of Flight Heights and Avoidance Rates of Birds in Relation to Offshore Wind Farms. BTO Research Report 618, 1-61.

Fox, A.D., Desholm, M., Kahlert, J., Christensen, T.K. & Petersen, I.K. (2006) Information needs to support environmental impact assessment of the effects of European offshore wind farms on birds. Ibis, 148, 129-144.

Johnston, A., Cook, A.S.C.P., Wright, L.J., Humphreys, E.M. & Burton, N.H.K. (2014) Modelling flight heights of marine birds to more accurately assess collision risk with offshore wind turbines. Journal of Applied Ecology, 51, 31-41.

Langston, R.H.W. (2013) Birds and wind projects across the pond: A UK perspective. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 37, 5-18.

McAdam, B.J. (2005) A Monte-Carlo Model for Bird / Wind Turbine Collisions. MSc Ecology. University of Aberdeen.

Tucker, V.A. (1996) A mathematical model of bird collisions with wind turbine rotors. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 253-262.


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