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Publication - Statistics

Scottish house condition survey: 2019 key findings

Published: 1 Dec 2020
Directorate:
Housing and Social Justice Directorate
Part of:
Housing
ISBN:
9781800043527

Figures from the 2019 survey, including updated fuel poverty rates, energy efficiency ratings, the condition of housing and the Scottish Housing Quality Standard.

150 page PDF

2.2 MB

Contents
Scottish house condition survey: 2019 key findings
3 Energy Efficiency

3 Energy Efficiency

51. The energy efficiency of a dwelling depends on its physical characteristics. Factors such as the age of construction, the dwelling type, the heating and hot water systems in use and the extent to which the building fabric is insulated, all affect energy efficiency.

52. Based on information about the characteristics of the dwelling collected in the SHCS physical survey, and using standard assumptions about the make-up and the behaviour of the occupying household, the energy consumption associated with the dwelling is modelled. This allows us to make comparisons of energy use, emissions and energy efficiency ratings between dwellings that are independent of occupant behaviour. Further details on the methodology underpinning these measures of energy efficiency are provided in the Methodology Notes.

53. In this chapter we report on analysis of:

  • levels of insulation in Scottish dwellings (section 3.1);
  • boiler efficiencies (section 3.2);
  • Energy Efficiency Ratings (EER), also known as SAP ratings (section 3.3);
  • National Home Energy ratings (NHERs) (section 3.4);
  • modelled CO2 emissions from dwellings (section 3.5); and
  • Environmental Impact Ratings (section 3.6).

3.1 Insulation Measures

54. Installing or upgrading insulation is one of the most effective ways to improve the energy efficiency of a building. The Energy Saving Trust estimates that an un-insulated dwelling loses a third of all its heat through the walls and a further quarter through the roof. As a result, insulation can significantly reduce energy consumption and therefore lower heating bills, making it cheaper to enjoy satisfactory levels of thermal comfort, see Chapter 4 on Fuel Poverty.

55. Additional insulation is most commonly added to a property through the insulation of loft spaces and by adding insulating material to external walls.

Key Points

  • The majority of loft spaces are insulated. In 2019, loft insulation with a thickness of 100 mm or more had been installed in 94% of dwellings. This has been stable since 2015 but represents an increase of 12 percentage points on 2010 levels.
  • In 2019, 30% of lofts were insulated to a high standard of insulation (300 mm or more). This proportion has remained about this level since 2015, following year on year increases from the 2010 figure of 5%.
  • The proportion of insulated cavity walls recorded by the SHCS was 73% in 2019, similar to the previous year. In the longer term, the share of insulated cavity walls has been increasing, with a 7 percentage point improvement since 2012.
  • The proportion of solid wall dwellings with insulation was 18% in 2019, which was similar to 2018, and an increase of 7 percentage points on the 2012 figure.
  • Levels of insulation (both loft and wall) are higher in the social sector than in the private sector. 55% of homes in the private sector have wall insulation compared to 70% in the social sector. In the private sector, 63% of lofts are insulated to 200 mm or more compared to 71% in the social sector.

3.1.1 Loft Insulation

56. Since 2010, there has been an overall improvement in the uptake of loft insulation. The proportion of all housing with 100 mm or more of loft insulation has increased by 12 percentage points on 2010 levels with 94% of applicable dwellings insulated in 2019 (see Table 10) Table 10, similar to the level in 2018. Most of this improvement occurred before 2013.

57. Figure 9 shows the level of loft insulation in all dwellings back to 2003/4. The share of dwellings with no loft insulation has fallen from 6% in 2003/4 to 1% in 2019. Most of this decline occurred before 2010. Since then improvement has slowed down, suggesting that there may be barriers preventing the installation of insulation in the relatively few remaining uninsulated lofts.

58. Over the same period the thickness of loft insulation has increased significantly. In 2019, 65% of dwellings with lofts had insulation with a depth of 200 mm or more (Figure 9). Much of this increase has occurred between 2009 and 2013, when the percentage increased from 27% to 62%. This can largely be attributed to the installation of top-up insulation. There has been a decrease in the share of dwellings with loft insulation with a depth of 100-199 mm between 2018 and 2019. However there is no significant associated increase in the share of dwellings with 200+ mm.

59. The percentage of lofts with a high standard of insulation (300 mm or more) has remained similar since 2015, at 30%, following significant increases from 5% in 2010 (the first year the SHCS captured this information). In 2019, 29% of private sector dwellings had a high standard of loft insulation, lower than 37% of dwellings in the social sector. The difference between the sectors and the levels of each were similar in 2018.

Figure 9: Depth of Loft Insulation (where applicable) 2003/04 - 2019
Chart showing depth of loft insulation from 2003/04 to 2019

Note: A dwelling is classified as 'not applicable' for loft insulation if it has a flat roof or another dwelling above it (i.e. it is a mid- or ground-floor flat).

60. Between April 2008 and December 2012, the UK government Carbon Emissions Reduction Target (CERT) scheme delivered 410,937 loft insulation measures in Scotland[2] (Table 10).

61. Between January 2013 and December 2019 a further 73,482 loft insulation measures were delivered in Scotland by its successor scheme, the Energy Company Obligation (ECO).[3]

62. In total, around 484,000 loft insulation measures have been installed under these government programs since 2008.

Table 10: Depth of Loft Insulation (000s), 2010, 2012 and 2015 to 2019
Loft Insulation 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2012 2010
none 14 11 9 9 19 31 42
1mm-99mm 105 95 101 109 125 185 279
100mm-199mm 547 594 563 525 518 617 822
Subtotal: <200mm 666 701 673 643 663 834 1,143
200mm or more 1,217 1,135 1,152 1,197 1,161 975 621
Not applicable 612 641 638 612 610 577 592
All Dwellings 2,496 2,477 2,464 2,452 2,434 2,386 2,357
Sample Size 2,997 2,964 3,002 2,850 2,754 2,787 3,114
Cumulative recorded loft insulations under government schemes
CERT (000s) 411 157
ECO (000s) 74 69 59 53 39

Note: There were fewer insulation measures installed under ECO in 2019 compared to earlier years as ECO3, which went live in December 2018, focuses exclusively on Affordable Warmth resulting in a greater number of heating measures (including boiler measures). In total, there were around 5% more ECO measures installed in 2019 compared to 2018 across Great Britain however 12% of these were loft insulation measures compared to 19% in 2018.[4]

63. As shown in Table 11 thickness of loft insulation is greater in social sector dwellings than private sector dwellings. In 2019, 93% of private housing lofts were insulated to 100 mm or more and 63% to at least 200 mm. In the social sector, 96% of dwellings had lofts insulated to 100 mm or more, and 71% had at least 200 mm of loft insulation.

64. One of the reasons for the difference between private and social sector is that the Scottish Housing Quality Standard (SHQS), which was introduced in 2004, requires at least 100 mm of loft insulation (see section 6.2.2 for more information).

65. The difference in the proportion of lofts with at least 100 mm insulation between the private and the social sector has been reducing gradually, from 17 percentage points in 2003/04 (81% in the social and 64% in the private sector) to 3 percentage points in 2019 (96% in the social sector and 93% in the private sector).

Table 11: Depth of Loft Insulation (000s and %) by Tenure, 2018 and 2019
Year Loft Insulation Private Sector Social Sector All Tenures
000s % 000s % 000s %
2019 none 10 1% 4 1% 14 1%
1mm - 99mm 91 6% 14 3% 105 6%
100mm+ 1,378 93% 386 96% 1,764 94%
100mm - 199mm 446 30% 101 25% 547 29%
200mm - 299mm 509 34% 135 33% 643 34%
300mm or more 423 29% 151 37% 574 30%
Total 1,480 100% 403 100% 1,883 100%
2018 none 10 1% 1 0% 11 1%
1mm - 99mm 82 6% 13 3% 95 5%
100mm+ 1,350 94% 380 96% 1,730 94%
100mm - 199mm 494 34% 101 26% 594 32%
200mm - 299mm 444 31% 149 38% 594 32%
300mm or more 412 29% 130 33% 542 30%
Total 1,442 100% 394 100% 1,836 100%
Samples 2019 1,924 479 2,403
2018 1,874 472 2,346

Note: Dwellings without loft spaces are excluded.

3.1.2 Wall Insulation

66. The presence of cavity wall insulation (CWI) is becoming increasingly difficult for SHCS surveyors to identify as over time the injection holes age, fade or are covered up by later work. Contractors are also getting better at concealing their work. This may mean that the SHCS under-estimates the number of homes which have had CWI installed (see also section 6.2.2.4). Despite efforts to maintain the high quality of the SHCS physical survey fieldwork, some misclassifications may remain.

67. In Scotland around three quarters of dwellings have external cavity walls and the remaining one quarter have solid or other construction types of external wall. These "other" types include steel or timber-frame dwellings and dwellings made from pre-fabricated concrete. As the improvement of solid and other wall types generally requires more expensive interventions than CWI, this diverse group is addressed together in this chapter.

68. Table 12 and Table 13 show the number and proportion of insulated dwellings by type of external wall. Higher insulation levels in new buildings have been required by building standards since 1983 when the Building Standards (Scotland) Amendment Regulations 1982 came into force. These dwellings are therefore treated as insulated when built.

Table 12: Cavity Wall Insulation, 2012 and 2015 - 2019
2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2012
000s % 000s % 000s % 000s % 000s % 000s %
Not insulated 510 27% 500 27% 457 25% 512 28% 525 29% 606 34%
Insulated 1,359 73% 1,331 73% 1,363 75% 1,323 72% 1,286 71% 1,157 66%
Total 1,870 100% 1,831 100% 1,821 100% 1,834 100% 1,811 100% 1,763 100%
Sample 2,278 2,240 2,284 2,154 2,099 2,414
Cumulative reduction in SHCS uninsulated since 2007
000s 306 316 359 304 291 210
Cumulative recorded CWI installations under government schemes since 2007, thousands
CERT 218
ECO 104 100 91 82 72

Note:

1. Dwellings built post-1983 are presumed insulated when built.

2. There were fewer insulation measures installed under ECO in 2019 compared to earlier years as ECO3, which went live in December 2018, focuses exclusively on Affordable Warmth resulting in a greater number of heating measures (including boiler measures). In total, there were around 5% more ECO measures installed in 2019 compared to 2018 across Great Britain however 19% of these were cavity wall insulation measures compared to 38% in 2018.[5]

69. In 2019, 73% of cavity wall dwellings in Scotland were insulated (Table 12), similar to 2018. Administrative data shows that 3,824 cavity wall dwellings were insulated with CWI during 2019 (through ECO).

70. The longer term trend, showing a decrease in the share of uninsulated cavity walls of 7 percentage points since 2012, is broadly consistent with administrative data on the number of cavity wall insulation measures installed under the CERT and ECO schemes.

71. Between April 2008 and December 2012, the CERT scheme delivered around 218,000 cavity and 9,000 solid and other wall insulation measures in Scotland.[6] Between January 2013 and December 2019 a further 104,137 cavity and 65,122 solid wall insulation measures were delivered in Scotland by the successor ECO scheme.[7] This equates to around 396,000 wall insulation measures, including around 322,000 cavity wall insulation measures, installed under these programs by the end of 2019. This is reflected in the estimated cumulative reduction of 306,000 uninsulated cavity wall dwellings reported by the SHCS since 2007.

72. Table 13 shows the levels of insulation in dwellings with solid or other construction type walls recorded by the survey in 2019. The results show that 18% of dwellings in this category had insulated walls in 2019; the difference with the level recorded in the previous year (19%) is not statistically significant but is an increase of 7 percentage points from 2012. Only 719 dwellings with solid walls were surveyed in 2019 as part of the SHCS. This relatively small sample does not allow enough precision to capture the increase in solid wall insulation measures which administrative data shows is taking place. Since the beginning of January 2013 at least 65,122 solid wall insulation measures were delivered in Scotland under ECO.

Table 13: Wall Insulation of Solid and Other Wall Types, 2012 and 2015 to 2019
2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2012
000s % 000s % 000s % 000s % 000s % 000s %
Not insulated 516 82% 524 81% 529 82% 524 85% 552 89% 557 89%
Insulated 110 18% 122 19% 115 18% 94 15% 71 11% 66 11%
Total 626 100% 646 100% 643 100% 617 100% 623 100% 623 100%
Sample 719 724 718 696 655 711
Cumulative recorded installations under government schemes since 2007, thousands
CERT 9
ECO 65 60 51 41 30

Note:

1. Dwellings built post-1983 are presumed insulated when built. ECO figures will include a small number of cavity walls with solid wall insulation types.

2. There were fewer insulation measures installed under ECO in 2019 compared to earlier years as ECO3, which went live in December 2018, focuses exclusively on Affordable Warmth resulting in a greater number of heating measures (including boiler measures). In total, there were around 5% more ECO measures installed in 2019 compared to 2018 across Great Britain however 6% of these were cavity wall insulation measures compared to 9% in 2018.[8]

73. The information in Table 14 is broken down by type of cavity wall into hard to treat cavities (HTTC) and standard cavity walls using the ECO definition as far as possible with the available data (further details are available in section 7.8.6). HTTCs have certain attributes which make CWI more expensive, complex or inadvisable. Standard cavity walls have no such barriers.

74. In the social sector, three quarters (74%) of cavity wall dwellings and 42% of dwellings with solid and other wall types were estimated to have insulation in 2019. Nearly three-quarters (70%) of social housing overall had insulated walls.

75. In the private sector, nearly three quarters (72%) of cavity wall dwellings and 14% of solid and other wall dwellings, had insulation in 2019. Over half (55%) of all private sector dwellings had insulated walls.

76. 36% of cavity wall dwellings in Scotland have had retrofit cavity wall insulation, which is generally the lowest cost improvement available; the remainder of insulated cavity walls were insulated as built or insulated in another way such as with internal and external wall insulation.

77. Levels of insulation are higher in the social sector at 70% (all wall types) compared with 55% in the private sector. Within wall type, this tenure divide is also apparent for the more expensive insulation measures: internal / external insulation of cavity walls (14% of cavity wall dwellings in the social sector; 3% of private dwellings) and retrofit solid wall insulation measures (42% of solid wall dwellings in the social sector; 11% in the private sector).

Table 14: Insulation by Wall Type and Tenure, 2019 and Insulation of all Wall Types by Tenure, 2018 and 2019
Wall and Insulation Type Private Sector Social Sector Total
000s %type %all 000s %type %all 000s %type %all
Cavity
Un-insulated 369 28% 20% 142 26% 22% 510 27% 20%
- HTTC 106 8% 6% 57 10% 9% 163 9% 7%
- Standard 262 20% 14% 85 15% 13% 347 19% 14%
Insulated 951 72% 51% 408 74% 64% 1,359 73% 54%
- CWI 476 36% 26% 199 36% 31% 675 36% 27%
- Int/External 42 3% 2% 76 14% 12% 118 6% 5%
- As built 434 33% 23% 133 24% 21% 567 30% 23%
Total 1,320 100% 71% 550 100% 87% 1,870 100% 75%
Sample Size 1,646 632 2,278
Solid/Other
Un-insulated 468 86% 25% 49 58% 8% 516 82% 21%
- Pre-1919 409 75% 22% 29 35% 5% 438 70% 18%
- Post-1919 59 11% 3% 19 23% 3% 78 12% 3%
Insulated 75 14% 4% 35 42% 6% 110 18% 4%
- Retrofit 62 11% 3% 35 42% 6% 97 15% 4%
- As built 13 2% 1% 0 1% 0% 13 2% 1%
Total 542 100% 29% 84 100% 13% 626 100% 25%
Sample Size 636 83 719
All Wall Types
Uninsulated 836 45% 190 30% 1,026 41%
Insulated 1,026 55% 443 70% 1,469 59%
Total 1,862 100% 634 100% 2,496 100%
Sample Size 2,282 715 2,997
All Wall Types: 2018
Uninsulated 828 45% 196 30% 1,024 41%
Insulated 994 55% 460 70% 1,453 59%
Total 1,822 100% 656 100% 2,477 100%
Sample Size 2,231 733 2,964

Note: Dwellings built post-1983 are presumed insulated when built.

3.2 Boilers

Key Points

  • In 2019, 64% of gas and oil boilers met the minimum efficiencies specified by the current Building Standards, similar to 2018. This has increased substantially from 30% in 2012.

78. The heating system is a key factor in the thermal efficiency of a dwelling. Around 87% of households use a gas or oil-fuelled boiler. Trends in boiler efficiency are closely related to developments in energy efficiency and building standards regulations:

79. Building regulations in Scotland effectively require the installation of a condensing boiler[9] for gas and oil-fuelled heating in new builds or when boilers are replaced in any dwelling.

80. The SHCS has recorded the age of the household's heating system since 2010 and contains sufficient data to derive the Seasonal Efficiency (SEDBUK) ratings of surveyed boilers in the 2012-2019 data collections. For these years we can track the improved efficiency of gas and oil boilers associated with the rising standards of the regulatory framework.

81. The methodology by which boiler efficiency ratings are calculated changed in 2016 and the time series was updated at that point to reflect this and to account for the minimum efficiency required of new oil combination condensing boilers. All subsequent data is published on the basis of the new methodology and further details can be found in section 7.6.

82. The minimum requirements applied in the assessment of whether a boiler is compliant with standards are: a minimum efficiency of 88% for condensing standard gas, oil and LPG boilers; for condensing combination boilers, 86% for oil, and 88% for gas and LPG; for ranges, back boiler and combined primary storage units (CPSUs), 75% when gas, and 80% when oil.[10]

Table 15: Gas and Oil Boiler Improvements, 2012-2019
2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012
Households using gas or oil boilers for heating
% 87% 88% 85% 86% 85% 84% 84% 82%
000s 2,159 2,171 2,104 2,097 2,075 2,041 2,022 1,960
… of which
% "New" boilers (post-1998) 94% 92% 91% 91% 89% 85% 83% 81%
% condensing boilers 76% 73% 67% 61% 56% 48% 43% 38%
% standards compliant boilers 64% 62% 57% 52% 47% 41% 33% 30%
Sample size (gas/oil boilers) 2,518 2,489 2,475 2,356 2,259 2,195 2,219 2,488

83. In 2019 the survey found that 94% of the domestic gas and oil boilers in Scotland have been installed since 1998, when the European Boiler Efficiency Directive minimum standards came into effect. The proportion of new boilers, those installed since 1998, has increased by 24 percentage points since 2010.

84. In 2019, over three-quarters (76%) of gas and oil boilers were condensing boilers. This represents a rapid increase of 4 percentage points since 2018 and 54 percentage points since 2010.

85. In 2019, 64% of gas and oil boilers met the minimum efficiencies specified by the current Building Standards, similar to 2018 (62%). This has increased substantially from 30% in 2012.

3.3 Energy Performance Certificates

Key Points

  • In 2019, 45% of Scottish homes were rated as EPC band C or better under SAP 2012 (RdSAP v9.93), this is similar to 2018.
  • Under SAP 2012 (RdSAP v9.92), 47% of Scottish homes were rated as EPC band C or better in 2019. This represents a 3 percentage point increase compared to 2018 and an 11 percentage point increase from 2014 (the first year in which data based on SAP 2012 is available).
  • Under SAP 2009, which allows comparisons over a longer period, over half of dwellings (51%) were rated C or better, up 27 percentage points since 2010. In the same period, the proportion of properties in the lowest EPC bands (E, F or G) has more than halved, reducing from 27% in 2010 to 12% in 2019.
  • Under SAP 2009, the median EE rating was 69, the first time this has been in band C. This is an increase from 62 in 2010 which is equivalent to band D.

86. Energy Performance Certificates (EPC) were introduced in January 2009 under the requirements of the EU Energy Performance Building Directive (EPBD). They provide energy efficiency and environmental impact ratings for buildings based on standardized usage. EPCs are required when a property is either sold or rented to a new tenant.

87. EPCs are generated through the use of a standard calculation methodology, known as Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP). SAP is the UK Government approved way of assessing the energy performance of a dwelling, taking into account the energy needed for space and water heating, ventilation and lighting and, where relevant, energy generated by renewables.

88. The Energy Efficiency Rating (EER) is expressed on a scale of 1-100 where a dwelling with a rating of 1 will have very poor energy efficiency and higher fuel bills, while 100 represents very high energy efficiency and lower fuel bills. Ratings can exceed 100 where the dwelling generates more energy than it uses.

89. Ratings are adjusted for floor area so that they are essentially independent of dwelling size for a given built form.

90. For Energy Performance Certificates EERs are presented over 7 bands, labelled A to G. Band A represents low energy cost and high energy efficiency, while band G denotes high energy cost (and low energy efficiency).

91. Energy Efficiency Ratings reported in this publication are calculated under two versions of SAP, the SAP 2009 methodology and the SAP 2012 methodology. Using SAP 2009 enables us to examine the trend in the energy efficiency of the housing stock since 2010. SAP 2012 was first used in reporting data from the SHCS in the 2014 Key Findings report and therefore only five years of data are available.

92. SAP is periodically reviewed by the UK government to ensure it remains fit for purpose and to address its continued application across an increasing range of carbon and energy reduction policy areas. SAP is used for assessment of new buildings whilst a 'reduced data' version of the methodology, RdSAP, is applied to assessment of existing buildings.

93. SHCS energy modelling for SAP 2012 in this report is based on two versions of RdSAP. The first, RdSAP v9.92 which was released on 7 December 2014, introduced some technical updates and broadening of scope (for example, enabling assessment of 'park homes' as a dwelling type) as well as updating UK carbon factors and fuel costs based upon recent research undertaken by the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS).

94. The latest version of RdSAP (v9.93) was released on 19 November 2017 and contains revisions to the underlying assumptions used within the SAP calculations. The most notable update to the methodology in v9.93 was a change to the default U-values of cavity, solid and stone walls, built prior to 1976. Compared to v9.92, U-values for solid, insulated stone and uninsulated cavity walls have improved, whereas they have declined for insulated cavity walls.These U-values are used to calculate the rate of heat loss through the walls, which contributes to the overall thermal performance of the building fabric of the dwelling. Data on the basis of RdSAP v9.93 is presented for 2018 and 2019 only.

3.3.1 Energy Efficiency Rating, SAP 2009

95. Table 16 shows the trend in mean EERs based on SAP 2009, which rose from 59.9 in 2010 to 66.4 in 2019. These ratings fall into band D. There was around a 1 point increase in the mean EER each year between 2010 and 2014. Improvement since then has been slower, and the increase between 2018 and 2019 was less than 1% which is not statistically significant.

Table 16: Average EER for 2010 - 2019, SAP 2009
2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010
EER Mean 66.4 66.1 65.6 65.1 64.6 64.1 63.2 61.8 60.9 59.9
Median 69 68 68 67 67 67.0 66.0 64.0 63.0 62.0
Sample 2,997 2,964 3,002 2,850 2,754 2,682 2,725 2,787 3,219 3,115

96. The median EE Rating has also improved since 2010. In 2019, half of all Scottish dwellings were rated 69 or better, the first time that the median EE rating has fallen in EPC band C, and an increase from 62 in 2010 (Figure 10).

Figure 10: Median EER relative to EPC bands, SAP 2009, 2010-2019
Chart showing median energy efficiency relative to EPC bands under SAP 2009 from 2010 to 2019

97. The Scottish housing stock is gradually becoming more energy efficient as shown by the increases in number of dwellings in bands B and C and corresponding decreases in the lower bands (Figure 11 and Table 17).

98. Over half (51%) of the housing stock in 2019 had an EPC rating of C or better, up 27 percentage points since 2010 (Table 17). Over the same period, the proportion of properties in the lowest EPC bands, E, F and G, has dropped 15 percentage points: 27% of properties were rated E, F or G in 2010 compared with 12% in 2019.

Figure 11: Distribution of the Scottish Housing Stock by EPC Band, SAP 2009, 2012-2019
Bar chart showing distribution of households by EPC band under SAP 2009 from 2012 to 2019

Note: Values for this figure are provided in Table 17.

Table 17: Distribution of the Scottish Housing Stock by EPC Band, SAP 2009, 2010 and 2015 to 2019
EPC band 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2010
000s % 000s % 000s % 000s % 000s % 000s %
A (92-100) - - - - - - - - - - - -
B (81-91) 101 4% 70 3% 69 3% 54 2% 62 3% 18 1%
C (69-80) 1176 47% 1140 46% 1072 44% 989 40% 953 39% 547 23%
D (55-68) 925 37% 971 39% 1,012 41% 1,070 44% 1,055 43% 1,157 49%
E (39-54) 213 9% 232 9% 240 10% 279 11% 298 12% 495 21%
F (21-38) 70 3% 57 2% 63 3% 56 2% 59 2% 127 5%
G (1-20) 10 0% 8 0% 8 0% 5 0% 7 0% 13 1%
Total 2,496 100% 2,477 100% 2,464 100% 2,452 100% 2,434 100% 2,357 100%
Sample 2,997 2,964 3,002 2,850 2,754 3,115

Note: No A-rated properties were sampled between 2010 and 2019.

3.3.2 Energy Efficiency Rating, SAP 2012

99. This section examines the energy efficiency profile of the Scottish housing stock in 2018 under the most recent SAP 2012 methodology. Time series analysis includes 2018 and 2019 data for both SAP 2012 RdSAP v9.93 and SAP 2012 RdSAP v9.92. Further breakdowns by characteristics of 2019 data are presented under the updated methodology alone: SAP 2012 (RdSAP v9.93).

100. Dwellings with main heating fuels other than mains gas (for example oil or coal) have systematically lower SAP ratings in SAP 2012 than in SAP 2009 and this is particularly true at the lower end of the SAP range. The main reason for this is that between SAP versions 2009 and 2012, fuel prices for these fuels increased more than for mains gas. As a result, average EERs tend to be slightly lower under SAP 2012 compared to SAP 2009.

101. Table 18 and Table 19 show the energy efficiency profile of the Scottish housing stock between 2014 and 2019 under SAP 2012. Figure 12 shows this alongside the longer term change as measured by SAP 2009.

Table 18: Average EER for 2014-2018, SAP 2012 ( RdSAP v9.92) and 2018-2019, SAP 2012 ( RdSAP v9.93)
2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014
EER (RdSAP v9.92) Mean 65.1 64.8 64.3 63.7 62.8 62.2
Median 68 67 67 66 65 65
EER (RdSAP v9.93) Mean 64.9 64.7
Median 67 67
Sample 2997 2,964 3,002 2,850 2,754 2,682

102. In 2019, the mean energy efficiency rating of the Scottish housing stock under SAP 2012 (RdSAP v9.93) was 64.9 and the median was 67 points, indicating that half of the housing stock has an energy efficiency rating of 67 or better (Table 18). The difference in mean rating between 2018 and 2019 was not significant.

103. In 2019, the mean energy efficiency rating of the Scottish housing stock under SAP 2012 (RdSAP v9.92) was 65.1 and the median was 68 points. The difference in mean rating between 2018 and 2019 was not significant. However, there has been an overall improvement since 2014 when the mean was 62.2.

104. Over two-fifths (45%) of all properties in 2019 were rated C or better under SAP 2012 (RdSAP v9.93) (Table 19). Less than a fifth (14%) were in bands E, F or G. Both of these are similar to 2018.

105. Almost half (47%) of all properties in 2019 were rated C or better under SAP 2012 (RdSAP v9.92), this is an increase of 3 percentage points from 2018 and 11 percentage points from 2014. Less than a fifth (15%) were in bands E, F or G - a drop of 6 percentage points over the 5-year period from 2014 to 2018.

106. The update to the underlying methodology had little effect in 2019. Both the mean and median EERs were similar for SAP 2012 (RdSAP v9.92) and SAP 2012 (RdSAP v9.93). Similarly, the distribution of the Scottish housing stock across EPC bands were similar for SAP 2012 (RdSAP v9.92) and SAP 2012 (RdSAP v9.93).

Table 19: Distribution of the Scottish Housing Stock by EPC Band, 2014-2019, SAP 2012 ( RdSAP v9.92) and 2018-2019, SAP 2012 ( RdSAP v9.93)
EPC Band 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014
000s % 000s % 000s % 000s % 000s % 000s %
SAP v 9.92 A (92-100) - - - - - - - - - - - -
B (81-91) 98 4% 71 3% 65 3% 53 2% 53 2% 29 1%
C (69-80) 1,075 43% 1,028 41% 978 40% 910 37% 837 34% 830 34%
D (55-68) 959 38% 1,000 40% 1,028 42% 1,068 44% 1,061 44% 1,052 43%
E (39-54) 249 10% 277 11% 280 11% 321 13% 368 15% 369 15%
F (21-38) 94 4% 83 3% 95 4% 88 4% 94 4% 115 5%
G (1-20) 21 1% 18 1% 18 1% 13 1% 20 1% 25 1%
SAP v 9.93 A (92-100) - - - -
B (81-91) 92 4% 68 3%
C (69-80) 1,026 41% 989 40%
D (55-68) 1,016 41% 1,039 42%
E (39-54) 250 10% 282 11%
F (21-38) 90 4% 83 3%
G (1-20) 22 1% 17 1%
Total 2,496 100% 2,477 100% 2,464 100% 2,452 100% 2,434 100% 2,420 100%
Sample 2,997 2,964 3,002 2,850 2,754 2,682

Note: No A-rated properties were sampled for 2014-2019

107. Figure 12 shows EPC bandings for SAP 2009 and SAP 2012 (RdSAP v9.92 and RdSAP v9.93). The chart shows a strong trend of improvement in the energy efficiency profile of the housing stock since 2010. The proportion of dwellings rated C or better increased from 24% in 2010 to 51% in 2019 (as measured under SAP 2009), and 35% in 2014 to 47% in 2019 (as measured under SAP 2012 (RdSAP v9.92)).

Figure 12: Grouped EPC Bands under SAP 2009, SAP 2012 ( RdSAP v9.92) and SAP 2012 ( RdSAP v9.93), 2010-2019
Line chart of the proportion of households by grouped EPC bands under different SAP versions from 2010 to 2019

108. Table 20 shows the energy efficiency profile by broad tenure groups in 2019 using SAP 2012 (RdSAP v9.93). Figure 13 provides more details on the distribution of the least energy efficient properties by household characteristics.

Table 20: EPC Band by Tenure in 2019, SAP 2012 ( RdSAP v9.93)
EPC Band Owner occupied Private rented Social sector All Tenures
000s % 000s % 000s % 000s %
A (92-100) - - - - - - - -
B (81-91) 39 3% 9 3% 44 7% 92 4%
C (69-80) 601 39% 117 37% 308 49% 1,026 41%
D (55-68) 648 42% 123 39% 246 39% 1,016 41%
E (39-54) 189 12% 32 10% 29 5% 250 10%
F & G (1-38) 73 5% 32 10% 6 1% 111 4%
Total 1,550 100% 312 100% 634 100% 2,496 100%
Sample 1,965 317 715 2,997

109. Over half (56%) of social housing is in band C or better under SAP 2012, compared to two-fifths (40%) in the private rented sector and owner-occupied sector (41%). 6 per cent of dwellings in the social sector are within EPC bands E, F or G, while 17% of owner occupied dwellings and 20% of the private rented sector are within these EPC bands. Housing in the social sector tends to be more energy efficient than the owner occupied or private rented sector. This could be driven by the Scottish Housing Quality Standard and the Energy Efficiency Standard for Social Housing which introduced minimum energy efficiency levels for that sector.

110. Figure 13 shows that the share of dwellings in the lowest energy efficiency bands (F and G) is particularly high for pre-1919 dwellings (13%), non-gas heated properties (between 18% and 24%), detached properties (10%) and in the private rented stock (10%). Across Scotland as a whole, 4% of properties were in bands F or G in 2019.

Figure 13: Proportion of Homes in Band F or G by Dwelling Age, Primary Heating Fuel, Tenure and Household and Dwelling Type in 2019 ( SAP 2012 ( RdSAP v9.93))
Bar chart showing proportion of households in EPC band F or G by dwelling age, primary heating fuel, tenure and household and dwelling type in 2019

Note: Base figures and more detailed breakdowns are provided in Table 21 and Table 22.

111. More detailed 2019 breakdowns are shown in Table 21 by household characteristics.

112. Mean SAP 2012 (RdSAP v9.93) ratings ranged from 62.0 in private rented dwellings to 71.0 in housing association dwellings, a statistically significant difference. Social housing as a whole is more energy efficient than the private sector, with a mean EER of 68.5 compared to 63.7 for private dwellings.

113. Older households (63.2) have lower average EER ratings than families (67.7) and other (adults without children) households (64.7).

114. Mean EER ratings ranged from 63.2 to 66.3 across income bands with the highest rating for £400 - £499.99 weekly household income. Average EER ratings ranged from 62.2 to 66.0 across council tax bands with the highest rating found in Band C.

Table 21: Mean EER and Broad EPC Band, by Household Characteristics in 2019, SAP 2012 ( RdSAP v9.93)
SAP 2012 Ratings EPC Band Sample
Mean ABC DE FG
Tenure
Owned outright 62.3 34% 60% 6% 1,159
Mortgaged 66.4 51% 47% 3% 806
LA 66.7 47% 52% 1% 425
HA 71.0 68% 32% 1% 290
Private rented 62.0 40% 49% 10% 317
Private Sector 63.7 41% 53% 6% 2,282
Social Sector 68.5 56% 43% 1% 715
Household Composition
Older Households 63.2 36% 58% 5% 1,039
Families 67.7 55% 43% 2% 706
Other Households 64.7 46% 49% 5% 1,252
Weekly Household Income
< £200 63.2 40% 54% 7% 272
£200-299.99 65.5 46% 50% 4% 448
£300-399.99 64.5 42% 54% 4% 491
£400-499.99 66.3 49% 47% 4% 358
£500-699.99 64.6 47% 48% 5% 530
£700+ 65.2 45% 51% 4% 851
Council Tax Band
Band A 64.9 43% 53% 4% 590
Band B 64.7 44% 51% 5% 658
Band C 66.0 51% 46% 3% 468
Band D 65.6 48% 47% 5% 411
Band E 65.0 41% 56% 3% 449
Band F 64.9 48% 47% 5% 217
Band G & H 62.2 39% 54% 7% 201
Scotland 64.9 45% 51% 4% 2997

115. Table 22 shows that there is a strong association between dwelling characteristics and energy efficiency rating. Across dwelling types, detached properties have the lowest energy efficiency profile on average (mean EER 61.2) while flats have the highest rating (68.4 for tenements and 67.2 for other flats). The energy efficiency ratings did not change for most dwelling types between 2018 and 2019 with the exception of dwellings built after 1982 where the proportion of dwellings with EPC band above C increased by 1 percentage point.

116. The oldest, pre-1919, properties are least energy efficient (mean EER of 55.5 and only 19% rated C or better) while those built after 1982 have the highest energy efficiency ratings (mean EER of 72.6, with 77% in band C or better); the mean EER for dwellings built after 1982 has increased 1 percentage point since 2018.

117. Primary heating fuel is a key determinant of the energy efficiency of the dwelling. Properties heated by mains gas have an average rating of 67.5 and 50% are in band C or better. Dwellings heated by other fuels (including electric and oil) have considerably lower ratings. The average energy efficiency rating for oil heated properties is 49.2 (making the average dwelling in this group E rated) and only 8% are in band C or better.

118. Proximity to the gas grid has a similar effect on the energy efficiency rating (average SAP rating 66.3 for dwellings near the gas grid, higher than the 58.1 for other dwellings).

119. As dwelling characteristics associated with lower energy efficiency are disproportionately represented in rural areas, the average energy efficiency profile of rural properties is lower than that for urban. Table 22 shows that mean SAP 2012 rating is 66.7 for dwellings in urban areas, higher than the 56.2 for dwellings in rural areas.

Table 22: SAP 2012 ( RdSAP v9.93): Mean EER and Broad EPC Band, by Dwelling Characteristics, 2019
SAP 2012 Ratings EPC Band Sample
Mean ABC DE FG
Dwelling Type
Detached 61.2 36% 54% 10% 852
Semi-detached 63.3 37% 59% 4% 685
Terraced 65.3 40% 59% 1% 589
Tenement 68.4 61% 36% 4% 488
Other flats 67.2 52% 47% 2% 383
Age of dwelling
pre-1919 55.5 19% 67% 13% 546
1919-1944 62.2 29% 65% 6% 310
1945-1964 64.4 37% 60% 3% 638
1965-1982 65.6 42% 56% 2% 704
post-1982 72.6 77% 22% 0% 799
Primary Heating
Gas 67.5 50% 49% 1% 2,255
Oil 49.2 8% 69% 23% 268
Electric 55.1 25% 57% 18% 379
Other fuel type 56.1 35% 41% 24% 95
Urban-rural indicator
Urban 66.7 49% 49% 2% 2,280
Rural 56.2 25% 58% 17% 717
Gas Grid
On grid 66.3 46% 52% 2% 2,280
Off grid 58.1 38% 45% 17% 717
Scotland 64.9 45% 51% 4% 2,997

3.4 National Home Energy Ratings (NHER)

120. The National Home Energy Ratings (NHER) system was the main methodology used in the SHCS to report on the energy efficiency of the housing stock prior to 2013. With the publication of the 2013 SHCS Key Findings Report the energy modelling methodology was updated and it is no longer possible to reproduce exactly the original NHER method, as the full documentation of this method is not publicly available. However because of user interest and because NHER scores are taken into account under the energy efficiency criterion of the SHQS, we provide an approximate NHER score. Further details can be found in the Methodology Notes to the 2013 SHCS report.

121. Table 23 presents banded NHER scores and mean values for selected categories of dwellings and household types for 2019. Significant differences were seen by age of dwelling, with older dwellings having lower average values (6.2 for pre-1919) than properties that were built more recently (8.8 for post-1982). Private sector dwellings had significantly lower NHER scores (7.4) than social sector (8.2) with mean scores by detailed tenure ranging from 7.2 (owned outright) to 8.7 (housing associations). There were also differences by dwelling type ranging from detached properties at 7.1 to tenements at 8.2. Dwellings using oil as their main fuel had the lowest score at 5.7 while those fuelled by gas had the highest at 8.0.

122. Table 23 also shows the percentage of homes in each dwelling and household category that were rated as good, moderate, or poor. Significant differences in the percentage of dwellings that were rated as "good" were seen by type of dwelling (67% of detached properties, compared to 84% of other flats) and age of dwelling (48% of pre-1919 dwellings compared to 94% of post-1982 dwellings). Primary heating fuel also had an impact on the proportion that were rated as good (85% of dwellings with gas as a primary fuel, compared to just 36% of dwellings with oil as a primary fuel). This profile is similar to SAP 2012 (RdSAP v9.93).

Table 23: NHER Scores and Banded Ratings by Selected Dwelling and Household Characteristics, 2019
NHER (emulated) NHER band Sample
Mean Good Moderate Poor
Scotland 7.6 77% 21% 2% 2,997
Dwelling Type
Detached 7.1 67% 31% 2% 852
Semi-detached 7.3 74% 25% 2% 685
Terraced 7.6 81% 18% 1% 589
Tenement 8.2 83% 14% 3% 488
Other flats 8.0 84% 15% 1% 383
Age of dwelling
pre-1919 6.2 48% 47% 6% 546
1919-1944 7.1 70% 28% 1% 310
1945-1964 7.5 79% 19% 1% 638
1965-1982 7.7 84% 15% 1% 704
post 1982 8.8 94% * * 799
Primary Heating Fuel
Gas 8.0 85% * * 2,255
Oil 5.7 36% 60% 4% 268
Electric 5.8 44% 43% 13% 379
Other fuel type 7.0 59% 33% 8% 95
Tenure
Owned outright 7.2 70% 28% 2% 1,159
Mortgaged 7.8 78% 21% 1% 806
LA 7.9 85% 14% 1% 425
HA 8.7 91% * * 290
Private rented 7.2 73% 22% 5% 317
Private Sector 7.4 74% 24% 2% 2,282
Social Sector 8.2 88% 11% 1% 715
Household Composition
Older Households 7.4 74% 24% 1% 1,039
Families 8.0 83% 16% 1% 706
Other Households 7.6 76% 21% 3% 1,252

3.5 Carbon Emissions

Key Points

  • Based on modelled energy use, the average Scottish home is estimated to produce 7.0 tonnes of CO2 per year in 2019, which is approximately double the average carbon emissions per household as reported by BEIS (3.5 tonnes per year) in 2018, based on actual energy use. This suggests that households are not heating their homes to the standard heating regimes.
  • Average modelled carbon emissions for all properties was 73 kg/m2 in 2019 which has been stable since 2017 following a decrease from 80 kg/m2 in 2014.

123. Carbon Emissions are the amount of greenhouse gas emissions, expressed as their carbon dioxide gas equivalent, vented to the atmosphere. Estimates of emissions from the residential sector which take into account actual energy consumption by households are reported annually by BEIS in the Local and Regional CO2 Emissions Estimates. This methodology is consistent with the Greenhouse Gas Inventory (GHGI) which is the source for monitoring progress against the Scottish Government's climate change commitments.

124. In contrast, emissions reported from the SHCS are modelled on the assumption of a standard pattern of domestic energy consumption and do not reflect differences in consumption behaviour due to preferences or changes in weather conditions. As such, they are distinct from the carbon emissions figures published by BEIS and compiled in GHG inventories.

125. Table 24 shows modelled emissions from the SHCS and provides a comparison with the estimates published by BEIS for the period 2013-2018.

126. Average carbon emissions per household have decreased year on year since 2013, accompanied by a decrease in the SHCS based average modelled emissions, with the exception of 2014 and 2019. This is accompanied by an increase in number of dwellings from 2.4 million in 2013 to 2.5 million in 2019 as reported by National Records of Scotland.

127. There was a methodology change from 2014 so the modelled emissions figures between 2013 and 2014 are not fully comparable, details of this are provided in the 2014 Methodology Notes. The SHCS estimates are not designed to capture the increased demand for heating due to colder weather or reduced demand associated with warmer weather in any particular year.

Table 24: Carbon Emissions and Modelled Emissions in Scottish Housing, 2013-2019
2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013
Carbon Emissions: BEIS Domestic sector Total ("Mt") 8.7 8.8 9.4 10.0 10.4 12.3
per HH (t"") 3.5 3.6 3.8 4.1 4.3 5.1
% change per HH -1.6% -6.8% -6.7% -4.7% -15.8% -4.0%
Modelled emissions: SHCS Total ("Mt") 17.4 16.8 17.3 17.2 17.7 17.9 17.4
per HH ("t") 7.0 6.8 7.0 7.0 7.3 7.4 7.3
% change per HH 2.5% -3.2% -0.2% -3.0% -1.8% 1.1% -3.6%

Notes:

1 Local and Regional CO2 Emissions Estimates, BEIS. Data reflects revisions made in the most recent publication.

2 Number of households (HHs) sourced from National Records of Scotland, Estimates of Households and Dwellings, 2019.

3 Modelled emissions figures for 2014-2019 are not fully comparable to the previous years.

128. Estimates in the Third Report on Proposals and Policies (RPP3) or in the Climate Change Plan are also not comparable to SHCS estimates. RPP3 figures for the residential sector relate to non-traded emissions only (i.e. exclude electricity which is covered by the EU Emissions Trading System) while SHCS estimates cover all fuel types.

129. This report is only concerned with the level and variations in modelled emissions from the Scottish housing stock. These estimates are produced through the use of BREDEM 2012-based models, in line with other statistics on energy efficiency and fuel poverty reported here. Information on the energy modelling is available in the Methodology Notes.

130. To derive emissions estimates, modelled energy demand is combined with carbon intensity factors as adopted for the 2012 edition of the SAP (see section 7.3). These are CO2 equivalent figures which include the global warming impact of CH4 and N2O as well as CO2.

131. The change in the underlying BREDEM 2012 model, first implemented in the reporting of 2014 data, has meant that carbon emissions for 2014-2019 are not estimated on a consistent basis with those for 2010-2013. Further details on this change are given in the Methodology Notes to the 2014 Key Findings report.

3.5.1 Modelled Emissions by Dwelling Type and Age of Construction

132. The annual modelled emissions from a property reflect the energy use for the whole dwelling heated according to the standard heating regime.[11] Figure 14 shows that dwellings with larger floor area generally have higher carbon emissions.

133. Newer dwellings have lower modelled emissions than older ones on average as a result of their better thermal performance and higher energy efficiency (as shown in section 3.3). Post-1982 flats have the lowest modelled emissions on average; less than 4 tonnes per year (Table 25).

Figure 14: Average Floor Area and Average Modelled Annual Emissions by Age and Type of Dwelling, 2019
Bar chart of the average floor area in square meters and modelled annual carbon emissions in tonnes of households by dwelling age and type in 2019

Note: Floor areas for these subgroups are provided in section 2.1.1. Modelled carbon emissions figures are provided in Table 25. The blue line indicates the average modelled emissions for the dwelling age group.

Table 25: Average Modelled Annual Carbon Emissions (tonnes per year) by Dwelling Age and Type, 2019
Dwelling Type Dwelling Age
Pre-1919 1919-1982 Post-1982 All
Detached 17.0 10.1 8.0 10.6
Semi-detached 12.1 7.2 5.4 7.3
Terraced 10.1 6.0 4.9 6.4
Tenement 5.6 4.5 3.6 4.6
Other flats 8.3 4.8 3.7 5.3
All dwelling types 10.1 6.4 5.7 7.0

134. Across all age bands, detached houses have the highest modelled emissions due to a larger share of exposed surfaces. As shown in section 2.3, they are also the most likely to use high carbon-intensity fuels such as oil and coal in place of mains gas.

135. By dividing modelled emissions by total internal floor area we derive CO2 emissions per square meter (kg/m2). Controlling for floor area in this way shows that pre-1919 detached (106 kg/m²) and pre-1919 semi-detached (105 kg/m2) houses have the highest modelled emissions per sq. as shown in Table 26. Post-1982 dwellings have the lowest emissions, particularly detached dwellings (57 kg/m2), tenements (56 kg/m2) and other flats (54 kg/m2).

Table 26: Average Modelled Emissions per Square Meter of Floor Area (kg/m 2) by Age and Type of Dwelling, 2019
Dwelling Type Dwelling Age
Pre-1919 1919-1982 post-1982 All Ages
Detached 106 78 57 75
Semi-detached 105 78 60 76
Terraced 83 73 61 72
Tenement 87 72 56 72
Other flats 87 70 54 71
All dwelling types 93 74 58 73

3.5.2 Modelled Emissions by Tenure

136. Although data for 2014-2019 is not directly comparable to prior years, the data suggests that there is a longer term trend of declining emissions. Average modelled carbon emissions reduced from 92 kg/m2 in 2010 to 80 kg/m2 in 2013. Based on the updated carbon emissions methodology, there was then a further decrease from 80 kg/m2 in 2014 to 74 kg/m2 in 2017 and then remaining stable at 73 kg/m2 in 2018 and 2019.

137. Table 27 and Figure 15 show how emissions differ across tenure for the period 2010-2019. The highest emissions were observed for private rented dwellings (85 kg/m2) and lowest for housing association dwellings (66 kg/m2), with emissions from the other tenures falling in between those values. The values were similar to the previous year across all tenures, however the longer time series shows a decreasing trend over the 2010-2019 period for all tenures.

138. Changes to the tenure definitions and the revised carbon emissions methodology mean that figures for 2014-2019 by tenure are not fully comparable to earlier years. Differences that were statistically significant were seen in the mortgaged sector (reducing from 78 kg/m2 in 2014 to 70 kg/m2 in 2019) and households that are owned outright (reducing from 81 kg/m2 to 75 kg/m2 between 2014 and 2019).

Table 27: Average Modelled Emissions per Square Meter by Tenure, 2010-2013, 2014-2019
2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010
Owned outright 75 75 75 78 79 81 81 94 92 98
Mortgaged 70 70 70 73 74 78 79 85 90 90
LA/Other public 73 73 74 76 78 77 79 82 84 89
HA/co-op 66 66 68 66 70 71 70 79 79 79
PRS 85 82 83 86 87 89 90 93 100 101
All Tenures 73 73 74 76 78 80 80 88 90 92

Note: Data prior to 2014 does not include households living rent free. Figures for 2014-2019 are therefore not fully comparable to the previous years.

Figure 15: Modelled Emissions per square meter (kg/m2) by Tenure, 2010-2019

Bar chart showing modelled emissions in kilograms per square meter of households by tenure from 2010 to 2019

Note: Data prior to 2014 does not include households living rent free. Figures for 2014-2019 are therefore not fully comparable to previous years.

3.6 Environmental Impact Rating

139. The Environmental Impact Rating (EIR) represents the environmental impact of a dwelling in terms of carbon emissions associated with fuels used for heating, hot water, lighting and ventilation. Ratings are adjusted for floor area so they are independent of dwelling size for a given built form. Emissions for this measure are calculated using SAP methodology.

140. Paragraphs 91 to 94 in Section 3.3 describe the versions of SAP and RdSAP available in this publication. 2019 EIRs have been described in this report based on SAP 2012 under both RdSAP v9.92 and v9.93. EI ratings for 2015-2019, produced on the basis of SAP 2012, are not fully comparable to those for the period 2010-2013, which were produced on the basis of SAP 2009.

141. Figure 16 illustrates the increasing trend in the median EIR between 2010 and 2019. This indicates that the environmental impact of Scottish housing is gradually falling over time but has always remained within band D.

142. The update to RdSAP v9.93 in SAP 2012 had no effect on the median EIR in 2019 which was the same for both SAP 2012 versions (Table 28).

Figure 16: Median EIR relative to Band, 2010-2013 ( SAP 2009), 2015-2017 ( SAP 2012 ( RdSAP v9.92)), 2018 and 2019 ( SAP 2012 ( RdSAP v9.93))
Chart showing median EIR of households relative to band under different SAP versions from 2010 to 2019

143. As shown in Table 28, one third of dwellings had EI ratings in band C or better under SAP 2012 (RdSAP v9.93) in 2019, this is similar to 2018. The mean rating was 61 and the median was 64, both of which fall in band D.

144. Under SAP 2012 (RdSAP v9.92) 36% of dwellings had EI ratings in band C or better, which is similar to 2018. The mean rating was 61 and the median was 64, both of which fall in band D.

145. In 2019, 9% of dwellings were rated F or G in terms of their environmental impact under both SAP 2012 versions.

Table 28: EIR Bands in the Scottish Housing Stock, 2012 SAP 2009, 2015-2019 SAP 2012 ( RdSAP v9.92) and 2018-2019 SAP 2012 ( RdSAP v9.93)
EIR Band 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2012
000s % 000s % 000s % 000s %
SAP v9.92 A - B (81+) 150 6% 136 6% 120 5% 96 4% 102 4% 71 3%
C (69-80) 742 30% 709 29% 671 27% 613 25% 554 23% 524 22%
D (55-68) 936 38% 952 38% 929 38% 947 39% 926 38% 888 37%
E (39-54) 448 18% 476 19% 512 21% 558 23% 576 24% 587 25%
F (21-38) 173 7% 170 7% 191 8% 200 8% 221 9% 248 10%
G (1-20) 46 2% 34 1% 41 2% 39 2% 55 2% 64 3%
Total 2,496 100% 2,477 100% 2,464 100% 2,452 100% 2,434 100% 2,383 100%
Mean 61 61 60 59 58 57
Median 64 64 63 62 61 60
SAP v9.93 A - B (81+) 140 6% 125 5%
C (69-80) 689 28% 682 28%
D (55-68) 998 40% 993 40%
E (39-54) 448 18% 473 19%
F (21-38) 174 7% 171 7%
G (1-20) 47 2% 34 1%
Total 2,496 100% 2,477 100%
Mean 61 61
Median 64 63
Sample 2,997 2,964 3,002 2,850 2,754 2,783

Note: Data prior to 2014 does not include households living rent free. Figures for 2014-2018 are therefore not fully comparable to previous years.

146. Figure 17 illustrates that the energy efficiency and the environmental impact rating for the median Scottish dwelling have changed in parallel since 2010.

Figure 17: Trend in Median EE and EI Ratings, 2010-2013 and 2015-2019
Line chart of median EE and EIR of households under different SAP versions from 2010 to 2013 and 2015 to 2019

147. Table 29 shows how EI ratings vary across different type of dwellings. As expected dwellings built since 1982 have better environmental impact ratings than other dwellings, with 65% rated C or better and only 2% in the bottom two bands (F and G). Flats have a lower environmental impact (higher EI rating) than houses, as do gas heated properties compared to those oil or electricity.

148. Oil heating systems and houses are more common in rural areas, leading to lower overall environmental impact ratings for rural dwellings.

Table 29: SAP 2012 ( RdSAP v9.93): Mean EIR and Broad EIR Band, by Dwelling Characteristics, 2019
Environmental Impact Rating EI Band (SAP 2012 v9.93) Sample
Mean ABC DE FG
Dwelling Type
Detached 55.7 23% 61% 16% 852
Semi-detached 58.5 25% 65% 10% 685
Terraced 60.8 25% 69% 6% 589
Tenement 66.6 53% 42% 5% 488
Other flats 64.0 42% 53% 5% 383
Age of dwelling
pre-1919 50.3 16% 61% 23% 546
1919-1944 57.7 20% 70% 10% 310
1945-1964 60.1 24% 70% 7% 638
1965-1982 61.3 25% 69% 6% 704
post 1982 70.1 65% 33% 2% 799
Primary Heating Fuel
Gas 64.3 37% 60% 2% 2,255
Oil 40.7 * 54% * 268
Electric 45.4 11% 52% 37% 379
Other fuel type 57.7 * 18% * 95
Urban-rural indicator
Urban 63.0 36% 59% 5% 2,280
Rural 50.8 20% 52% 28% 717
Gas Grid
On grid 62.5 33% 62% 5% 2,280
Off grid 53.1 33% 38% 29% 717
Scotland 60.9 33% 58% 9% 2,997

Contact

Email: ScottishHouseConditionSurvey@gov.scot