9. The TIMES model
To develop the emissions reduction pathway to 2032 and the emissions envelopes for each sector of the economy, we used the Scottish TIMES model. This is a whole system energy model that captures the key characteristics of the Scottish energy system today, as well as non-energy sectors, including land use, land use change and forestry, agriculture and waste. Alongside sector specific analysis, this model has helped us identify technologies, fuels and other carbon reduction measures for meeting our energy demands and climate change targets. While this is the first time a model like this has been available for Scotland, there are more than seventy country versions of TIMES, and TIMES modelling has underpinned a large number of studies in both environmental and energy economics, produced by governments, NGOs and in academia. The application of Scottish TIMES has been a significant step forward in ensuring that our climate change planning captures the complex interactions within and between sectors in the Scottish energy system.