2. ATLANTIC SALMON ( Salmo salar) - OVA AND SMOLTS
Production survey information was collected from all 27 companies actively involved in the freshwater production of Atlantic salmon, farming 102 active sites. This figure represents the entire freshwater industry operating in Scotland.
Company and Site Data
|Year||No. of companies||No. of sites|
In 2013, 27 companies authorised by the Scottish Government were actively engaged in the commercial freshwater production of Atlantic salmon farming a total of 102 sites.
Production and Staffing
|Number (000's) of smolts produced||44,414||39,999||36,326||40,827||38,125||36,450||36,868||36,872||43,626||44,324||40,457|
|Productivity, 000's of smolts per person||119.1||125.4||132.6||150.6||136.6||138.6||136.5||127.6||148.9||135.1||142.0|
Smolt production in 2013 decreased by 8.7% compared to 2012. Data for staffing and productivity in 2013 are shown, however, there are uncertainties with these data due to consolidation within the industry.
Smolts by Age Group
There was an increase in the number of S½s and a decrease in the number of S1 smolts produced respectively. A small amount of S1½ were produced and there was no production of S2 smolts.
|System||No. of sites with system||Total capacity, 000's cubic metres|
|Tanks and Raceways||58||59||54||57||58||37||38||49||51||64|
The principal types of facility used for the production of smolts in fresh water are cages or tanks and raceways. In 2013, the number of farms using cages increased by one and the number of farms using tanks and raceways also increased by one. In terms of volume, cage capacity increased by 23,000 m³ and tank and raceway capacity increased by 13,000 m³. This resulted in a net increase in volume of 36,000 m³ available for the production of smolts in Scotland during 2013.
|Number of smolts produced (000's)||Stocking densities (smolts/m 3)|
The average stocking densities of cages decreased from 77 to 56 fish per m³ in 2013 compared to 2012 while densities in tanks and raceways decreased from 342 to 305 fish per m³.
|No. of ova||60,941||83,822||135,230||91,964||91,655||78,208||57,489||56,904|
In 2013, nearly 57 million ova were stripped, a similar number to 2012.
|Year||In-house broodstock||Out-sourced GB broodstock||GB wild broodstock||Foreign ova||Total||Previous year's estimate|
The number of ova laid down to hatch was 66.6 million, an increase of over three million (5.3%) on the 2012 figure. The majority of the ova (62.1%) were derived from foreign sources, this being an increase of 6.6 million (19.1%) on the 2012 figure. Supplies derived from GB broodstock decreased by 3.3 million this being an 11.5% decrease on the 2012 figure. No ova from GB wild broodstock were laid down in 2013, however, in previous years the ova derived from wild stocks were generally held and hatched for wild stock enhancement by the aquaculture industry in cooperation with wild fisheries managers.
Smolts Produced and Put to Sea
|Actual smolts put to sea||39.1||37.2||41.1||37.8||36.6||38.5||38.5||42.7||41.1||40.9|
|Ratio of ova laid down to smolts produced||1.8||2.1||1.6||2.0||1.7||1.8||1.9||1.5||1.4||1.6|
The figure for the number of smolts put to sea includes smolts produced in England and fish imported from elsewhere, whereas smolt production data relate only to those produced in Scotland. Farmers estimate putting 39.9 million smolts to sea in 2014. The ratio of ova laid down to hatch to smolts produced in 2013 was greater than in 2012.
Scale of Production
|Year||Scale of production||No. of sites in production||Total smolts produced|
Note: These data refer only to sites producing smolts. The sites holding only ova, fry or parr are excluded.
The number of sites producing smolts in 2013 was 58. The number of sites producing less than 101,000 smolts has increased by five while there has been an decrease of nine in the number of sites producing between 101,000 and one million smolts. The number of sites producing in excess of one million smolts per year has increased by one.
Production of Ova and Smolt by Production Area
|Region||Number of staff employed in 2013||Ova laid down to hatch (000's)||Smolt production (000's)||Estimated smolt production (000's)|
|East and South||16||1||13,561||5,640||3,626||902||1,359||1,300|
In 2013, the North West and the West were the main areas where ova were laid down to hatch. The North West, the West and the Western Isles were the main smolt producing areas. The greatest number of staff were employed in the North West region.
International Trade in Ova
Since the introduction of the EU single market on 1 st January 1993 and the associated Fish Health Regulations common to all EU member states, a trade in live salmon and ova has been established. In addition, the European Economic Area ( EEA) agreement allows trade between the EU and the member states of the European Free Trade Association ( EFTA). Trade is based on the same rules as are established within the EU regarding compartments and zones declared free from listed diseases.
Trade with Third Countries has also been established, but only from sites that have met the same health standards as are established within the EU regarding the approval of farms and zones for listed diseases. Exports to countries outside the EU are subject to the health conditions placed by the importing country. Marine Scotland Science advises potential exporters to ascertain with the importing country any specific health testing requirements that may be a condition of import.
Imports and Exports
|Import Year||Ova||Parr and Smolts|
|EU Member States||EFTA||Third Countries||Total||EU Member States|
The numbers of ova imported increased by 42.6%. A small number of parr and smolts were imported in 2013.
|Export year||Farmed origin||Total||Parr and Smolts|
In 2013, 650,000 ova were exported. Parr and smolt exports increased by 635% on the 2012 figure.
|No. of sites||84||79||73||80||68||70||67||63||63|
|No. of fish (millions) vaccinated||33.8||43.5||41.0||36.7||39.6||42.6||49.2||48.1||47.5|
Vaccines were used to provide protection against furunculosis, infectious pancreatic necrosis ( IPN), enteric redmouth disease ( ERM), vibriosis and salmonid alphavirus ( SAV). The majority of fish were vaccinated against furunculosis and IPN, with smaller numbers of fish being vaccinated against ERM, vibriosis and SAV. A total of 47.5 million fish were vaccinated across 63 sites.
There were two incidents involving the loss of 16,646 freshwater farmed Atlantic salmon in 2013.